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Full text of "Pacifici Rural Press (1872)"


Presented by 
Date received 



EXTRACT 

cribing Halt* for tht '■' / the Stall Library, 

patted March ith, 1861. 



Sectioh 11. The Librarian shall cause to be ke]it a register "f all 
books i turned : and all books taken bj the members of the 

hue. nr its officers, shall be returned at the close of tin- 
It" an \ person injure orfail to return any t >> ■< •!<; taken from the Library. 
l pay to the Librarian, for the benefit ol the Library, 
three times the value thereof; and before the Controller shah issue his 
warrant in favor <>" any member or officer of the Legislature, or of this 
stair, for bis per diem, allowance, "r salary, be shall be satisfied that 
such member or officer has returned all books taken on) of the Library by 
him, and has settled all accounts for injuring such I" wise. 

Sec. !■"'. Books may be taken from the Library by the members of the 
Legislature and its officers during the session of the same, and at any 
time by the Governor and the officers of the Executive Department of 
ste who are required to keep their offices al the rnment, 

the Justices of the Supreme C tnrt, the Attorney-General and th l 
of the Library. 



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Volume IV.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JULY 6, 1872. 



^V.1898. 



[Number 1. 



The Race Horse. 

There was a time before the introduction of 
railroads and locomotives, and at a later period 
the electric telegraph, -when the fast horse was 
the readiest mode by which important intelli- 
gence could be communicated overland. At 
that time therefore, there was just one good 
reason for the rearing of fast horses; but do 
we now really need the race horse ? 

We believe tolerably fast horses to be desir- 
able even now, for a variety of purposes; but 
how fast should they be, to inure most to com- 
mon morality and real civilization ? Should 
they be of the true race-horse breed, to benefit, 
in the highest degree, either those who raise 
them or those who use them ? Quite a change 
of sentiment upon this subject is 
observable in the tone of nearly 
every agricultural journal in Eu- 
rope, and a few in America, and 
these are expressing grave doubts 
as to their real utility. 

That they are of any general 
service to the agriculture of a 
country may well be doubted, for 
there is no operation in the whole 
routine of farm labor that requires 
the speed of the race-horse, except 
it be the running down of wild 
cattle , in itself a mere concomitant 
of semi-civilization, and which, if 
really necessary, can be per- 
formed by the common mustang 
of our plains, quite as well as by 
the high-bred racer. 

To our mind there seems to be 
something at the present day in 
the word "fast," as applicable to 
a portion of the animal creation, 
rather equivocal in its significa- 
tion, and perhaps this has had its 
tendency in giving to some a bias 
unfavorable to its further propa- 
gation in whatever class or species 
of animals the "fast" may be 
found to exist. 

However, as people will have 
the race-horse, and will bet and 
make or lose money on their 
speed, we would call their atten- 
tion to one which we here illus- 
trate, as among the finest of this 
character of horses, both as re- 
gards his faultless form and his 
reputation for speed. This horse is the property 
of C. C. & K. H. Parks, of "Glen Flora Farms," 
Waukegan, 111. 

Bonnie Scotland is a blood bay, over 1G hands 
high, and for beauty, substance, style, symme- 
try and faultless proportion, is said to be un- 
equaled by any horse in America. He ran suc- 
cessfully in England, beating the best horses of 
his day, among them Ellington, winner of the 
Derby, and other first-class race-horses. 

On the arrival of " Bonnie Scotland" in the 
United States, the following appeared in the 
N. Y. Tribune from the pen of Wm. H. Herbert 
(Frank Forrester) : 

"In the ship Baltic, from Liverpool, among 
other animals brought to this country, for the 
purpose of making profit for their owners, and, 
if possible of improving our native stock, is a 
thoroughbred stallion called ' ' Bonnie Scot- 
land." He is a blood bay, black legged horse, 
without one spot of white about him, except a 
star on the forehead — the richest colored bay 
that we have ever seen. He stands full sixteen 
hands high, has the longest shoulder, deepest 
heart-place, best fore-hand, shortest saddle- 

Slace, and the most powerful quarters of any 
orse now before the public, in our opinion. 



He is the biggest race horse, the best walker, 
and the best trotter we have yet laid our eyes 
upon, in the shape of an importation. There 
is no richer or purer blood in England." 
Premfums Awarded. 
"Bonnie Scotland " took the $50 premium 
at the Ohio State Fair, and the $50 premium 
in sweepstakes, as the best of all classes. At 
the United States Fair, at Cincinnati, the $500 
premium, and at the Ohio State Fair, at Day- 
ton, took the sweepstakes premium $200, 
over the best ring of stallions — over 30 in num- 
ber — ever shown in Ohio. 



Peach Leaf Blight. 

The leaves of a tree are its lungs, so say all 
vegetable physiologists; as such they are like 



this belief alone, that we venture our opinion 
in reference to the 

Cause of the Evil. 

A tree under the influence of a high cultiva- 
tion, and, perhaps, a full exposure to the sun's 
rays, may put forth its leaves, not perhaps, 
prematurely, or this may be ; but with a tender, 
delicate organism, unfitted to bear uninjured, 
the extremes of temperature to which it is sub- 
jected. A few days of warm, mild weather, 
serves to advance the leaves, perhaps prema- 
turely, bringing them into the very condition 
most likely to be affected injuriously by the 
cold. 

A cold night, though not necessarily freez- 
ing, comes on, perhaps a succession of them ; 
the leaves are suddenly chilled, their delicate 




SCOTLAND 



those of animals, organs of delicate mechanism, 
and liable to be affected injuriously, often from 
the most trival causes. Thus, all sudden 
changes from heat to cold, would be likely to 
affect injuriously their peculiar mechanism, 
made more sensitive, perhaps, by the artificial 
condition of culture and growth of the tree ; 
the use of stimulants as of heat and moisture, or 
manures and high cultivation, forcing a prema- 
ture growth, and less hardy than if left to com- 
bat more with the obstacles of an uncultivated 
condition. 

And the same would apply to old varieties 
that had been long under a system of forced 
cultivation, whilst seedlings, or comparatively 
new varieties, possessing more vigor, might 
wholly escape. And, it is quite probable, that 
the "poorest peaches," spoken of by a corres- 
pondent in another column of this week's pa- 
per, as being untouched by the blight, are 
seedlings, which accounts perhaps, for their 
poorer quality. The conditions named above, 
tend to make the leaves highly sensitive to 
all extraordinary influences ; and it is upon 



organism feels its effects, in fact the tree is 
attacked by a cold on its lungs, or it has the 
dyspepsia, or, perhaps, the exact nature of the 
disease is not fully understood ; but the condi- 
tion seems to be this, that whilst the alburnum 
is constantly sending forward its full and undi- 
minished supply of sap to the leaves, it is 
equally true that they cease properly to elabo- 
rate that sap and send it back for the production 
of new wood, or as food for the young fruit. 

Resulting Effect. 

The accumulation increases, a morbid growth 
is the consequence, the leaves swell, and are 
puffed up into strangely corrugated, irregular 
and uneven surfaces, that finally results in dis- 
ease and a dropping of the leaf, and generally 
the fruit ; the latter, however, not from disease, 
but from a positive lack of properly elaborated 
food, resulting from the loss of the leaves. 

We would account for the appearance of the 
curl in different parts of the same orchard, or 
where two varieties of peaches are grown on the 
same tree, one portion affected and the other 
not, which is frequently the case where one of 
the old varieties is glowing upon and along 
with a seedling variety, by supposing that, as 
with men, so with trees, some are found more 
sensitive, more disposed to colds, and more 
easily affected by climatic influence than 
others. 



If the leaf is not affected by the curl some 
seasons, but is in others, it is simply because 
that certain condition of growth favorable to its 
development, when acted upon by the influ- 
ences of heat and cold, did not intervene be- 
tween the setting of the leaf and its arrival at a 
growth and maturity beyond being affected by 
the vicissitudes of climate. 

We believe, therefore, that the peach leaf 
curl, is produced by cold or heat, or certain 
climatic influences entirely independent of ac- 
tual frost or the attacks of animalcule, and a 
disease, that so far as relates to its general 
prevalence in certain years, is without a known 
remedy. 

Swiss Wines. 

Many of the common Swiss wines possess a 
higher bouquet or aroma, than do many — except 
the very best — French or German wines. It 
is said that the higher vines can 
be grown on the sides of the Alps 
and perfect their fruit, though 
not as productive as in the lower 
country, the higher or more inten- 
sified the flavor of the grapes pro- 
duced. It is admitted by travel- 
ers, that to get the very best wine 
the country affords, call for the 
wines, the produce of the district 
of country you happen to be in. 

There seems to be no doubt of 
this fact, and except in the mere 
production of champagne wines, 
which are generally the product 
of more level countries, the rule 
has attained and holds good with 
all the wine countries of Europe. 
The wines of the Rhine hills are 
proverbial ; the Germans know of 
none better. The Italian boasts 
of the wines of the Apennines, 
and the French and Castilian will 
tell you there are none that for 
real delicacy of flavor, equal those 
of the Pyrenees. Thus, while 
wine makers of other countries 
are producing their finest wines 
from the more elevated of their 
respective districts, we are, as 
yet, too much wed to the valleys. 
We may, therefore, and per- 
haps, in no very distant future, 
find our very best wines to be 
the product of vineyards upon 
lands at present, to a great ex- 
tent, unclaimed and unowned — 
except by the government — lying 
along the base and extending high up among the 
lower mountains of the Sierras ; instead of, 
as at present — from the wine-cellars of San 
Francisco. 



Vine-Gboweks Faib. — The Fair of the Cali- 
fornia Vine-Growers and Wine and Brandy 
Manufacturers Association, will be held in Sac- 
ramento in connection with the State Fair, com- 
mencing the 19th of September, and continuing 
until the 28th. Two thousand dollars is offered 
in premiums ranging at about fifty dollars each. 
By an advertisement in another column it will 
be seen that the association will hold a business 
meeting at Sacramento, on the 25th of July, and 
that the attendance of all interested is requested. 
All wine-growers should be present to assist in 
forwarding this great industry. 



Foubth of July. — On account of the 4th com 
ing on Thursday — a day on which we never 
mean to do much work if we can help it — the 
Ruba.Ii goes to press one day in advance of its 
usual time of publication. 



SP&MMMK 



«18: 



[July 6, 1872. 



Correspondence. 



Notes of Travel in Napa County. 

(By Oar Traveling Correspondent.) 

St. Helena. 
This beautiful little village is located 18 
miles northwest of Napa and about 58 miles 
distant from San Francisco. The White 
Sulphur Springs, the most prominent lo- 
cality in t this vicinity, having been de- 
scribed in your issue of last week, I will 
merely mention the agricultural and in- 
dustrial pursuits in which the inhabitants 
are occupied. First, however, the town of 
St. Helena contains about 500 inhabitants, 
and is one of the most prosperous little 
villages in the county. It has the usual 
business interests of aplaceof.its size; con- 
tains two hotels, the principal of -which is 
the National, presided over by H. L. 
Chandler. Among its leading business 
men are J. G. Francis, the pioneer mer- 
chant and dealer in groceries, hardware, 
etc.; and F. A. Todd, successor to D. B. 
Carver, acting as postmaster, and dealer in 
dry goods, clothing, hardware, etc.; A. 
Jackson & Co. manage to dispose of about 
$75,000 worth of lumber annually, show- 
ing activity and advancement in the vicin- 
ity. Fully one-half of the inhabitants of 
this place and the neighborhood are Ger- 
mans, and the wine interest is consequently 
in a flourishing condition. 
Hop Ranch. 
Mr. A. Clock owns two hop ranches near 
here, one one-half mile and another a 
mile and a half from St. Helena. One 
of these ranches has 15 acres and the 
other 30 acres, all in hops. He has one 
kiln 36x40, capable of drying 800 pounds 
at a time, and proposes building a large 
one of concrete 54x66 feet. He employs 8 
men regularly, and in the picking season 
has from 130 to 140 men at work. His 
ground yielded last year an average of 
1,700 pounds per acre, and he expects a 
larger yield this year, probably one ton per 
acre. 

Vineyards. 
All of the region hereabouts is covered 
with vineyards, and the wine interest is of 
course prominent. It is difficult to enum- 
erate all the fine places that I passed, but 
among those that I visited was that of 
John York, at which place I got a few 
figures as to the profits of the business, 
which may be interesting to your readers. 
His place is about one mile northwest of 
St. Helena, and comprises 140 acres, 50 of 
which are in vines. He does not manu- 
facture wine himself, simply raises the 
grapes and disposes of them to the wine- 
makers. The crop last year averaged six 
tons per acre, for which he obtained 
twenty dollars per ton delivered at the 
railroad depot— or §120 per acre. The va- 
rieties raised are principally Mission, with 
some Black Malvoisie, Zinfindel, Golden 
Chasselas, and Chasselas Fontanbleau. 
The balance of this little farm is in hay 
and grain, and all the labor is performed 
by members of Mr. York's own family. 

The above item was given so that you 
might get some idea of the profit of vine- 
growing, and the following list of vine- 
growers, showing the number of vinos 
bearing, and gallons of wine made will 
serve to illustrate the extent to which the 
business is carried on near here. 

Vines and Wines near St. Helena. 
Pellet and Career vines, 30,000, 2 to 6 
years; Pellet and Career wine, gals., 60,- 
000— vintage 1871; C. Krug, vines, 40,000, 
from 3 to 9 years; C. Krug, gals, wine, 
35,000, 1871; Doc. Crane, gals, wine, 
30,000, 1871; Doc. Crane, vines, 50,- 
000, 3 to 9 years; Lewelling, vines, 
75,000, 1 to 8 years; Rule, vines, 15,000, 
4 to 9 years; Backus, vines, 16,000, 4 
to 9 years; Backus, gals, wine, 9,000; 
Keyes vineyard, vines, 30,000, 4 to 10 
years; Keyes vineyard, gals, wine, 15,000; 
York, vines, 75,000; Hudson, vines, 
75,000; Lyman, vines, 20,000; Lyman^ 
gals, wine 12,000; Giausque, gals, wine, 
20,000; Giausque, vines, 30,000; Mc- 
Cord, 10,000;,Vann, 18,000; Hastings, 100,- 
000, 1 to 3 years; Stanley, 5,U00;Armstead, 
40,000, 3 to 5 years; Penwell. 10,000; Has- 
kin, 5,000; Fountain, 4,000; Starr, 6,000; 
Sumner, 3,000; Smith, 8, 000; All en, 4^000; 
Stratton, 5,000;Doc. Parsens, 4,000 ;Kitter' 
6,000; Hall, 8,000; Cooley, 2,000; Fulton' 



10,000;Owens, 5,000; Capt. Sayward, 8,000; 
Gibson, 3,000; Cruey, 4,000; Osborn, 1,000; 
Behnken, 7,000; Lazarus, 10,000; Schultz, 
10,000; Clark, 4,000; Fulton, gals, wine 
12,000, Stratton, 5,000. 

One of the most prominent of the wine 
growers who has had considerable experi- 
ence in the business in this section of 
country, gives me the names of the follow- 
ing varieties as those best adapted to this 
locality in the order of their excellence ; 
Johannesberg and Franklin of the Reisling 
variety ; Black Malvoise and Zinfindel for red 
wine; Muscatel; the varieties of the Chas- 
selas. The same gentleman intends this 
season getting out a Catawba vineyard for 
making Catawba wine. l. p. mc. 

San Bernardino County. 

Editoks Rural Press: — Leaving San 
Jacinto and its pleasant groves of cotton- 
wood we enter a canon penetrating the 
ridge which divides the waters of the Santa 
Ana from those of the first mentioned 
stream. It appears odd to say anything 
about water after traveling in dry arroyas 
and river beds for the last hundred miles 
or more; nevertheless there was veritable 
water running out of this canon, and as the 
road ran along the bed of the creek for 
miles, one could not avoid contrasting the 
limped element with the scorching sand of 
some similar roads we had traversed. As 
we neared the head of the canon it was dif- 
ficult to perceive any way of exit from the 
cul-de-sac, as the sides of the canon were 
almost perpendicular, but the road led up 
the point of one of the dividing spots to 
the mesa, at an angle which compelled one 
to dismount to enable the animals to scram- 
ble up the five hundred feet of acclivity 
which separated the bottom from the table- 
land above. 

The mesa once reached, we bowled along 
merrily a few miles to the San Gorgonio 
plain, "which forms one of the best, 
natural passes over the Sierras, nere be- 
gins a new verdure, sustained by thousands 
of perennial springs in hundreds of valleys 
and plains, extending northeastly and west- 
wardly a hundred miles at least, present- 
ing the most inviting argument for a rail- 
road imaginable. 

Land Subsidies and Grants. 
It docs appear a little singular that a 
subsidy, should be required to induce any 
railroad company diverge a little in order 
to traverse a country susceptible of the ut- 
most production, in preference to passing 
the same distance over an entirely unpro- 
ductive desert, as the present proposed 
route from Fort Tejon to the Colorado is. 
This part of San Bernardino county al- 
though comparatively thickly populated, 
is capable of sustaining ten times the num- 
ber of its present inhabitants and would, if 
the Grant and Railroad Subsidy incubus 
could be dispensed with. • 

There are settlers above Frinks' Ranch 
that have occupied that land undisturbed 
fourteen years, who are now swooped down 
upon and their land taken by trumped up 
grants and there are many other cases of 
the same kind in Southern California. 
Many millions of dollars would have been 
added to the taxable property of this State, 
by agricultural improvements alone, if the 
grant question had been definately settled, 
as it should have been fifteen years since # 

What a Glorious Panorama 
Unfolds, as the traveller leaves the San 
Goniotio, going north. The valley for 
twenty miles spreads out like a map, be- 
low, with each village, hamlet, and ranch, 
lined by living green. The coloring is so 
grateful to the eye, one is never tired of 
looking. Almost the first place upon en- 
tering the valley proper of San Bernardino, 
from the south, is that of Dr. Barton's, 
on the sight of the old mission. Evorthing 
about the premises indicates substantial 
liberality and prosperity. The grounds 
are watered by an acequia, taken from the 
Santa Ana river, some ten miles above; of 
a capacity to run any needful machinery, 
as well as to irrigate thousands of acres of 
land. 

A Geographical Error. 
Before leaving the vicinity of San Gor- 
gonio entirely, it may be well to mention 
a grave error of the geographer in placing 
that prominent landmark, Mt. San Jacinto, 
at least twenty miles away from its actual 
position. It flanks San Gorgonio Pass on 
the south, as Mt. San Bernardino does the 
northern side of the Pass — instead of being 
twenty miles away, as the map-makers have 



it. This beautiful picture spread over a 
stretch of country farther than the eye can 
reach, is a standing rebuke to those fishers 
for subsidies, who feign would have the 
people believe that a railroad was going a 
hundred miles through an irreclaimable 
desert, when, by a divergence of fifty 
miles, such a succession of productive val- 
leys can be passed through and their at- 
tendant business obtained. 

Dr. Barton has eighty acres in vineyard, 
with substantial brick store-house and dis- 
tillery for wines and brandies; he has also 
a thrifty bearing orange orchard, together 
with a choice selection of other fruits and 
foreign vines. Passing through old San 
Bernardino we must not forget to notice 
the prolific orchard of Von Devoin, three 
orango trees within which, brought its 
owner $200 last year for their fruit. Pass- 
ing from San Bernardino toward the south- 
west, down the Santa Ana, we leave River- 
side, with its parched fields and its victim- 
ized hunters for earthly paradises, on our 
left, and in twenty-five miles come to the 
Rincon settlement, which is on the north 
side of the Santa Ana, instead of on the 
south, as laid down on the maps. 

Hickey's Ranch. 

Mr. J. C. Hickey has here one of the 
choice locations, just within reach of the 
sea breeze, and watered by living springs. 
This is literally the land flowing with milk 
and honey. The distended udders of the 
fifty or more fine American cows attests 
the excellence of the adjacent pastures 
and meadows, three hundred acres of which 
are owned by Mr. Hickey, who has just 
bought from the "Rincon" grant, and 
thinks he can subsist upon this morsel of 
mother earth, if the cows continue to 
thrive as they have the past two dry years. 

Here let us say a word for the lands that 
cannot be irrigated. One-half, at least, 
of the land that will produce small grain 
will also produce the vine in its utmost 
perfection, as is attested by actual trial. A 
vineyard of eighty acres, where I am now 
writing, is in the fullest bearing — vines 
five years old — and has not had a drop of 
water except what has fallen; an effectual 
estopel for tho mouths of the croakers. 
F. M. Shaw. 

Los Angeles Co., June 15, 1872. 



A Viniculturist on Alcohol in Califor- 
nia and Foreign Wines. 

Editors Pacific Rural Press:— As a 
grape grower and wine manufacturer of 
twelve years' experience in California, will 
you allow me to criticise your article on 
California wines published in your issue 
of Juno 1st, also the criticism of Mr. G. 
Backus, of St. Helena, which appeared in 
your issue of the 22d inst. 

I will preface this article by admitting 
that a large proportion of our California 
wines contain an excess of spirit, and are 
as a consequence heady; but I must differ 
with you in your statement that they con- 
tain from fifteen to twenty per cent, of 
alcohol. 

Every intelligent vintner knows that two 
per cent, of sugar will produce when well 
fermented, one per cent, of alcohol ; our 
grapes at-the time of the vintage contain 
from twenty to thirty por cent, of sugar. 

If the must ( grape juice ) contains 
twenty per cent, of sugar, the fermentation 
will be completed in from four to six days, 
the wine will then be dry, and contain ten 
per cent, of alcohol; if it contains twenty- 
four percent., the fermentation will last a 
little longer, and then tho wine when dry 
will contain twelve per cent, of spirit. 

If the must contains thirty per cent, of 
sugar, the fermentation will be very active 
until twelve or thirteen percent, of alcohol 
has been eliminated, when the fermentation 
will stop, and from four to six per cent, of 
sugar will remain in the wine, there doing 
enough alcohol present to preserve the re- 
maining sugar, and prevent further fermen- 
tation, 

According to this, no wine containing 
fifteen per cent, of alcohol can be made 
through the natural process of fermen- 
tation, much less any containing twenty 
per cent. 

I have no doubt, you can find wines with 
the percentage of alcohol you mention, but 
they are all fortified by the addition of a 
ceitiin amount of spirit, and consequently, 
not the pure and simple result of natural 
fermentation. 

French and German dry wines vary from 
nine to eleven per cent, of alcohol; under 
nine they will not stand shipmont ; any- 
thing above eleven per cent, is fortified, 
and belongs to the stronger kinds, such as 
port, sherry, madeira, etc. 



Water Cannot be Used to Reduce Wines, 
Not even before fermentation; it is true, 
water reduces the percentage of alcohol, 
but water and sugar are not the only ele- 
ments necessary to make a good wine; 
nature alone produces and elaborates all 
these elements through the process of 
growth and ripening of the grapes. I have 
tried introducing water with the various 
kinds of grapes. The only way 

To Make a Good Light Wine, 
Is to pick the grapes before they are too 
ripe, this will insure a prompt fermentation , 
and produce a light and well-flavored wine, 
not at all heady, as I am ready to prove to 
you if you will take the trouble to call on 
me and sample the contents of my cellars. 

Vina. 
St. Helena, Napa Co., June 25, 1872. 

Fossil Discoveries in Solano County. 

Editors Press: — There has recently been 
an interesting fossil discovery near this lo- 
cality, of one more of those gigantic mammoths 
which in the olden time, clothed in flesh, must 
have made the wilderness reverberate with the 
echo of their loud trumpetings. Th e fossils just 
discovered consists of one underjaw with the 
molar grinder entire; one upper grinder and 
part of another; some bones of the neck and 
back; some pieces of ribs; part of one shin- 
bone from the knee-joint down to the ankle; a 
piece of a tusk about one foot in length and 
a great many pieces of different bones much 
broken up. 

These fossils were discovered by a gentleman 
by the name of Allison, on his farm about three 
miles west of Rio Vista, in Solano county. The 
remains were found in a ravine where they had 
been partly washed bare by the excessive rains 
of last winter. They were embedded in the sub- 
stratum of yellow clay that usually underlies 
the alluvium deposit of block adobe. 

The bones evidently belonged to some huge 
mammoth, Elephas Primagtnus. The pieoe of 
tusk is seven inches in diameter and must have 
been broken off at least six feet from the head 
of the animal. The knee-joint is thirteen 
inches in its longest diameter. I have in my 
possession one of the upper teeth that is '1 , 
inches on its grinding surface, and part is gene 
at that. The neck bones are iy % inches in di- 
ameter. They are the bones of a very old ani- 
mal, as evinced by the tooth in the under jaw 
being nearly worn down even to where the 
gums must once have been. 

There are probably more of the bones that 
can be obtained, and Mr. Allison saj's he will try 
to find the other tusk which may be in a better 
state of preservation. 

How interesting it would be could we only 
look back at the condition of the earth in the 
far-distant past, when these huge mammoths 
and mastodons roamed at will in vast herds 
unmolested by the presence or obstructions of 
man. How long ago that was it is useless to 
conjecture, as their remains have been dis- 
covered under such peculiar circumstances as 
to warrant the belief that the ocean has milt d 
its stormy billows over the laud since they 
ceased to exist upon it. W. R. Frink. 

Rio Vista, June 18, 1872. 



About that "Four Years on a Farm." 

Editors Rural Press : — I have just 
read the letter of "Four years on a Farm," 
in the Rural of the 15th inst., and I fear 
it is another hint from Mrs. Artemesia 

M to build her a house, as well as 

a front fence. However, I know Mrs. 

M has no trouble gathering the 

eggs, for the birdies have nice nests made 
in lime barrels placed on scaffolding, out 
of the reach of skunks, rats, etc., and as 
for roosting places, they perch themselves 
very comfortably on the comb of the barn ; 
and those not able to climb the ladder, or 
fly so high, accommodate themselves on 
the edge of the horse-mangers and harness 
pegs. 

Chicken Fatality. 

One thing I do not understand, why it 
is that chickens are so short-lived in tho 
country; mine generally begin to die off 
at from 12 to 18 months old ; they have 
free range over a large exteDt of cultivated 
ground, and it seems that they might get 
a sufficient amount of insect food to keep 
them in health, as I only keep two or three 
dozen grown ones together at a time. 

Harvest 
Is about over in this neighborhood ; as the 
crops were short, nearly everything was 
cut for hay. Good hay is selling at from 
$8 to $10 per ton, in the field, and from 
$12 to $13, baled. Corn and vegetables 
are not looking so well as at this time last 
year, in consequence of so much cool 
weather this spring. 

Fruits of all kinds will be abundant this 
season, notwithstanding the frosts of April. 

St. Helena, June 17th, 1872. j. m. 



July 6, 1872.J 



2pj*<§»» 



ECl^fC^L &{ SciEMppiG, 



Maple Sugar — Its Formation. 

The formation of the sugar in the sap of the 
maple, like many other organic processes, is not 
perfectly understood by chemists, but the fol- 
lowing facts are well ascertained, and afford a 
partial explanation of the mystery. In the lat- 
ter part of the summer considerable starch and 
similar substances are deposited in the cells of 
the sap wood of trees. These are the stores 
laid up for the manufacture of the foliage for 
the next summer. When spring comes the 
roots of the trees wake up from their winter 
sleep, and imbibe large quantities of water from 
the soil, long before the buds begin to swell. 
This water is of course charged with various 
salts, some of which, like carbonate of lime, 
are held in solution by the carbonic acid con- 
tained in the water, while others are soluble in 
pure water. This water is gradually carried up 
the stem of the tree by capillary attraction and 
by osmose ; but as it ascends through the cells 
it converts some of their contents into sugar, 
becoming denser and more saccharine as it 
rises, until finally it reaches the buds. 

If now the weather is warm enough, the buds 
expand and soon burst into leaves and flowers. 
The first energies of the tree are devoted to per- 
fecting these important parts; and when this is 
accomplished the leaves commence to prepare 
the material for the growth of another year. 
This is deposited in the new layer of wood 
which is formed directly under the bark, ready 
to be taken up again the next spring for the 
formation of new twigs and leaves, and thus the 
circulation goes on from year to year. The 
only part of the trunk that takes any active part 
in the circulation is the sap or light-colored 
wood. The old dark portion of the wood in 
the interior has become clogged up with insol- 
uble matter, and is no longer capable either of 
conducting sap or of performing any other 
function in the economy of the tree. 

If we wish to make sugar from the sap of any 
tree, it must be tapped at the time of year when 
it is most abundantly charged with that liquid, 
and this is usually a month or two before the 
leaves begin to expand. 

Nearly all our hard-wood trees will yield more 
or less sugar, but only a very few of them fur- 
nish it in large quantities, or pure enough for 
domestic use. The Acer, or Maple family, 
stands at the head of the list in this respect, 
and chief among these is the Acer Saccharinum, 
or sugar maple, the juice of which contains 
from three to six per cent, of cane sugar. That 
which comes from the tree when it is first 
tapped is much richer than that which flows 
later in the seison. The first sap ascending 
the stem naturally dissolves out the largest pro- 
portion of the starch and gum. After the sap 
is drawn it is concentrated by boiling until it 
commences to crystallize, when it is allowed to 
cool and deposit the sugar. 

During this concentration of the sap the lime 
salts which have been held in solution are grad- 
ually precipitated as the syrup becomes more 
dense. This deposit, or "nitre, "as it is called, 
consists, according to some authorities, of car- 
bonate of lime ; others consider it to be malate 
of lime or saccharate of lime. The flow of sap 
varies much with the state of the weather, be- 
ing most abundant when the nights are cool and 
the days warm. 

This has been explained on the supposition 
that on warm days the air contained in the 
trunk of the tree expands, thus forcing the sap 
out; while as the tree cools off at night the air 
contracts, and the sap rises from the roots to 
supply the vacuum, to be again forced out the 
next day. As soon as the leaves commence to 
expand the flow ceases, because then the leaves 
are able to evaporate all the water that the roots 
can supply. But the continual tapping °f the 
tree, and the withdrawal of its stores of nour- 
ishment, soon causes it to languish, and it can- 
not survive such treatment many years any 
more than a man could survive the loss of a 
considerable portion of blood each day. — Ex. 

Artifical Water Lime. — It has been long 
known to chemists that water lime consists sub- 
stantially of quick lime, burnt clay, and a small 
portion of the oxides of iron and magnesia, but 
scarcely any effort has been made to utilize this 
knowledge. All yellow or red clays contain 
iron, and most specimens of lime in use contain 
the required magnesia. If burnt clay or brick 
dust in the fine powder be mixed with an equal 
weight of fresh slacked lime, and twice this 
weight of clean, sharp sand be added, a com- 
pound will be formed which will harden under 
water equal to the best hydraulic cement. 

Chemical. Action in Porous Filters. — In the 
course of an examination of filters, at the in- 
stance af the British Medical Journal, Professor 
Wanklyn has had proof that filtration through 
beds of porous materials includes very poweful 
chemical action, albuminoid matter being in- 
stantly resolved into ammonia and other prod- 
ucts by the action of the filter, which, indeed, 
behaves in this respect like a boiling solution 
of permanganate of potash. A good filter is a 
sanitary engine of great power. 

One of the salts most sensitive to heat is the 

double iodide of silver and mercury. Its natural 

color is yellow, but it turns red if warmed, and 

eturns yellow again on cooling. 



The New Mode of ConveyiDg Compressed 
Air as a Motor. 

We made reference, a few months since to 
some interesting experiments which had just 
then been concluded in Portland, Maine, with 
regard to an improved method of conveying air 
or steam for motive purposes, so as to avoid 
the usual amount of friction against the walls 
of the conducting pipe. The principle involved, 
and mode of testing the same, is stated as fol- 
lows: 

"Given to transmit the full effect of an air 
compressor (notof theprime motor), at a press- 
ure of say 40 lbs. to the inch. The first step is 
to determine the size of the conduit pipe. Set 
a pressure gauge on the reservoir which receives 
the compressed air, and when a pressure of 40 
lbs. is indicated, open an orifice in the res- 
ervoir so large as to exhaust the effect of the 
compressor as fast as delivered. 

The compressor is now working into the res- 
ervoir, the orifice is now blowing off, and the 
gauge stands at 40. Suppose the orifice to be 
one inch in diameter. Now attach to the 
same a pipe of one inch calibre, say 100 foet 
long. At a point near the outer end of this 
pipe set a pressure gauge, and the pressure, 
with the pipe wide open, will be found to be 
something less than 40 lbs. The element of 
friction has been developed in the pipe, and 
will accumulate rapidly as the distance is in- 
creased, and it is evident that a pipe of the di- 
ameter of the original exhaustive orifice will 
not convey the force without loss. 

Take a new pipe 1% inch diameter; on this 
find the point where a slight diminution of 
pressure is indicated by the gauge. Just be- 
yond this point insert a ring of one inch orifice 
in the pipe, giving a shoulder, all round, of % 
inch, and the lost pressure will be found to have 
been restored. 

The effect of the ring or diaphragm is to line 
the pipe with a hollow cylinder of air through- 
out, which cannot advance, being prevented by 
the ring and held against the pipe with a press- 
ure of 40 lbs. to the inch, and all the friction 
which occurs is, consequently, that of air 
against ah - . 

There are now at a considerable distance from 
the reservoir, an orifice of one inch, and a press- 
ure of 40 lbs. to the inch, and there being no 
more than these at the reservoir itself, no force 
has been lost in the transmission. The reser- 
voir has been virtually moved forward to this 
point. Repeating the operation at the same 
distance out from this point as from this to the 
reservoir produces the same result. Each joint 
or section of the pipe charges the succeeding 
with original force, and it would seem that there 
can be no limit to the application of the princi- 
ple." 

This invention is the product of the ingen- 
ious brain of an old Californian, Mr. Eobert 
Spear, who not only conceived the idea in San 
Francisco, but made his first experiments here 
in July, 186G. Mr. Spear afterwards went East, 
where he continued his experiments, and when 
he made his application for a patent, the United 
States Patent Office sent its ablest examiners 
to Boston to test it. The Department would 
not grant his claims to their full extent, until 
after such test had been made — so i* is reported 
in the Boston Advertiser. 

So preposterous were his claims that the com- 
missioners thought he was crazy when he first 
made his application for a patent. 

Mr. Spear demonstrates the correctness of his 
idea of the mode of the passage of the currents of 
air or steam through his new conduits by using 
colored fluids in glass tubes provided with his in- 
vention, and by which it is plainly shown that 
the propelled current is kept in the center of 
the tube, without any friction at the sides. If, 
by a diaphragm pierced with holes at the sides, 
this current is forced to divide and seek pass- 
age next the inner surface of the pipe, it at 
once resumes its course in the centre after the 
obstruction is passed. Mr . Spear has also dis- 
covered that while any angle or bend in any 
ordinary pipe obstructs a fluid flowing through, 
by enlarging the pipe at angles, the friction and 
loss of power is overcome. At Mount Cenis 
and at the Hoosac tunnel it has been found 
necessary greatly to enlarge the whole conduct- 
ing pipe for every mile of distance the com- 
pressed air has to be forced. This, of course, 
seriously increases the expense. Mr. Spear's 
invention greatly reduces the size of conduits 
necessary for long distance. 

The claim set up that this invention proves 
the existence of an exception to the law of phy- 
sics, that there can be no motion without fric- 
tion — that not a particle of difference can be de- 
tected between the pressure at the reservoir and 
at the extreme end of the conduit pipe, 
must still be taken with many grains of 
allowance notwithstanding "the concurrent 
testimony of the most eminent men of the 
country to that effect." There must be friction 
in passing the iron rings; and it cannot be pos- 
sible that even a current of air can pass through 
air at rest without friction. 



Drying Lumber by Steam. — All the piano- 
makers in New York, and some cabinet-makers, 
dry their lumber by steam heat. The process 
is very simple. A large room is provided with 
systems of iron tubes, through which the steam 
circulates, and so arranged that the water of 
condensation flows by itself back to the boiler 
No steam or water can get out, so that only the 
heat gets into the room, in which the lumber 
is kept for weeks, and even months, at a tem- 
perature of 100 to 150" F. Another process is 
to expose the lumber to the steam itself. 



A New Invention. — It is probable that before 
loDg the usual notice to be sees on board 
steamboats, " No smoking allowed abaft the 
funnel," will have to be discontinued, owing to 
the absence of any funnel abaft which smoking 
can be prohibited. Smokers will be simply re- 
quested to discharge their smoke into the water. 
According to the Swiss Times, two Austrian 
marine officers and a marine engineer have dis- 
covered by united experiments a method of 
conveying away under water the smoke from 
the steam engine, instead of through a funnel 
into the air. They make use of double ventila- 
tors, which compress the smoke and force it 
overboard. For propelling these ventilators 
they employ, according to circumstances, either 
water power — that is, the pressure of the water 
between the surface of the water and the place 
where this apparatus is fixed — or, for smaller 
vessels, steampower. The advantages of this 
discovery are the greater security of ships 
of war, as in armor-plated ships the only 
vulnerable part, the funnel, will be taken away. 
Other advantages will be the saving of space 
now occupied by the passage of the funnel 
through every deck, as well as security against 
danger from fire; complete regulation of the 
draught, and in consequence of that, the appli- 
cation of a method for consuming the smoke, 
thereby effecting a saving of fuel; and, finally, 
better ventilation of the boiler. For submarine 
and torpedo ships and monitors this discovery 
will be of great value, as these last will be ren- 
dered quite invulnerable. The trials that have 
been made have, it is alleged, resulted in a com- 
plete success, even to the smallest details. 




The Wild Flowers of San Joaquin 
Valley. 

[Written for the Eubal Press, by Ralph Rambler.] 
Reader, have your wanderings in pursuit of 
business or pleasure, ever led you through San 
Joaquin Valley ? And were' you ever there when 
April showers have freshened its verdure, after 
the abundant rains of winter have brought our 
native plants to their full perfection ? If so, 
where did you ever see a richer or more beauti- 
ful garden-spot of wild flowers ? 

Wherever the plowshare has not lately turned 
the fertile soil, and where the rank grain is not 
waving in a unbroken surface of green, the na- 
tive sod is densely studded with varied flowers 
of almost every hue — some of unsurpassed 
beauty and fragrance. Here as elsewhere in 
our State, 

Nature 
Has sown with unsparing hand. Away from 
our river-bottoms, our fooihills and mountains, 
in which alone our timber grows, and wherever 
the busy farmer has not disturbed the reign of 
Nature, this flower-bed of annual plants, vary- 
ing in hight from a few inches to rarely more 
than two or three feet, extends as far as the 
eye can reach, with not a single tree or shrub 
to interrupt the view. 

Such a sight is here presented as greeted the 
eyes of the hardy pioneers of the Southern and 
Northwestern States, when they gazed for the 
first time upon their broad prairies where the 
Red-man, the deer, and the buffalo roamed in 
undisputedpossession. And as the early deni- 
zens of these wild prairies have long since van- 
ished before the steady march of civilization, 
and with them may have perished many of the 
flowers of their day, so must the lapse of a 
quarter or a half century, make similar changes 
in our valley. Come then, let us 

Ramble 
Together, and as a pastime and pleasure, let us 
study and chronicle the names of some of our 
floral beauties, before they shall have passed 
away. 

For even though, dear reader, none of these 
flowers shall finally perish to be seen no more, 
the spring-time will soon end, the rains will 
cease, the plains now so richly carpeted, will 
then be dry and sere, and our wild flowers will 
leave us, until another spring, like a resurrec- 
tion morn, shall bring them again to beautify 
and cheer our way. And let us take the chil- 
dren with us in our rambles, for they all love 
flowers, and can learn some useful lessons from 
their study. What then are the 

Flowers 
That most attract the eye on our sandier, or 
lighter soils V They are the orange-colored 
poppy, blue and pink lupines, lovegroves, blue- 
bells, the painted-cup, or, as it might be very 
suitably named, princess' plume, the flax-flower, 
wild chrysanthemum, star-thistle, milk-weed, 
dandelion, lark spurs, evening-primroses, and 
several others worthy of record, but which as yet 
unfortunately have no common English name, 
such as the white collinsia, the purple calandri- 
nia, the lilac-colored phacelia, and the two spe- 
cies of gilia. 

The most common on our harder and heavier 
soils are yellow, white and purple tulips, two 
kinds of yellow poppy, and a white variety 
which is comparatively rare, the white lupine, 
the cowslip, white heliotrope, several members 
of the lily and asphodel families, clovers, Indian 
wheat, and a tall, odd-looking member of the 
mint family, most likely a species of dragon- 
head, with its delicately fringed and lilac-tinted 
flowers resting in a bed of thorns. The 
latter plant is commonly but incorrectly called 
"thistle," on account of its prickly leaves. 



It may be well to mention, in passiu 
pine is the common name of what is 1, ly 

known to many as the pea-plant. AnotLu j- 
mon name for it is sun-dial, given from its pe- 
culiar habit of always turning the upper surface 
of its leaves towards the sun, thus regularly 
following his daily course from east to west. 
Larkspurs and many other flowers most abun- 
dant on our looser lands, are also fouud on our 
heavy soil, where they usually indicate its 
greater fertility by their ranker growth. 

Along our streams alone, are found wild 
roses, violets, sun-flowers, wild tobacco, the 
yellow monkey-flower, a large vetch or pea vine, 
with pale purple flowers, equal in size and beau- 
ty to those of the sweet pea, Indian lettuce, 
some of the larger varieties of clover, and the 
very beautiful willow-herb with its showy pink 
and purple flowers, reminding one at a glance 
of the fuchsia, to which it is closely related. 
And while we enumerate the most noted of our 
wild flowers, we must not omit to mention the 
prince among our many plants suitable for 

Pasturage; 
We mean, the Fil-e-ree (accent on last syllable), 
as we really pronounce it, by a short and 
natural corruption in English of the Spanish 
alfilerilla. Although it is not a native of Cali- 
fornia, and thougn its small pink flowers are 
not among the most conspicuous, the whole 
plant with its finely divided leaves and queer 
seed-pods, is one of the most graceful and beau- 
tiful, as well as one of the most generally dis- 
tributed over the valleys and foothills of our 
State. 

These, which comprise our most showy wild 
flowers, and many other pretty ones for which 
we have as yet no common names, meet our 
gaze until they become like the familiar faces 
of so many friends, on every walk, or drive 
or ride throughout our broad valley. Peeping 
out, or towering high, from among their rich 
green leaves and our various grasses; or inter- 
mingled with the young and thinner grain, they 
paint the roadsides with every tint of the rain- 
bow, or with the purest white. 

In our future rambles and chats, we shall try 
to describe, if not all, at least our most attrac- 
tive flowers, so that anyone, with a little ob- 
servation and care, can recognize them by their 
common names, some of which are mentioned 
above. We shall also give their 

Latin, or Systematic Names, 
Selected by the leading naturalists of the world, 
so that a professional botanist may identify 
them, and any other reader who wishes to do 
so, may learn these names and know the reasons 
why they have been chosen. For there should 
be no wish, connected with his studies, dearer 
to one who loves the noble and useful sciences 
of botany and natural history, than to remove 
the prejudices existing against them among the 
masses of our people, on account of many 
technical terms necessary to secure the proper 
accuracy and system in every science, that they 
too may find that feature attractive, which, un- 
less properly understood, must very naturally 
be repulsive. While we should enter the 

Temple of Nature 
With the spirit of inquiry, the humble faith and 
love of a little child, we should strive to study 
its wonders and beauties with the zeal and ac- 
curacy of a trained and true philosopher, who 
would learn from the Great Architect of the 
Universe by " Looking through Nature up to 
Nature's God;" and by seeing that the princi- 
ples thus obtained are reconciled and combined 
with the unfailing truths of His revelation. 
As the only sure foundation for all our inquiries 
after light and truth, let us cling unswervingly 
to this principle : The works and words op 
the Creator can not contradict each other, 
when both are properly interpreted. This is 
at once the foundation and corner-stone and key 
of all true science. 

Descriptions of some of our wild flowers will 
be attempted in future numbers. 

San Joaquin Valley, May, 1872. 

Plant Flowers. 

The following short sermon from the Farm- 
ers' Advocate, by "Theodore," will commend 
itself to our readers for its good sense and 
beauty : 

Farmers' wives and daughters, here is a sub- 
ject in which you all feel an interest. Taste 
leaps with joy at its discussion; pride approves 
the choice, judgment confirms it, health re- 
joices at the prospect, and the angels of the 
household will furnish willing hands for the ac- 
complishment of the object. The object is for 
the queen of the household to surround it with 
shrubbery and flowers, make it attractive, 
healthy, cool, comfortable and refeshing. 

Would you be surrounded with flowers, 
spring, summer and autumn? Would you live 
in a home of roses? Would you inhale sweets 
ness and perfume? Would you gaze upon 
beauty until it is reflected permanently in your 
cheeks, and your breath becomes one with their 
fragrance? Then plant about you the choicest 
shrubbery and flowers which bloom, each suc- 
ceeding the other, and make your home a 
charmed spot, and the envy of all around you. 
This is not man's work, but woman's work, 
it is one of her Hghts; guard it vigilantly and 
see that no trespassing hand deprives you of 
your "inalienable rights." 

Would you excite the envv of your friends, 
the noblest emulation of your neighbors, the 
admiration of your visitors and the passer-by, 
the love of your husband, the spirit of refine- 
ment and the love of beauty in your children, 
the gratitude of all, and the approbation of 
your own conscience, then— plant JUnvers. 



jP jR, E 8 B * 



[July 6, 1872. 



f^RflflEr\S IfJ CoJfiCIL. 



San Jose Farmers' Club and Protective 
Association. 

[Reported specialty for the Pacific Rural Press.] 

Meeting of June 29th. 
President Casey in the chair. Mr. O. Cot- 
tle reported that the Board of Managers hud 
rented a new hall, in Balbach's block, at $20 
per mouth. Mr. Holloway, for the Committee 
on Taxing Growing Crops, reported against the 
tux. He accompanied the report with a few 
remarks. He said assessing the laud, then the 
improvements and then the crops, was very 
much like assessing a horse, then his legs and 
then his shoes. Real estate means ownership 
in land in all appurtenances thereunto belong- 
ing, and should all be assessed together. Mr. 
O. Cottle could not see much in the report. 
Was it not just the same to take two listings, 
one of land ut $500, and one on improvements 
of $500, as to make one of real estate at $1,000. 
The valuation of property must be left to the 
judgment of the Assessor. Then our remedy 
lies in electing good men to that positition. 
There is not the least danger of the Supervisors 
levying too high a rate per cent., as sug- 
gested in the report. They are men of fair 
ability, and now they have the value of all the 
property in the county and know how much tax 
must be raised, it is only an easy problem in 
the rule of three, which a ten year-old boy 
might work. The question was raised that 
there was nothing belore the Club, and the dis- 
cussion out of order, whereupon Mr. York 
moved the 

Adoption of the Report. 

Mr. Holloway hud two points to make; first, 
was to resist the tax; and the second, to be rep- 
resented before the Board of Equalization. He 
knew a man who had a few mustangs worth 
from $10 to $15 per head, which were assessed 
$30 each. He would rather pay the tax than 
lose a day going before the Board of Equaliza- 
tion. As soon as a man is elected to office, he 
acts us if he was a fed counsel against the poor 
people. This thing of dividing and subdividing 
property on the assessment rolls, is only to get 
additional taxes. We must attend to it before 
the Board of Equalization, or there will be tens 
of thousands collected of the poor to favor the 
Mill ( is and the Stanfords. Small estates are 
assessed above their true value, while the large 
estates are assessed far below. A bold, united 
front ought to be presented to this thing. 

Mr. Cottle said he was still unchanged in his 
opinions; even after listening to the arguments, 
he could see no good in the report. The whole 
question of valuation lies in the judgment of 
the Assessors. The only plan is to elect com- 
petent men. He don't want that report to go 
out as the opinions of this Club. 

Mr. Bui-gland considered this tax unjust. It 
was discouraging to labor. One man works and 
puts in a crop and is taxed for it; another idles 
away his time and goes free. It works against 
industry ; it is offering a premium to idleness. 
Such a thing was not heard of in the country 
where he came from. 

Mr. J. Hobson said that revenue must be 
raised and as we were different from other peo- 
ple of necessity, we would have different plans, 
but he did not like the separate listing; it gets at 
the property of the poor more closely than of 
the rich. On small divisions the improvements 
are noticed more particularly and assessed 
higher. Wealthy people whose property is in 
bonds and money are assessed no higher than 
usual but the poor are. 

The vote being taken six voted for the adop- 
tion of the report and one against. 
Storing Grain in Bulk. 

Mr. Wade of Alviso offered to furnish sacks 
to those wishing to store their wheat in the 
grain bins of his brick warehouse. 

Mr. Pebbles in behalf of Committee on Rail- 
roads reported progress. Considered the pros- 
pect of securing a narrow-gauge road to Alviso 
as very favorable. 

The Question adopted for discussion at next 
meeting is Grass and Grazing. 

The Club next took up the License Question. 
Mr. Pebbles thinks it better to preserve a sys- 
tem of License. Those who trade should help 
to pay the expenses of government. If it were 
not for the License there would be whisky 
shops at almost every door. The license sys- 
tem keeps them thinned out. 

Mr. Thompson said that they tried the free 
trade system in Ohio and it did not work well. 
Whisky shops became such a nuisance that 
they were soon compelled to resort to the Li- 
cense system for a partial relief. 

Mr. Bnrgland had lived where there were no 
such taxes, and he thought if the license sys- 
tem were abolished there would be less drink- 
ing. The poor suffer more by it than the rich. 
It comes from them indirectly. All tax should 
be direct and should be levied on property, no 
man should be taxed for his vocation. 

Mr. Holloway said: "There is something in 
this question. He wants to abolish all license 
but not encourage licentiousness. Many ap- 
peared to think an old lie better than a new 
truth. We have discovered that it is not best, 
for a few dollars, to license a man to steal or 
kill. Why can't we see the same in the liquor 
trade? He for one did not want to be guilty of, 
or have any part or parcel, in licensing all the 
crimes of such an iniquitous business. Let 
them have liquor if they must, but not by me." 



Selling the Right to Do Evil. 

Selling of privileges, or license, originated 
amongst the aristocracy as against the masses. 
In San Jose a man can't sell a few vegetables on 
the streets without being fined. If he has a 
horse for sale he does not cry it on the Btreet 
himself, but has to fee a petty auctioneer. He 
supposed that the town of San Jose was making 
money out of it, but it was all a mistake; he 
finds that the judges fees for trying the "drunk" 
that result from the system, is more than the 
sum collected for license. 

Mr. J. Hobson said formerly there were but 
few licenses sold ; now, most everything is 
licensed, even a farmer can't sell his vegetables 
to the consumers. They have to pass through 
the hands of licensed traders, which makes all 
kinds of provisions come much higher. There 
are subjects that people appear to be afraid of, 
those are the subjects we should investigate. 
There is do question so important as the liquor 
license question, and we are guilty of taxing 
money from it to pay part of our taxes. 

Mr. Pebbles thinks we should keep to tho 
question and not spend the time in Temperance 
Lectures. He recommendes altering but not 
abolishing the license system. Taking up men 
three or four times for a drunk has nothing to 
do with the question. What is the use of abol- 
ishing the license until we can stop the sale of 
liquor ? Mr. Wade said that in Europe where 
the system of licensing the sale of liquors orig- 
inated, the intention was to let none but good 
moral men sell it and also to require them to 
furnish victuals to travelers. He said the mat- 
ter was worse in San Francisco than anywhere 
else; there none but licensed parties could 
trade and they were so independent and selfish 
that they did just as they pleased, kept what 
they liked and sent you ihe balance. He was 
opposed to those troublesome little licenses on 
the sale of farm produce but thought the sale 
of liquors ought to be curtailed by license. 

The committee on the purchase of sacks re- 
ported that they, individually, were going to 
purchase here in California, instead of sending 
oft', that they thought, everything considered, 
it would be the most profitable. Adjourned to 
meet next Saturday in the new hall. 

San Joaquin Farmers' Club. 

The San Joaquin Farmers' Club met in regu- 
lar weekly session Saturday afternoon, June 
22d, at 2 p. M , Dr. E. S. Holden. President, in 
the chair. The Chair announced that the sub- 
ject agreed upon for discussion was "Fertiliz- 
ing the Soil." 

Mr. Hewlett, of the firm of Jones & Hewlett, 
came into the hall accompanied by Mr. B. Ers- 
kine, and introduced the latter gentleman to the 
Chair, who introduced Mr. Erskine to the Club. 
The latter is a member of the firm of J. I. 
Case & Co., manufacturers of improved thresh- 
ing machines, of Bacine (Wis). Mr. Erskine 
stated that the firm he represented manufac- 
tured on a very large scale, and he desired to 
introduce the Case machine in the Pacific 
coast market. He expressed a willingness to 
have the machine tested in the field in competi- 
tion with others, and thereby enable farmers 
to judge of its practical operations from their 
own personal observations. Mr. Hewlett desired 
to ascertain the object of testing machines in 
the field, and how and in what manner such 
contest was designed to be conducted. As 
agents for the sa'e of the Hall and the Pitt's 
machines, his firm had no authority from the 
manufacturers to place them in competition 
with others at the manufacturers' expense; and 
being engaged in seUing, and not in farming, 
his linn had neither suitable men nor teams 
to enable him to put the machines successfully 
in the field. Mr. Erskine had, however, 
authorized him to put the Case machine in the 
field in competition with any and all others 
that might offer. 

Mr. Hewlett remarked that he was ready to 
contribute $25 towards defraying the necessary 
expenses of a test of threshing machines. Mr. 
Levis moved that two more members be added 
by the Chair to the committee, on Threshers. 
The motion was carried, and Messrs. Phelps 
and Smyth were added to the Committee. 

A New Industrial Interest. 
President Holden briefly addressed the club, 
and stated that mixed crops would soon become 
an absolute necessity with the farmers of Cali- 
fornia — mixed crops in true Yankee style. 
Farmers would not always raise wheat and noth- 
ing else. He called the attention of the club to 
a sample of native brandy — the pure article- — 
which, by a newly-discovered chemical process, 
was thoroughly divested of ether, fusel oil, and 
every other objectionable element. Samples of 
fusel oil and ether, which had been extracted, 
were also exhibited. Dr. Holden then intro- 
duced Dr. Curtis of Yolo county, who briefly 
addressed the club in relation to the operations 
of the Johnson Brandy and Wine Manufactory 
of Sacramento, the establishment which pro- 
duced tho article of brandy which Dr. Holden 
had exhibited to the members. He had been 
elected Vice-President of the State Pomological 
Society, and he was visiting different localities 
and working in the interest of the State. He 
strongly urged the planting of fruit trees, and 
very forcibly the profits and advantages to be 
derived from a more extensive cultivation of the 
grape. He likewise urged the necessity of erect- 
ing a home diBtillery as a means of keeping 
money at home and increasing local industries. 
He submitted a paper containing an estimate of 



the necessary expense of a brandy manufactory 
in Stockton, from which we make the following 
extract : 

1 .000 tons of gTapoi: $18,000 

D Of distillery 14,700 

Brick warehouse, 40x100 feet, two stories 4,300 

Revenue tax on 26,000 gallons brandy(g)55e. g"ld 

coiu 14,:ioo 

Bevenue tax on S.OOO gallons used in wln«@66o. 2,750 
Labor Account 2,000 

Fuel 800 

Salary c.t Superintendent and Secretary 2.500 

Care at wine one year 1,500 

Watchman nine months 450 

Casks for 50,000 gal Ions wine 10c 5,000 

Casks for 20,000 gallons brandy at 10c 11,000 

Insurance on distillery, $12,000 one year at 4 per 

seat 480 

Insurance on $60,000 in warehouse, one year at 

'.'-in per cent 540 

Sundries 750 

Total $70,670 

PRODUCT FOR ONE TEAR. 

50.000 gallons port and sherry at $1.00 $50,000 

26,000 gallons brandy at $2.00 52,000 

Total $102,000 

It will be noticed that the expense of building 
is included in the above, which will be clear 
profit for the next year. The estimate is based 
upon fifteen pounds grapes to a gallon of wine, 
and forty-three galli ins brandy per ton of grapes. 
Mr. Phelps said that he would shortly offer 
a resolution in the club favoring the exemption 
of certain manufactures from local taxation. 
On motion, the club adjourned. 



Oakland Farming. Horticultural and 
Industrial Club. 

Lecture on Scale Insects. 

This Club held another highly interesting 
meeting Wednesday evening, June 20th, in the 
chemical lecture room of the University, Prof. 
Carr presiding. Before the meeting was called 
to order Prof. Carr exhibited to the members a 
number of silkworms, eggs and cocoons which 
he had procured on a recent visit to San Jose - . 

After the reading of the minutes of the pre- 
vious meeting, and the transaction of some reg- 
ular club business, Dr. W P. Gibbons, of Ala- 
meda, delivered a short lecture upon "Scale In- 
sects." The subject of scale insects in trees 
had been agreed upon as the topic for the even- 
ing, and the doctor had given these pests to hor- 
ticulturist some attention since the last meet- 
ing of the club, preparatory to telling the club 
something about the nuisance which has really 
become a plague to horticulturists in this 
neighborhood. The doctor illustrated his lec- 
ture with pencil drawings and blackboard 
sketches, throwing much light upon a subject 
in which all felt a deep interest, but with which 
they were but little acquainted. Several of 
the species of scale insects were described, and 
their habits, so far as he had observed them, 
commented upon. The doctor then explained 
the manner in which trees are injured by the in- 
sects, and in reply to questions as to remedies 
or the soil, gave some solid advice. The re- 
porter of the Oakland News adds the following 
notes of the lectnre : 

' 'The Doctor exhibited a drawing, many times 
enlarged, of one species of scale insects which 
are making sad havoc with the fruit trees in this 
vicinity. It is somewhat of the shape of a half- 
pea, and varies in size from the size of a half- 
pea down. When lifted from the tree with a 
knife, it appears like a hollow case filled with a 
downy substance. They have antennae, gener- 
ally with ten joints and three legs on each side. 
Outside the antennae there are fourteen spires 
encircling the body, which, he at first believed, 
were used for breathing, as the insect has no 
mouth. Each foot, or rather termination of 
the leg, has three bristles, which adapt them- 
selves to any surface and urge the insect along. 
The Doctor, having described the insect, ex- 
plained how it injures the trees. He said, if 
we take the young branch of a tree, we shall 
find tho surface coated over with a white fine 
down, an enlarged view of which shows a large- 
basis and that it contains cells. This down he 
believed, serves as important a purpose as do 
the leaves, in furnishing nutrition to the tree. 
He believed there was much vitality in the bark 
of a tree, and that there was as much going on 
in the bark towards sustaining life in the tree, 
as in the leaves — that the bark was not merely 
a covering. No sooner does the little animal 
detach itself from the egg than it enters the 
buds, some between the leaves, others at the 
base of the bud, and some around the base of 
the leaves. As soon as the eggs are impreg- 
nated, the female attaches herself to a branch of 
the tree and never moves again until the eggs 
hatch, when the scale drops off and tho young 
walk forth perfect insects. With scale insects 
covering the surface of a tree, the first effect is 
the destruction of the downy appendages that 
form a part in sustaining life in the tree. It is 
impossible for the bark to perform the func- 
tions of respiration and absorption, and the 
tree, which was before strong and healthy, be- 
comes ruined." 

At the conclusion of the Doctor's remarks, 
the subject under consideration was discussed 
by Prof. Can-, C. W. Dwindle, Mr. Dewey, Mr. 
Pryal, Mr. Webster, John Kelsey, and others. 

In reply to Mr. Dwindle, the Doctor said a 
mild solution of caustic potash was a remedy. 
He further added that there is a strong ten- 
dency in this country to the formation of 
mosses at the foot of trees. This moss forms a 
favorable resort for the insects during the pe- 
riod of incubation. If the tree were once 
cleaned of the insects, and a coat of tar placed 
on the bark near the ground, they would not 
trouble the tree again. He believed the best 
thing a man could do for the country, when he 



found a tree covered with them, would be to 
cut it down and burn it up. 

Mr. Pryal then read a paper on potatoes, a 
a subject he said he had studied for thirty years. 

Mr. Webster, of Fruit Vale, promised an es- 
say for the next meeting, announcing as bis 
subject " California— Its Past and Present." 

A vote thanks was tendered to Dr. Gib- 
bons for his very interesting lecture, and the 
compliment was subsequently extended to Mr. 
Pryal. Upon being requested to continue his 
lectures, Dr. G. promised a series that he 
would term "Morning walks among fruit 
trees." 

We have solicited from Dr. Gibbons a more 
extended description of the insect, with a view 
to illustrate it with sketches. We intend to 
report future lectures and proceedings of the 
Club phonographically, so far as they may 
prove interesting. 

Messrs. Hunt & Pryal volunteered to bring in 
some branches with scale insects upon them at 
the next meeting. 

A resolution was presented by Secretary 
Dewey, embodying in the order of business 
that written questions be received by tin 
retary from members during the meetings, said 
questions to be read when called for and 
answered in the club. Verbal questions are 
also (included. This will afford a convenient 
opportunity for ladies and aU others to take 
part in the proceedings of the meetings. 

The suggestion was also offered by the Sec- 
retary for considering the subject of holding a 
harvest festival in August. 

It was agreed that the subject of taxing 
glowing crops should be brought up at some 
subsequent meeting. 

Silk Worms. 

Prof. Carr presented for inspection some 
specimens of silk worms, brought during his 
stay from Joseph Newman's cocoonery, San 
Jose\ The worms were of different sizes, and 
from a few hours old upwards. Two varieties 
of cocoons for hatching were shown, and 
specimens of eggs. These were exhibited to 
the ladies and gentlemen present by Mis. Carr, 
and added to the interest of the meeting 

Adjourned till next regular meeting, Friday 
evening, July 12th. 



Canning Fruits. 

The fruit grower should be able to can his 
own surplus fruits. There is no mystery about 
the process, for every intelligent housewife in 
California having the fruit, has before this, 
tried the experiment and succeeded. It is only 
those who have no " vim " in them, that ne- 
glect to provide themselves and their house- 
holds with the cheap luxury of fresh fruits the 
year round; we mean of course such fruits as 
cannot be kept fresh in any other way. 

Half the currants of last year's crop, we are 
told by one of the principal producers of this 
fruit, were sold to the canning establishments 
at not exceeding three and one-half cents a 
pound, which just about pays tho cost of grow- 
ing them; but if canned at this price would pay 
largely. There is a large demand for this fruit 
in a canned condition to go sea- ward; indeed 
all the more acid fruits are preferred for sea 
voyages. 

While the grower can realize six or even five 
cents a pound from the bushes, it pays well to 
raise them; for less than this, the profit would 
be small. 



Narrow Escapes in Nicaragua. — We have 
received a neatly-printed pamphlet, published 
by Spaulding & Barto, entitled " Adventures 
and Narrow Escapes in Nicaragua, in 1866 
and 1867," by Joseph Worth. The little vol- 
ume gives a pleasant account of the inci- 
dents and occurences of a trip through Central 
America, and will be found of interest to per- 
sons who enjoy reading works of travel and 
adventure. A very good idea of the country 
and the customs of its inhabitants, may be ac- 
quired from a perusal of this work. 

Melon Scoab. — Send to Dewey & Co., 338 
Montgomery street, San Francisco, for a copy 
of a pamphlet of 50 pages, on Indigenous 
Sugars, and directions for making sugar from 
melons. Send 50 cents in coin, or GO cents in 
currency or postage stamps, and send before the 
edition is completely exhausted. 

Fruit Drying. — W. C. Blackwood, whos 
Post office address is Haywood, Alameda Co., 
Cal., wishes to find the Agent of Alden's proc- 
ess of drying fruit by steam. It is simply 
strange that an agent desirous of selling rights 
for the use of a valuable invention, will not let 
the world know of the same, by a judicious sys- 
tem of advertising, 

Meteoboixjgical. — The mean range of the ba- 
rometer for the month of June in this city was 
29.99 inches; the mean temperature was 59°; 
the prevailing wind was from the southward ; 
and the hottest day was the 21st, when the ther- 
mometer stood 79° in the shade. 



July 6, 1872.] 



^qi^ciiLYU^L fI@7ES. 



CALIFORNIA. 

CONTRA COSTA COUNTY. 

Ledger, June 22: Never before have the 
inhabitants of this section of the State been 
more industriously occupied than at pres- 
ent. The work of harvesting t the grain 
goes bravely on, and the sound of the steam 
•whistle and the music of the thresher is 
heard in every field. Employmentatgood 
wages is given to all who desire work. The 
hotels and restaurants are crowded. Over 
one hundred harvest hands laboring in the 
immediate vicinity of Antioch have taken 
their meals in the American Exchange 
Hotel during the last two weeks, and other 
boarding houses have a proportionate 
number. Numerous improvements are 
being made in town. The . sound of the 
saw and the hammer- can be heard in all 
directions, and substantial works of im- 
provement can readily be seen. There 
have been no buildings erected thus far 
that have not been needed, and we hear of 
several parties desirous of coming to An- 
tioch to live who cannot at present find 
suitable accommodations. 

LOS ANGELES. 

News, June 22: Ripe Grapes. — Upon 
our table is a stem containing fifty-one 
ripe grapes and as many more green ones. 
The ripened fruit is dark purple and the 
flavor is excellent. The grape is the Eu- 
nisfcon, imported from New York by Post- 
master Clarke, and the vine from which 
the fruit was plucked is less than two years 
old. 

The San Luis Obispo Tribune says there 
are many acres of white beardless wheat in 
that county which will yield 60 bushels 
per acre. The heads average four and a 
half inches in length, well filled. 

We saw something the other day, at Los 
Alamitos Ranch, which we think would 
somewhat surprise the good people away 
down east. It was wild celery — a whole 
pond full of it — and grown to such a pro- 
digious size that one stalk measured over 
eight inches in hight, and two inches in 
diameter two feet above ground. It is 
good to eat at the proper season, but is 
now too old and woody. It has the same 
taste and smell as the tame article, and is 
a favorite food of wild ducks, which flock 
there in great numbers to eat it. Mr. D. 
Lyon, lessee of the ranch, proposes to bank 
up and blanch some of it another season, 
and see if it cannot be made as good for 
man as it is now for the birds. 
NAPA. 

Register, June 29: Harvest News. — 
We learn from farmers from different sec- 
tions of the county, that harvest is fairly 
begun. A great many are cutting and 
some are already threshing. Very few 
idlers are left to lounge about the saloons, 
or stand on the street corners in town. The 
yield of wheat, it is generally thought, 
will be better than has been anticipated — 
damage from rust not being as extensive 
as was feared, and the weather, excepting 
a few excessively hot days, having been 
rather favorable to the late sown grain. 

Mammoth Figs. — We received this week, 
politeness of Dr. Pond, some mammoth 
figs from the ranch of Mr. Sol. Decker, in 
Vaca valley. They were about four inches 
in length, by five and a half in circumfer- 
ence. They were just ripe and nicely fla- 
vored. We learn that Mr. D. has fifty 
trees of the same variety. 

An Extensive Farmer. — As an index to 
the extent of agricultural productions of 
our valley, we need only state that we have 
one farmer in our midst, whose bill of ex- 
pense for the one item of sacks alone, in 
which to sack his crop of the present year, 
Is estimated to be upwards of $30,000. 
This unpretending, plain citizen is John 
Mitchell, Esq., of our county, who has 
sown to grain this present year, on his own 
lands, 30,000 acres. The question natural- 
ly presents itself — is not Mr. Mitchell the 
greatest wheat producer in the world? If 
not, where is the man who excels him? If 
there can be any one individual farmer 
found who surpasses him, we believe that 
next year Mr. Mitchell would go him many 
acres better, as he has yet thousands of 
acres in our valley uncultivated that will 
be ready for the plow. 
SACRAMENTO. 

Twice a Week, June 29: Alfalfa. — Lux 
& Miller, who are among the largest cattle- 
raisers in the State for beef, own extensive 
grazing ranges of land on the San Joaquin 
and its tributaries. Of late they have seed- 
ed large tracts of land with alfalfa, 
which flourishes to such an extent as to 
make one acre of land supply as much food 
for cattle as was formerly yielded by twenty 
acres. More than this, the alfalfa ground 
supplies food for cattle all the year round, 



whereas hitherto the land furnished graz- 
ing only five or six months in the year! 
From this it appears that seeding land with 
alfalfa is calculated to economize in twc 
ways: It prevents the waste and expense 
of driving cattle to distant ranges for food; 
and also makes available large tracts of 
land for general cultivation. The gener- 
al introduction of alfalfa into grazing 
regions will not only improve the 
quality, but increase the quantity of beef, 
and besides enable the grazers to dispense 
with the use of three-fourths of the lands 
now occupied by them. Doubtless the ex- 
ample set by Messrs. Lux & Miller will 
soon be followed by all stock men whose 
lands are "so situated as to be subjected to 
the systems of irrigation now being intro- 
duced in the San Joaquin Valley region. 
STANISLAUS. 

Modesto News, June 28 : Some months 
since we made an estimate of the probable 
grain yield of Stanislaus county. We 
then placed our figures at 6,000,000 bush- 
els. Many of our city contemporaries, 
not being informed as to the area sown to 
grain in this county, and knowing still 
less of the productive quality of the soil, 
doubted our estimate, and claimed that it 
was visionary. An investigation of the 
extensive grain districts of the county 
soon proved to the doubters that it was 
not at all impossible for that amount of grain 
to be produced the present year within 
the borders of Stanislaus county. Our 
farmers are now in the midst of their har- 
vest, and in every instance, thus far, the 
grain yield has exceeded our own esti- 
mates, and even went above the most san- 
guine calculations of the farmers them- 
selves. On the west side of the San Joa- 
quin river the grain matured more rapidly 
than in other localities, and, consequently, 
farmers are well advanced with their work. 
Competent judges inform us that there 
are but few fields in that section turning 
out less than 25 bushels to the acre, whilst 
many, especially those sowed to barley 
will reach fifty and sixty bushels. We do 
not believe that the estimate of 100,000 
acres sown to grain in that section of our 
county is far from the mark, nor can an 
average of 25 bushels to the acre, for 
that section, now be considered exorbitant. 

Weekly News, June 28: Last Saturday 
was the hottest day experienced in this 
section of the valley for the past two sea- 
sons. The mercury, in low wooden build- 
ings, reached as high as 109 degrees, and 
in the sun 148 degrees. 

But little grain has been hauled to the 
various switches and depots on the line of 
the railroad, owing to the fact that the 
teams are mostly all employed in harvest- 
ing. Preparations, however, for ship- 
ment are active at various points. 
SAN DIEGO. 

Union, June 27: Acorns. — A gentleman 
from the mountains informs us that the 
oak trees on the Smith and other neighbor- 
ing mountains, are loaded with large crops 
of acorns this year. In consequence, the 
farmers will have an opportunity to make 
good cheap bacon, as they can fatten their 
porkers on acorns, instead of corn or bar- 
ley. 

Wool in small quantities is still finding 
its way into town. We notice several 
small lots in Culverwell & Jorres' ware- 
house ready for shipment to San Francisco. 

San Bernardino Produce. — A farmer, 
from San Bernardino, arrived in town yes- 
terday with a load of ranch produce. The 
butter, which sold readily, was of excellent 
quality. 

Bulletin: Splendid strawberries were 
brought to this city, yesterday, by Mr. 
Miencer, of Paradise Valley. They were as 
fine, luscious fruit as any market affords. 
They sold readily for about thirty cents a 
pound. 

Good, dry, live oak firewood sells for $7 
a cord. In San Diego a "cord" is only 
two-thirds of a cord, if the wood is cut 
into stove lengths. If the measurement is 
guessed at it may be only half a cord. 
SAN JOAQ.UIN. 

Republican, June 20: Farm Help. — To- 
day numerous farmers are in town looking 
for harvest hands. We met at least a 
dozen men who are in need of from one to 
three hands each. Laborers who are 
anxious for situations should leave their 
names at the Farmers' Club rooms, Main 
street, with B. F. Kolhberg. 

Gone to Work. — For the first time in 
several weeks the street corners are com- 
paratively clear of clumps of men hunting 
work, and praying they will never find it. 
All who want work can find it, and we are 
glad to see men accepting the fair wages 
offered and going out into the grain fields. 
Good Season. — Boatmen tell us that 
this year the San Joaquin river will con- 
tinue in good boating conditon until late 
in the season. This will enable the farm- 



ers living near the river to market their 
grain without being forced I to' submit to 
the extortion of the railroad company. 
SAN LUIS OBISPO. 

Tribune, June 29: Wheat Crops. — If 
all reports be true that we hear, and the 
specimens of grain presented to us are a 
correct index of the fields from which they 
were taken, we may reasonably expect a 
heavier yield of cereals in this county this 
year than at any previous one. Mr. Irvin 
Johnson has shown us some specimens of 
wheat, consisting of three varieties, club- 
head, Siberian, and Red-chaff Sonora, the 
heads of which are all large and well filled, 
some of them being seven inches in length. 
He has 150 acres of the above named varie- 
ties in on Mr. John Harford's place, at 
the lower end of the Lagoona Rancho, 
which he assures us will average sixty 
bushels to the acre. Messrs. Hanson & 
Parker, of the Moro, have also shown us 
samples of white Australian wheat, grown 
directly on the Coast, the stocks of which 
are seven feet in highth and surmounted 
by large, well-filled heads. This goes to 
prove the falsity of the old fogyish idea 
that wheat cannot be successfully grown 
in the Coast counties. As far as we can 
learn, there is very little rust in the grain 
fields of this section this year. 

From all parts of the county we hear of 
continual depredations of wild beasts. 
Mr. McLeod, of the Arroyo Grande, in- 
forms us that California lions have made 
great havoc among his colts, one having 
been carried entirely off, and two others 
badly crippled within the last month. 
Last week one of these animals attempted 
to walk off with a fine brood mare which 
had her ears bitten off, and was horribly 
lacerated about the head and neck, but 
succeeded in escaping from the clutches of 
the ferocious animal. 
TULARE. 

Crops in Tulare. -Times, June 29: Crops 
in this county are now being harvested 
and are turning out better than in any 
year since 1868. While the area sown was 
probably one-third greater than ever be- 
fore, the yield per acre, on an average, is 
gratifying in nearly every instance; ex- 
cept in some isolated cases where grain 
was sown too late to receive the benefit of 
the heavy winter rains. It is hard to refer 
to especially a locality where crops are ex- 
ceptionally good. They are so in every 
direction. On Tnle River, King's River, 
Mussel Slough, in the foothills, every- 
where, the labors of the husbandman have 
been rewarded bountifully. The late 
frosts which it was feared would seriously 
injure crops, did not do nearly so much 
damage as was anticipated. The people 
of this valley have certainly abundant 
cause to be satisfied with the harvest of 
the season. The general productiveness 
of our soils has been fully established, and 
every barn filled with plenty. 

NEVADA. 

Truckee Republican, June 25: The Ex- 
cursionists. — About 120 excursionists ar- 
rived on the special train last night, a large 
proportion of whom were ladies. Fifty of 
the party left for Tahoe City immediately 
opon the arrival of the train. The remain- 
der were accommodated at the Truckee 
Hotel, Keiser House, and at Private hous- 
es. A large party went out this forenoon 
to visit Donner Lake. Nearly all the mem- 
bers of the party will go up to Tahoe to-day 
and will return to-morrow evening and 
leave for Stockton on Thursday. 

Stage Connection. — J. M.Benton, stage 
proprietor at Carson, was in town to-day 
endeavoring to effect arrangements for dai- 
ly communication between Carson and 
Truckee via Glenbrook and Tahoe City. 
Mr. Benton finds it difficult to secure 
steamer connection daily between the two 
last mentioned places. It would be an ac- 
commodation to the travelling public if 
such communication could be had with 
Carson, and especially by this route. A 
large steamer on the lake, adapted for both 
passengers and freight, is much needed. 

More Freight. — Twenty-five thousand 
pounds of freight arrived here to-day from 
San Francisco, for the Lake Tahoe region, 
The freight goes across the lake to Spoon 
er's Station. This new route is becoming 
popular, and is much cheaper and better 
than the roundabout way of Reno, steam- 
boat Springs and Genoa. 

OREGON. 
Willamette Farmer, June 22: TimeFixed. 
The time for holding the next State 
Fair has finally been fixed at Monday, 
Sept. 30, to continue six days. This delay 
has been occasioned by the fact that the 
Washington County Agricultural Society 
had, previous to the assemblying of the 
Board in January, fixed the time of hold- 
ing the Fair in that county about the above 
date, and it was desired that no conflict 



should exist in holding the Si .nd 
County Fairs. The Washington ,nty 
Fair will be held on the 14th of October 
instead of the 7th, as heretofore announced. 

Long Wool Sheep. — H. L. Rudd, of 
Peoria, *Lynn County, writes us as follows, 
under date of June 15th, 1872:" "I see by 
the last Farmer that you want to hear from 
some man owning long-wool sheeD. My 
sheep are pure-blood Cotswolcl, imported 
by myself from Canada. They were two 
years old last April. One of my bucks 
sheared seventeen pounds, and one nine- 
teen pounds; the ewe, eleven pounds. The 
ewe has raised two fine large lambs, and 
they have had nothing but ordinary keep- 
ing. The wool is clean and free from dirt. 
The gross weight of the bucks is, one, 319 
pounds, the other, 302% pounds. If any 
one has larger sheep, I should like to hear 
from him." 

Oregonian: Rain Needed. — A gentle- 
man who has just returned from a visit 
through the agricultural districts of the 
valley, informs us that in every section of 
the country, the crops are suffering severe- 
ly for the want of rain. Considering this 
drawback, from every portion of the culti- 
vated districts we hear of good crops with 
but few exceptions, and these only in low 
lands where standing water has prevented 
an early sown crop, and the dry weather 
effects more seriously. A few timely 
showers would be of great benefit to the 
maturing crops and very materially in- 
crease the yield. 

They have a Farmers' Club in the Waldo 
Hills, Marion county, called the Highland 
Farmers' Club. Fones Wilbur is Presi- 
dent, B. A. Leonard and W. Cranston, 
Vice Presidents, K. Hibbard, Treasurer, 
and T. W. Davenport, Secretary. The 
regular meetings are the first and third 
Saturdays of each month. 

Observation of Crops. — A gentleman 
from a tour through the western counties 
of the State, writes: "We everywhere ob- 
served what we regarded as tokens of thrift 
and industry. The breadth of grain sown 
seemed to be much greater than we had 
observed in any former year; and the early 
or fall-sown grain was well grown and 
characterized by a very healthy green. 
So also were many of the crops sown in 
February or March. And yet as to later 
sowing, the farmers feared that without 
much more rain they would be short." 

Salmon. — It is said there is a greater run 
of salmon this year than ever before known. 
The traps are so overrun that great num- 
bers are thrown away, the canning and 
salting works not having capacity to keep 
up with the catch. 



Thoroughbred Short-Horn Cattle. — for 
many years, Dr. E. S. Holden of this city, has 
given a large share of his attention to the im- 
provement of live-stock, and was one of the first 
gentlemen in San Joaquin Valley who invested 
largely in imported thoroughbred cattle. The 
famous Durham bull, Blanco (white) is an ani- 
mal known by every stock-raiser for prominence 
in the State. "Blanco" was purchased when 
two months old, by Dr. Holden, from John D. 
Patterson, on the 19th of June, 1804. He was 
sired by the 4th Duke of Airdrie; dam, Rosette, 
by Harold 4th; g. dam, Bosa, by imported 
Harold 2d; gr. dam, White Bosa, by Don John, 
Jr., gr. gr. g. dam, a thoroughbred cow import- 
ed by Hon. Henry Clay, of Ashland, Kentucky. 
Blanco was calved April 20th, 1804, and when 
two months old was purchased by Dr. Holden 
for three hundred dollars. This beautiful and 
valuable animal is in fine condition, weighs two 
thousand pounds, is gentle as a lamb, and is 
very handsome. We enumerate some of the 
fine stock now in Dr. Holden's possession, 
and which has all been raised by himself, 
except the cow "Nelly" which is sixteen 
years old, red and white, and was pur- 
chased from J. D. Patterson for $800. From 
this cow seven fine calves have been raised. 
She weighs about 900 pounds, and is a very 
fine milker— giving twenty-five quarts por day. 
The cow Fanny weighs nino hundred pounds, 
is four years old, red and white, sired by Blanco; 
dam, Nelly. Cow Mio, five years old, sired by 
Blanco; dam Bosa. (Rosa was killed by a loco- 
motive on the railroad track.) Mio weighs 
eighteen hundred pounds. Blanch, two years 
old, white, sired by Blanco; dam, Rosa, with 
calf by Oak Home. Fawn, white, sired by 
Blanco; dam, Fanny, two years old, with calf 
by Oak Home. Snowdrop, white, sired by 
Blanco, dam, Nelly, thirteen months old— a 
splendid animal. Rosa 2d, rod and white; dam, 
Nelly, sired by Blanco, seventeen months 
old. Bull Nevada, red and white, sired by 
Alpine; dam, Fanny; eight months old. 
Bull Onkdale, sired by Blanco; dam, Nelly. 
Cow Daisy, two years old; dam, Rosa; sired 
by Blanco. One little calf, dropped June 10th, 
sired by Blanco; dam, Eliza. Stockraisers vis- 
iting this city would undoubtedly find much to 
interest them by visiting Dr. Holden's stock- 
yard. — Stockton Ex. 

The Flood caused by the overflow of the 
Colorado and Gila rivers, hns subsided. 



6 



SB. 



[July 6, 1872. 



Syock t^ismq. 



Best Breeds of Cattle for Hairy 
Purposes. 

A writer on Dairy stock, in the Mark Line 
Btpresa, thus alludes to the breeds most in es- 
teem in Great Britain: 

"Of breeds in general use, and of acknowl- 
edged merit for dairy purposes, are the Dutch, 
Short Horns, Crosses, and the Ayrshire. Dutch 
cattle are of large size; prevailing color black, 
with sometimes a white patch over the back, 
reseoj bli ng a sheet, and are, from this, distin- 
guished by the name of sheeted cows. They 
are heavy milkers, but the milk is of rather poor 
quality, and not very productive of butter. Fur 
this reason they are more suitable for parties 
who have large contracts, and supply work- 
houses, prisons, hospitals, and other public 
institutions with milk, than for the ordinary 
farmer who has to manufacture his product into 
butter and cheese. Another very serious objec- 
tion to Dutch cattle is the difficulty of fatten- 
ing them when past their prime, and the large 
quantity of food they consume in tho endeavor 
to prepare them for the butcher. On account 
of these two faults in the character of this, at 
one time rather popular breed, they have of 
late years been going down in public estima- 
tion. 

Of all other descriptions of cattle, Short 
Horn crosses are now the most popular, where 
dairy business and rearing and feeding are carried 
on simultaneously. They are, for the most part. 
admirable milkers; their calves, both heifers 
and bullocks, can be fed off at an early age. 
and, coming to heavy weights, bring large and 
remunerative prices; while the cows themselves, 
when no longer useful for the dairy, are easily 
fattened, and can be quickly got rid of. In the 
three kingdoms, but more particularly England 
and Ireland, this variety of cattle is to be found 
in every county, and on every kind of land, 
varying in size, of course, according to the 
quality of the land. The same distinctive fea- 
tures are, however, always retained, and they 
attain immense size, and give extraordinary 
quantities of milk, where the soil is rich and 
the climate congenial to their habits and con- 
stitution. 

The Ayrshire next claims attention; and it 
may be concluded with safety that when dairy 
produce is the sole object, and the land is light 
and of indifferent quality, this breed is the 
most valuable of any. Mere size in this case is 
not much of an object, as the small Ayrshire is 
considered a better dairy cow than the larger or 
medium sized variety. To keep them small in 
size, and partly to adapt them to the inferior 
pastures of Ayrshire and neighboring counties, 
they are very moderately kept in the earlier 
stages of their growth, particularly in the sec- 
ond year. This is supposed to add to their 
milkiug properties, and as they are generally 
made to produce at the age of two years, an 
Ayrshire cow on her native pastures is usually 
very small indeed. When removed to other 
countries, and placed upon richer pasture, they 
grow larger; but by doing so, the milking pow- 
ers are unquestionably injured. So marked is 
this principle, that the Ayrshire cow is seldom 
found in the same perfection, as a milker as 
she is to be seen on her native soil, which may 
be said to comprise the county from which she 
derives her name, and the adjacent counties of 
Lanark, Kenfrew and Dumbarton. There she 
takes her position as the dairy cow par atctU 
lence, and is highly and deservedly prized." 

Jersey Cows. 

Mr. John Giles, of South Woodstock, Vt., 
having had very nrmy letters of inquiry respect- 
ing this breed, their milking qualities, calves, 
etc., thus answers through the Rural JVeio 
Yorker: 

First. Their calves are red and white, yellow 
and white, gray and white, and cream-colored. 
The cattle should be yellow round the eyes, and 
within the ears, bordering on the orange color; 
the best animals have a yellow tinge at the root 
of the tail; there is a similar color in the butter 
made from their milk. 

Second. The size and form of the Alderney 
differs little from the Jerseys; they should have 
a fine, slender nose, a fine skin and deer-like 
form. The Guernsey cattle are larger boned, 
taller and coarser in all respects, and have a 
less fine coat. From the Islands of Alderney 
there are not over fifty cows exported a year, 
as the island will not sustain over 400 cows. 
From the Island of Jersey there are more ex- 
ported, as the island is some six wide and twelve 
miles long. A great many cows that are sold 
as Alderneys or Jerseys, are not Channel Island 
cows at all, but small Breton and Norman cows, 
whose value is little more than one-half of the 
pure Jersey. 

Third. Price of cotes on the Island. — A good 
cow will readily bring from $125 to $150. Some 
more than that. Young stock, of course, can 
be bought lowrr. 

Fourth. — Our own experience as to milk and 
butter. — They are not deep milkers, seldom giv- 
ing over 25 to 32 pounds of milk per day. We 
had one which we sold to the Itev. Henry Ward 
Bee^her, that gave 42% pounds of milk per 
day. As that gentleman justly observed, "the 
Jerseys did not give much milk, but what they 
did give was all cream." The most butter per 
week we ever had a Jersey cow give, was 16 
pounds. We consider 14 pounds per week an 
average. Some talk of 18 to 20 pounds per 
week. We have never had the good fortune to 
own or see such cows. Some say that from 



four to six quarts of milk will make one pound 
of butter. Such has not been our experience. 
We say from five to seven quartz will make one 
pound of butter, and such butter that will make 
an epicure's lips smack. 

Sixth. I was born on a farm; always had a 
taste for stock. Nearly sixty years ago I used to 
see the Jersevs before the mansions of the 
aristocracy in England (for, be it known, I am 
a John Bull by birth, but have been nearly 
forty years in Yankee land,) with strap around 
the neck, and long chain attached to a movable 
shed on the lawns, kept for their rich cream 
and butter. I then admired their deer like 
form, little thinking at that time that I should 
ever be one that would import such valuable 
animals into this, my adopted and beloved 
country. 

Hanging Bracket and Adjustable Shelf. 

The object of this simple and useful inven- 
tion, is to supply a want which has long been 
feltin every well regulated household, namely; 

Fig 



other household purposes too numerous to men- 
tion. Its simplicity is shown in the following 
description and accompanying cuts. 

Figures 1 and 2 represent the improved ex- 
tension shelf. The form shown in Fig. 1 is com- 
posed of two light iron arms or trusses suitably 
ornamented and having at their ends sockets ex- 
tending along the ends and at right angles to 
the arms, sustaining and clutching the board 
which forms the shelf. The outer side of the 
sockets are grooved to contain rubber or any other 
elastic material, so that the rubber will rest 
against the wall. A sliding device operated by 
a screw at the center, where the arms are placed 
between the projections of the wall forces die 
rubber at each end against the wall, firmly 
gripping it, supports the shelf. Numerous 
hooks can be cast on these arms for supporting 
various articles. Fig. 2 shows a modification 
of the above device, in which the sockets are 
cast to fit the board for forming the shelf, the 
rubber being placed in the outer groove as be- 
fore. One of the sockets is provided with a 
clamp and set-screw, the clamp working against 










■ 



— an adjustable shelf which can be readily 
raised, lowered or removed without either the 
assistance of a carpenter or carpenters' tools, 
(which are so seldom to be found in every house 
when required,) also a drop or hanging bracket 
to be attached to the adjustable shelf, or to be 
used independently under a horizontal surface, 
such as a low ceiling, an ordinary shelf, etc. 

Before describing the above inventions, 
we will give a brief description of their capabili- 



the board and the set-screw against the socket. 
By turning the screw the rubber is forced against 
the wall, the shelf sustaining all the weight the 
board will support. 

Figures 3 and 4 show two forms of the patent 
drop or hanging bracket used for supporting 
various articles. Fig. 3 represents a drop suit- 
able to a horizontal surface. A conveniently- 
shaped hub is used, having a screw at one end 
for the purpose of attaching it to the ceiling, 
etc., the sides of the hub containing any num- 
ber of slots or dovetails, into which the hooks 



Fin. IT. 




ties and merits. The adjustable shelfjwill prove 
invaluable on book-cases where they can be 
easily lowered or raised according to the sizes of 
books; in pantries and drawers as a security 
against the collection of vermin, as they can be 
removed and washed; to papered or hard- 
finished houses they are particularly adapted, 
not defacing or injuring the wall in the slighest 
degree, dispensing entirely with the use of nails, 

Fig. IV. 



are inserted so as to project at any angle re- 
quired. The hub may swivel on the 
screw and the arms project all around, 
and by this means any article may be 
turned conveniently to the person requiring 
it. Figure 4 is a modification of the above, 
suitable to a vertical plane standing at right 
angles to the wall, etc., and can be used with 
any number of hooks. This is designed to take 
the place of the ordinary clothes-hook, over 
■ which it has numerous advantages. Further 

Fig. 111. 




\7V* t-/^ 




and affording the paper hanger or whiten er 
facilities for working, which no other arrange- 
ment of shelf can possibly present. In chang- 
ing dwellings it can be removed without diffi- 
culty. Some of its forms can be adapted either 
to recesses or projections, for hanging signs, 
cornices, etc., and when erected with any of the 
many forms which the drop will take, will make 
a complete wardrobe. 

In stores, show cases, country houses, ships' 
cabins, office closets, and wherever space is 
limited, it wouldalmostbeimpossible to overrate 
the value of this combination. The hook alone, 
is as protean in its adaptabilities as the adjustable 
shelf. It can be used equally as well on verti- 
cal or horizontal planes, without injuring its 
surface, with one or many drops, either revol- 
ing or stationary, and will serve as a substitute 
for hat racks, clothes-horses, meat hooks, or 
revolving dryers in laundries, and a thousand 



information concerning this patent can be had 
of S. N. Bliven & Co., (under the What Cheer 
House, Sacramento street) who are the agents 
for the sale of it. 



Syrian Wheat. — The Sonora Indepen- 
dent says: A new variety of wheat bearing 
this name has made its appearance in our 
market. Only a small lot has been offered 
for seed, which brought 25 cts. per pound. 
The wheat was raised by It. M. Chene- 
worth, and weighs 64 pounds to the 
bushel, and is said to be so prolific as to 
yield 84 bushels to the acre. This wheat 
greatly resemles the "Hungarian wheat," 
so popular in some parts of California, 
about ten years ago. 

Sheep. — A drove of about three thous- 
and head of sheep belonging to Diggory 
Hobbs, of the Cosumnes, passed through 
town a few days since, on their way to pas- 
tures green in the mountains. 



ffATENTS 



& INVENTIONS. 



Full List of U. S. Patents Issued to 
Pacific Coast Inventors. 

[Fbom Official Repobts to DEWEY fc CO., U. 8. am. 

Foreign Patent Ahents, and Publisher* of 

THE Scientific Press.) 

FOB THE WEEK ENDING JUNE llTH. 

Grain Cleaner. — John H. De Force, Healds- 
burg, Cal.; antedated June 7, 1872. 

Gripisg-Pulley. —Andrew S. Hallidie, 8. F. 

1;kiistkai>-Fastemng. — Seneca Jones, S. F., 
Cal. ; antedated May 23, 1872. 

Rock-Dkii.i.ing Macuine. — Asahel J. Sever- 
ance, S. P., Cal. 

Wind-Whkei..— William I. Tustin, S. F., Cal. 

Attachment for Wuiffietbees. — James T. 
Williams, S. F., Cal. 

Oyster-Nursery. — Benjamin F. Lyford, S. F. 

Note.— Copies of U. S. and Foreifrn Patents furnished 
by Dewey k Co., in the shortest time possiblc(by tel- 
egraph or otherwise) at the lowest rates. All patent 
business for Pacific coast inventors transacted with 
greater security and in much les6 time than by any other 
agency 

Notices of Recent Patents. 

Among the patents recently obtained through 
Dewey & Co's Scientific Pbess, American 
and Foreign Patent Agency, the following are 
worthy of mention: 



Improved Baling Pbess. — F. A. Huntington 
and J. F. Carter, San Francisco, Cal. This 
press is intended for baling hay, straw, wool, 
cotton, or other balable substances. It consists 
mainly in the combination of a single horizon- 
tal baling-chamber with a follower, which is 
operated by a toggle or knee lever without the 
intervention of any gearing or other machinery. 
It also consists in a novel construction of the 
sides of the chamber and the end door and its 
fastening, for strength and facility of discharge. 
The chamber for holding the material to be 
baled has an end door having a flange or rim 
so as to inclose and hold securely the sides of 
the chamber, which are slightly beveled; when 
closed this flange incloses the side and top walls 
of the baling chamber. The walls of the cham- 
ber may be either elastic or hinged a short dis- 
tance back from the end so as to separate 
easily to allow the bale to be removed. The 
door is secured by a hasp on one side and a 
sort of cam-lever on the other. The latch 
hooks on a small projecting catch on th. 
when it is standing out from the body of the 
press; and by drawing the lever down against 
the side it draws the latch tight and secures 
the door. The follower is made so as to move 
easily in the chamber, and has guiding bars at 
the sides. A lever is hinged to the center of 
the back end and extends out to a point where 
it is pinned to the end of another lever. 

Machines fob Concentrating and Amalgam- 
ating Obes.— W. T. Kickard, Monitor, Al- 
pine Co. Cal. The invention consists of a 
horizontal tank, cylindrical in form, through 
which a central shaft passes. V or X shaped 
plates are secured upon this shaft so as to swash 
the contents of the tank back and forth as the 
shaft is revolved. The plates may be amalga- 
mated if desired. The machine can also be used 
as a churn if desired, the same motion being 
suitable for converting the cream into butter. 



How to KiiiL Squirrels. — The Santa 
Barbara Press relates that " some time 
since, Mr. Dixie W. Thompson took us out 
in his buggy to an outside lot on which the 
squirrels had ' squatted ' and taken up 
their claim, and were in high glee over 
their possessions. He had with him a 
large ' man bellows,' to which he had at- 
tached about a yard of gutta-percha hose. 
On reaching a squirrel burrow, where a 
colony had evidently settled, he set his 
machine down, thrust the end of the hose 
into one of the numerous squirrel-holes, 
threw some shavings, cobs, and sulphur 
into the tea-kettle, struck a match, set the 
shavings on fire, caught hold of the bel- 
lows, and in a moment the sight and smell 
suggested another fire and brimstone re- 
gion, for the earth all around began to 
send up puffs of jellow and infernal-look- 
ing smoke wherever a squirrel had ever 
run his underground road. The precau- 
tion had been taken to cover all the holes 
with earth before the smoke was forced 
into the burrow. In one instance the 
smoke rushed out of a hole over thirty 
feet distant from the main entrance of the 
nest. It takes about five minutes to smoth- 
er a whole colony of these troublesome 
pests, and they never show any signs of 
life again, the holes remaining closed and 
undisturbed. The work of extermination 
is complete, and is accomplished at a 
trifling cost. A multitude of squirrels can 
be thus destroyed by one man in a single 
day." 



July 6, 1872.] 



UsifiJL Ijlpa^p^JlQ-N. 



Composition of Patent Medicines. 

A German has written a very interesting and 
useful book, on Secret or Patent Medicines, 
from which has been selected the result of 
analysis of a number of the nostrums popular 
on this side of the Atlantic; and as many of our 
readers deal in such articles, and should be fa- 
miliar with the composition of what they sell, 
we reproduce the formula for their benefit: 

Coca Pills, by Sampson, New York. Accord- 
ing to Hagar and Jacobsen, composed of pow- 
dered coca and extract of coca in about equal 
quantities; value, about one-fourth of price. 

Eau de Cythere, a hair color restorer, consists 
of 4 chloride of lead, 8 hyposulphite of soda, 
88 water. A similar composition was Eau de 
fees, which, a couple of years ago, was intro- 
duced here. The writer found in a sample also 
some alkalies, earths, and traces of nitric acid, 
originating probably in the spring or pump wa- 
ter used. Hagar and Jacobsen give the follow- 
ing formula: Hyposulphite of lead, 1%; hypo- 
sulphite of soda, 3 ; glycerine, 7 ; water, 88 
parts. 

Granular Effervescent Citrate of Magnesia, 
by Bishop, of London, consists merely of bi- 
carbonate of soda and tartaric acid. 

Pommade des Chatelaines, a hair invigorator, 
consists of benzoinated lard and some volatile 
oils. 

Hamburg Tea, by Frese & Co., of Hamburg : 
Senna, 6; manna, 3; corianda, 1. 

Magnesian Aperient, by Moxon, of England, 
is, according to Sillier, anhydrous sulphate of 
magnesia, 31 ; carbonate of magnesia, 14 ; bi- 
carbonate of soda, 30; tartaric acid, 25 parts. 

Swedish Essence of Life, is made also in this 
country, under various names. As usually 
made by apothecaries, it is a tincture made from 
4 aloes, 1 agaric. 1 rhubarb, 1 zedoary, 1 gen- 
tian, 1 myrrh, 1 theriac, with 100 to 120 dilute 
alcohol. The secret medicine manufacturers 
usually substitute cheaper articles for the high- 
priced saffron aad rhubarb. 

Syrup of Horseradish, by Grimault. Hagar 
gives the following directions : 50 p. each of 
fresh scurvygrass, buckbean, and watercress ; 
GO of horseradish, 40 of fresh orange berries, 
are infused with 3 cinnamon in 50 p. white 
wine, and after a day expressed; 250 p. sugar 
are dissolved in the filtrate. 

Iodinized Syrup of Horseradish, by Grimault, 
contains 10 iodine, and 5 potassium iodide in 
8,000 of the former. 

Myrrhine, by J. B. George, of Paris, for the 
preservation of the teeth: Glycerine, 38, myrrh, 
7, arrowroot, 5, chalk 54, oil of cinnamon 1 
part. 

New York Pills, by Sampson, of New York. 
The 1% grain pills consist of powdered coca 25, 
extract of coca 30, and powdered iron 35 parts. 

Opiate pour les Dents, by Pinaud. Syrup 
70, chalk 21, gypsum 7%, magnesia 1%, col- 
ored with aniline red. containing arsenic, and 
flavored with oil of cloves, and of spearmint. 

Brandreth's Pills, contain resin of podophyl- 
lum, inspissated juice of poke berries, saffron, 
cloves, oil of peppermint. 

Holloway'sPillsare composed of aloe, myrrh, 
and saffron. 

Morrison's Pills, 2% grains each, consist of 
aloe, cream of tartar and colocynth ; another 
kind contains the same ingredients, besides 
gamboge. 

Radway's Ready Relief, according to Peck- 
olt, is an ethereal tincture of capsicum, with 
alcohol and camphor. 

Radway's Renovating Resolvent, a vinous 
tincture of ginger and cardamon sweetened 
with sugar. (Hagar and Jacobsen.) 

Poudre Hemostatique Vegetal, by Bonnatour, 
consists of 4 resin, 1 gum arabic, 1 wood char- 
coal. 

Poudre Unique, by Godernaux, of Paris, 
lauded as a specific against epilepsy, is impure 
calomel, leaving when heated a slight reddish 
residue. 

Oil of Horse Chestnuts, by E. Genevoix, of 
Paris, is not the oil of the horse chestnuts, but 
another non-drying oil, altered by heat so that 
it has acquired a darker color, a pungent odor 
and acrid taste. 

Screws Inserted in Plaster Walls. — When 
we try to fasten brackets, strips of wood, etc., 
to plaster walls by means of screws, it is often 
found impossible to make the screws hold firm- 
ly. When we turn them in, the plaster breaks 
out and our labor is in vain. And yet, a screw 
well set into a plaster wall, will hold very 
firmly. When a screw has broken out and it is 
necessary to make it hold in that particular 
spot, the best plan is to enlarge the hole to 
about twice the diameter of the screw, fill it 
with plaster of Paris, such as is used for fast- 
ening the tops on lamps, etc., and bed the 
screw in the soft plaster. When the plaster 
has set, the screw will be held very strongly. 

Vaenish to Imitate Ground Glass. — To 
make a varnish to imitate ground glass, dis- 
solve 90 grain of sandaric and 20 grains of mas- 
tic in two ounces of washed methylated ether, 
and add in small quantities, a sufficiency of ben- 
zine to make it dry with a suitable grain — too 
little making the varnish too transparent, and 
excess making it crapy. The quantity of benzine 
required depends upon its quality — from half 
an ounce to an ounce and a half, or even more; 
but the best results are got with a medium 
quality. It is important to use washed ether, 
free from spirit. 



Old Rubber. 

A fortune awaits the happy inventor who shall 
teach manufacturers to restore old rubber to 
the condition in which it was before vulcaniza- 
tion, for with that secret, there would be prac- 
tically no consumption of this invaluable article. 
The thing has been done, and successfully, and 
we have ourselves seen pieces of vulcanized 
rubber, possessing great strength and elasticity, 
which were made entirely from old car-springs; 
but it has never been accomplished on a large 
scale, and awaits the enterprise and ingenuity 
of some new Goodyear to develop it. 

Meantime, old rubber has its uses. By a 
system of steaming and passing between roll- 
ers, it is reduced to a semi-plastic state, and in 
this condition is used in combination with a 
coarse fabric for heel stiffening, a purpose 
to which it is admirably adapted, its water- 
proof qualities being of especial value. There 
is in a neighboring city a factory devoted entire- 
ly to this branch of manufacture, where several 
hundred tons of old rubber of all kinds are 
consumed annually. 

Old rubber is also largely used to mix with 
new raw material in the manufacture of all 
kinds of rubber goods. It serves to give bulk 
and weight, and, if it does not increase, it cer- 
tainly does not lessen the strength of the fa- 
brick. It may also be mentioned that powdered 
soapstone, white-lead, terra alba, and other 
heavy substances enter largely into the compo- 
sition of almost all rubber goods, the use of 
which becomes apparent when it is remember- 
ed that they are generally sold by weight. 

Cocoa-nut Oil. 

Residents of temperate zones have no reali- 
zation of the immense importance of the co- 
coa-nut in countries where the tree abounds. It 
yields a delicious food, a nutritious drink, a 
rich oil, and fibers which are manufactured 
into thread, twine, ropes, and all kinds of 
strong useful cordage. 

Boiling the pulp breaks open the cells. As 
the oil is liberated, it rises to be skimmed off. 
A few years ago the Dutch government ordered 
a census of the cocoa-nut trees in Java and 
Madeira, which footed up twenty millions, be- 
ing an average of three to every native in- 
habitant. 

Vast quantities of the oil are burned in lamps 
throughout the whole Indian Archipelago. A 
tumbler half filled with water has oil poured in 
to the brim. Two lighted sticks are the wicks, 
which burn brilliantly. Every native glories in a 
display of lamps in the house and about the 
grounds at the approach of night. 

When first taken out of the boiling pot, the 
oil has a rich flavor, but soon becomes rancid. 
So copious is the supply, however, it can always 
be had fresh and sweet for the table. Like 
olive oil in Syria, it is butter, lard, or oil, ac- 
cording to circumstances, in cookery. Soap 
is made with it, lamps supplied, leather dressed, 
and cosmetics are fabricated for beautifying the 
homely faces of women. 

Something About Anvils. 

In a deserted shop in Pittsfield, Mass. , there 
rests on its block an anvil that has done duty 
for more than three hundred years. It is as 
sound to-day as it was in 1633, when Eltwood 
Pomeroy, after welding for the Stuarts the pon- 
derous horseshoes of the same style and pattern 
that his ancestors had made during generations 
for the Tudors and Plantagenets, grew weary 
of taxes without law, aud work without wages, 
and anvil in hand sailed for the new world. A 
deft workman, he throve in the settlements, 
and left his anvil as an heirloom to his descend- 
ants. They show you in the tower of London 
the anvil on which the sword was forged that 
Richard Camr de Lion used in his contest with 
Saladin, and at the collection of Pompeian ex- 
cavations in Naples there is an anvil certainly 
older than the Christian centuries, which, of 
precisely the same shape we use, had evidently 
done service for stalwart workmen of many gen- 
erations before the city was buried. But, better 
still, in the Egytian room of the British Mu- 
seum, there is a veritable anvil of the Pharaohs. 
It is older than Rome, older than Greece, older 
than Jerusalem; as old as the days of Abraham, 
and probably in existence when the patriarch 
"was come into Egypt, and the Egyptians be- 
held Sarah that she was very fair." It is just 
like a modern anvil, made apparently in the 
same way, weighing about seventy-five pounds, 
and sound as it was when strnck by the hammer 
thirty centuries ago. 

Ether Glue.— An excellent liquid glue is 
made by dissolving glue in nitric ether. The 
ether will only dissolve a certain amount of 
glue, consequently, the solution cannot be made 
too thick. The glue thus made is about the 
consistency of molasses, and is doubly tena- 
cious as that made with hot water. If a few 
bits of india rubber, cut into scraps the size of 
buck shot, be added, and the solution be 
allowed to stand a few days, being stirred fre- 
quently, it will be all the better, and will resist 
the dampness twice as well as glue made with 
water. 



The hair on a camel weighs about ten pounds 
and sells for more than $100. 



Q©©D ^E^Lftj. 



Weak Backs and Bad Seats. 

The small of the back is the weak or strong 
point of every person. It is the center of vol- 
untary motion. Nearly three hundred muscles 
are directly or indirectly connected with the 
motions of which the small of the back is the 
pivotal center. Hence, while those who are 
strong, and whose muscular systems are well 
balanced, know nothing of spiral weakness or 
vertebral distortion, invalids are forever com- 
plaining of this part of the body. 

One very prominent cause of weak backs and 
crooked spines is the unhygienic, unanatom- 
ical seats and benches of our school-houses, 
churches and halls; nor are the seats and 
benches provided on steamboats, railroad cars, 
or at stations or ferry houses any better. It 
it is impossible for any person to occupy these 
seats long without being forced out of shape. And 
when school children are confined to them 
for several hours a day for month and years, 
their backs will inevitably be more or less weak- 
ened, with corresponding deformity of body, 
for life. 

If we go into private families, even into the 
palaces of the opulent, we find the seats made 
more for show than for use. Girls suffer much 
more by using such seats than boys, for the 
reason that boys are taught to run, jump and 
exercise themselves all over and all through, 
while girls are expected to keep still and be 
pretty. 

It is certainly one of the strange problems of 
the nineteenth century that no parent, teacher 
or mechanic will give any attention to anatomy 
or physiology in the construction of seats for 
the human body. Must our chairs, and sofas, 
and settees, and divans, and tete-a-tetes , and 
pews forever be dictated by fashion, and never 
conformed to nature? Must our tortured bodies 
forever be compelled to shape themselves to the 
seats, instead of the seats-being adapted to our 
bodies? Go through all the great chair factories 
of the country, and you will not find a single 
article that is not put together in gross viola- 
tion of the rules of health or comfort. If some 
Cooper, or Peabody, or Stewart, or Vanderbilt, 
or Astor, would invest a little million of dollars 
in establishing an immense chair factory " on 
strictly hygienic principles," he would do more 
to improve human health, promote longevity 
and remedy the backache, than any medical 
college in the land. — From "Backache," in Sci- 
ence of Health. 



Physical Development in Old Times Com- 
pared with Our Own Day. — Mr. T. W. Hig- 
ginson has taken pains to compare the vital 
statistics of several generations of two old New 
England families, he finds, to the dismay of 
those who mourn the physical degeneracy of 
women since the days of our great-grandmoth- 
ers, that the stock has improved if anything. 
He adds: 

"No man of middle age can look at a class of 
students from our older colleges without seeing 
them to be physically superior to the same 
number of college boys taken twenty-five 
years ago. The organization of the girls being 
far more delicate and complicated, the same re- 
form reaches them less promptly, but it reaches 
them at last. The little girls of the present day 
eat better food, wear more healthful clothing, 
and breathe more fresh air than their mothers 
did. The introduction of india-rubber boots 
and water-proof cloaks alone has given a fresh 
lease of life to multitudes of women who oth- 
erwise would have been kept housed whenever 
it so much as sprinkled. It is desirable, cer- 
tainly, to venerate our grandmothers, but I am 
inclined to think on the whole that their great- 
granddaughters will be the best." 

Clay Dressings for Variola. 

Dr. E. S. Bunker, in a note to the Medical 
Record says: — "During the recent epidemic I 
used clay-dressing for two pretty decided cases 
of confluent smallpox. Both patients were 
young women. One, a married lady, aged 23 
(delivered on the second day o:' a six months' 
foetus,) made a fair recovery, took cold after 
getting up, and in a few days died suddenly of 
empyema and pericarditis; diagnosis con- 
firmed by autopsy. The other, single, aged 21. 
had the disease with great violence, recovered 
rapidly, and is now well. In each case I dusted 
finely sifted pipe-clay over the face as soon as 
the pustules became fairly developed. This 
formed immediately a clean, dry, wholesome 
scab, abolished the intolerable itching and burn- 
ing, served apparently as a good absorbant of 
infectious material, and scaled off during con- 
valescence, leaving underneath a soft, natural 
integument. There was no disfigurement in 
either case." — New York Medical Journal. 



State Boards of Health Recommended. — 
Governor Geary, of Pennsylvania, recommends 
to the Legislature the formation of a State 
Board of Health, on a plan similar to that of 
Massachusetts and of California, which were 
the first States to organize such Boards. The 
Governor was a member of the first Board of 
Health constituted on the Pacific coast. This 
was during the prevalence of cholera in San 
Francisco in 1850. We opine that before 
many years shall have passed by, nearly every 
State in the Union will have its State Board of 
Health. 



Fevers and Sewers. 

Notwithstanding the generally acknowledged 
deleterious influence of defective sewers, it 
seems to be a weu-established fact that men 
employed to cleanse and repair sewers, etc., 
are not only not carried off by fever but appear 
to be singularly exempt from the ravages of that 
disease. The British Medical Journal, of a late 
date, says that in consequence of what has 
been said with regard to the alleged cause of 
the late illness of the Prince of Wales, Dr. 
Bowers, of the Metropolitan Board of Works of 
London, ordered a return on the subject, which , 
presents a most unexpected array of facts which 
seem, at least, to controvert the generally re- 
ceived views with regard to the connection of 
fevers with imperfect sewerage. We copy as 
follows: 

Out of five inspectors employed from 23 to 
48 years, there has never been a case of fever. 
Out of C4 men employed in cleansing and flush- 
ing the northern sewers for periods varying 
up to 34 years, only two have had fever, and 
their cases were typhus. Out of 47 men en- 
gaged in the sewer work in the southern sewers 
for periods varying from one to 24 years, there 
have only been two cases of fever, and these 
again typhus; and in one of these cases it is 
shown that the disease was contracted from the 
man's family. There are 3G penstock and flap 
keepers who have been employed from one to 
50 years. Of all these only one had any fever. 
He has been 16 years at work and had typhoid 
in 1862. There are some curious notes about 
these men. One of them has been at this work 
50 years, and has not had one day's illness of 
that time. One lived 25 years in the sluice-house 
over the King's Scholars Pond sewer, but never 
had any fever. Another lived for 14 years in 
Penstock House, over the outfall sewer at Old 
Ford. Another lived 32 years in Great St. Paul's 
sluice-house. Another lived for 35 years in a 
house over Duffield sluice, and enjoyed good 
health. Out of 54 men employed at the pump- 
ing-stations, there has only been one case of 
typhoid fever. At Crossness, out of 54 men en- 
gaged during the last six years, there has not 
been one case of tvphus or typhoid. 

There have been eight cases of ague, but these 
are, of course, due to the low marshy district 
and they seem to have recovered rapidly. Out 
of seven men employed in cleansing ventilators, 
oiling side entrances, gauges, etc., no case of 
fever has occurred though one man has been at 
the work 23 years. Of ten surveyors and chain- 
men in the engineer's office, not one has ever 
had typhoid fever, although they have been al- 
most daily engaged in the sewers for periods of 
from four to 24 years. These facts are very 
gratifying, and quite dispose of the allegation 
that the men in the sewers are decimated by 
fever. The statistics show, in fact, that fever 
is less prevalent among these men than the rest 
of the town population. 

The Prevention of Small-Pox. 

Dr. A. Armstrong, in the Lancet, advises the 
following means in staying the ravages of small 
pox: Persons suffering from the disease should 
daily anoint their bodies and limbs throughout 
with carbolized oil ; and also wash their bodies 
thoroughly with soft water, slightly carbolized; 
the anointing to be performed after the whole 
person has been washed; and gently dried with 
some soft fabric. This process should be com- 
menced before patients are allowed to leave 
their sick room, and continued until such time 
as all the diseased skin has been removed, and 
a new and healthy oue formed. In this way 
the particles of diseased and desquamated skin 
are prevented from being set free from persons 
who have recently suffered, and contaminating 
healthy persons by being inhaled or deposited 
on the exposed skin, or by getting into the wa- 
ter or food, and thus be a mode of contagion. 

Chapped Hands. — Persons troubled with 
chapped hands will find the following receipts 
very good: Take a quarter of a pound of un- 
salted hog's lard, and work it well through clear 
cold water, then drain and work again in a wine- 
glassful of rose water; the yolks of two fresh 
eggs, and a tablespoonful of honey. When 
well worked together in an earthen dish, mix in 
gradually as much finely powdered oat-meal as 
will make a paste the consistency of new butter. 
For use, spread the mixture on the hands at 
night, cover with old gloves too large for the 
hands; and in the morning wash off with pure 
water. 

Another cure for chapped or blistered hands: 
Take a wine-glassful of sweet olive oil, three 
drachms of grated spermaceti, three drachms of 
grated gum-camphor, and three drahms of 
grated white beeswax. Mix together and put in 
an earthen vessel over a slow fire, stirring till all 
are thoroughly melted, with a wooden spoon or 
stick. When well mixed plunge the jar suddenly 
into cold water, and the mixture will form a 
white cake. At night rub the cake over the 
hands well, cover with kid gloves, and wash off 
in the morning in lukewarm milk. A few ap- 
plications will cure the worst chapped or blis- 
tered hands, and if the hands are positively 
sore, the mixture may be applied two or three 
times during the day, keeping on the glove un- 
til the cure is effected. 



*lr «/g\j w JL J? X W *t\» LJ Jtvj ^ca. I 



88 



[July 6, 1872. 




PUBLISHED BY 

dewetst <st co. 

A. T. DEWEY. W. B. EWEE. G. H. STBONQ. 1. L. BOONE. 

Principal Editor W. E. EWER, A. M. 

Associate Editor I. N. HOAG, (Sacramento.) 

Office, No. 338 Montgomery street, 8. E. corner of 
California street, where friends and patrons are invited 
to our Scientific Press, Patent Agency, Egraving and 
Printing establishment, 

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Largo advertisements at favorable rates. Special or 
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Inserted at special rateB. 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, July 6, 1872. 



Table of Contents. 



ILLUSTRATIONS.— Bonnie Scotland; Patre 1; Hang- 
ing Bracfeei and AduiHtnbli' Slu If; 6; ''"lie Larkspur, 9. 

EDITORIALS.— Peaoh Leai Blight; Swiss Wines, 1. 
Vol. iY; editorial Notes Among the Fanners,8< Bheep 
Husbandry; Native Wild Fruits; Fruit Drying Pros- 
i ts; Fires in the Srain Fields, 9. 

CORRESPONDENCE.— Notes Ol Travel in Napa Crara- 
n . San Bernadino Connty; A Vinioultarlst nn Al.-o. 
hoi in California and Foreign Wines; Fossil Discover- 
ies in Solano County; About that "Four Years on a 
Farm. " 2. 

MECHANICAL ani> SCIENTIFIC.— Maple Sugar— Its 
Formation; Artificial Water Lime; Chemical Action 
In Porous Filters; The New Mode of Conveying t'oni- 
pn ssed Air as a Motor; Drying Lumber by Steam; 
A New Invention, 3. 

FLORICULTURE.— The Wild Flowers of San Joaquin 
Valley; Plant Flowers, 3. 

STOCK RAISING.— Best Breeds of Cattle for Dairy 
P ur poses; Jersey Oows; Syrian Wheat, 6. 

PATENTS AND INVENTIONS.— Notices of Recent Pat- 
ents; Improved Baling Press; Machines for Concen- 
trating and Amalgamating Ore, 6. 

USEFUL INFORMATION.— Composition of Patent 
Medicines; Screws inserted in Plaster Walls; Varnish 
to Imitate Ground Glass; Old Rubber; Cocoa-nut Oil; 
fhing About Anvils, 7. 

GOOD HEALTH— Weak Backs and Bad Seats: Clay 
Dressings for Variola; Fevers and Sewers; The Pre- 
vention of Small-Pox; Chapped Hands. 7. 

HOMB CIRCLE.— How to (Jet Rich; (Poetry); Female 
Literary Ability and Labor in San Francisco; From 
Glen; A Fev, Questions; Educating Girls; How 
Soon Forgotten. 10. 

KOUNG POLKS' COLUMN,— A " Blowing Cave," 10. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY.— Real Lace— How to Wear it 
and How to Clean It; Strawberry Syrup; A Chapter 
i'ii Eggs; Hygienic Bill of Fare; Good Harvest Drink; 
Cream Beer; How to Cook Potatoes; Uses of Paper; 

Selected Receipts, H. 

MISCELLANEOUS.— How to Kill Squirrels; Silk Cul- 
ture; Peach Leaf Blight, 11. 



The Cotton Chop. — Reports of the satisfac- 
tory growth of the cotton crop of the State, are 
reaching us from the several sections where 
cotton has been planted extensively. The Kern 
County plantation is doing splendidly. The 
Merced and Fresno crops are reported as being 
very desirably advanced. It seems that no 
doubts need be entertained of a successful re- 
sult this season. 



James Vick, Jr., of the world renowned Flor- 
al, Field and Garden seed establishment of 
Rochester, N. Y., called on us a few days since. 
We were pleased to see so distinguished a 
representative of Floral and Horticultural pro- 
gress as Mr. Vick, in California; and hope he 
will find much to interest him in our land of 
health, gold, sunshine, fruits and beautifu 
flowers. 



Fowl Doings. — W. T. Reilly of San Francis- 
co, reports to us the success of a common, 
barn-yard female rooster, in her efforts to beat 
the world in the production of large eggs. She 
can show already nearly a dozen eggs that 
measure each 7 inches round. She goes in for 
a tremendous effort every Sunday, and her 
best doings, is an egg measuring 7%x6*/{ inches 
round. She is about filing a caveat for a pat- 
ent, on the way she does it. 



Notice. — We are requested to ask of the offi- 
cers of all Agricultural, Horticultural and kin- 
dred Societies and Clubs, that they will send at 
once the address of their Presidsnt and Secre- 
tary to Chas. W. Greene, Secy, of National Ag- 
ricultural Congress, at Jackson, Tenn. It will 
be greatly to their interest to comply with this 
request. 

Watermelons are appearing in our market 
from the vicinity of Marysville and Sacramento. 



On File. — Colfax correspondence; Letter from L. H. 
G.; From Our Traveling Editor. 



A Talk With Our Readers. 

With the present number we commence the 
fourth volume of the Pacific Rural Press, and 
lake the opportunity to return most hearty 
thanks to our many friends for the liberal aid 
and support which they have extended to us in 
an enterprise commenced at a period when the 
agricultural, and in fact all other interests on 
this coast, were in a condition of great depres- 
sion. Notwithstanding such unfavorable cir- 
cumstances, however, the Press has met with a 
degree of success never before attained by any 
newspaper publication in the State, during the 
first eighteen months of its existence. While 
we are conscious of much defect and short 
coming in the past, we nevertheless feel an 
honest pride in what has been accomplished, 
and are resolved to spare no effort to attain a 
still higher grade of excellence in the future. 
With increased experience, enlarged facilities, 
and the promise of more effective assistance, 
the proprietors think they can safely promise 
that the coming volume will be found still more 
worthy of patronage than either of the preced- 
ing ones. 

The publisher of a prominent journal at the 
East once asked a friend — an old and experi- 
enced nowspaper man — how he could best in- 
crease the usefulness and circulation of his 
journal. The friend, after sundry general re- 
marks, to the end that people would in the long 
run support that journal best which really con- 
tained the best reading matter, presented in the 
most concise and interesting form, and that the 
only way to secure such a paper was to spare 
no labor or expense in obtaining the best taleni 
and the best information that money could buy, 
eoncluded by saying that he would sum up his 
advice under three heads as follows: Put money 
into it; put more money into it; put still more 
money into it. 

Now we have followed that advice ever since 
we started the Rural Press — we have put all 
the money into it that we could command, with- 
out crippling our other enterprises. We have 
been constantly putting money into the Press, 
and building it up, with reference to future and 
regardless of present profits. 

We have done the best we could to make the 
Press all that a first-class agricultural paper 
should be. Every page shows industry — each 
one filled with carefully prepared reading mat- 
ter abounding with information useful to all 
classes, whether in city, village, country, field 
or shop. We employ the best practical talent 
to bo found on the coast, in gathering, sifting 
and condensing information for the farmer, the 
mechanic and the household. Our engravings 
have, we believe, been all and more than could 
be expected; but we intend in the future, to in- 
crease the interest and value of that depart- 
ment, and give even a larger proportion of 
original ones. 

We believe the universal verdict of our friends 
and patrons everywhere has been, that we have 
given them a paper quite in advance of what 
could be expected in so limited a field as that 
presented on the Pacific Coast. Our ambition 
has been to make a paper for the farmers of 
this Coast which shall nowhere be excelled, one 
to which they can point with pride and satis- 
faction, and such an one as they will not be 
ashamed to send or exhibit anywhere. 

Our friends both here and at the East assure us 
that the Pacific Rural Press has no superior, 
as an agricultural paper, even in the large field 
presented in the Atlantic or Mississippi States, 
where the populations on which they depend 
for support number three, four and five times 
as much as the population of the Pacific Coast. 

Our friends have probably somewhat over- 
rated the Press; but it is our determination to 
strive with all earnestness to fairly reach the 
position which, in their kindness and good 
wishes they have already assigned us. Our 
readers can very materially aid us in this work 
by using their influence to still further increase 
the circulation of the journal, and encourage 
our endeavors to widen its sphere of usefulness. 
This they can do by presenting the claims and 
advantages of the paper to their friends who 
may not be subscribers, and assisting our 
agents on their periodical visits by introducing 
them to friends, etc. For many reasons the 
larger the circulation of a paper, and the more 
free its patrons are in remitting their subscrip- 
tions, the more will the publishers, if men of 
enterprise, be able to improve its columns. 
They can also aid the usefulness of the paper 
by correspondence on practical subjects. Our 
best thanks are due for favors already received, 
which have been neither few nor small, in re- 



turn for which we can assure our readers, one 
and all, that no efforts will be spared to render 
the current volume of the Pacific Rural Press 
fully up to the best of its class, in everything 
that goes to make a paper interesting, attractive 
and useful. 



Editorial Notes Among the Farmers. 

Having determined to spend a week among 
the different classes of agriculturists of the 
counties of Sonoma and Marin, Tuesday 
morning of June 26th found us at the railroad 
depot in Petaluma. Upon inquiry at the depot 
we were informed that the American Hotel, 
Main street, kept by Talbot and Bowles, was the 
best hotel in town. We stepped into the buss 
bearing that name, and were soon at our 
home, comfortably fixed in one of the best 
rooms of the house. 

This being done and dinner being over, we 
started out to find members of the Board of Di- 
rectors of the local Agricultural Society, for con- 
sultation as to the localities and industries to be 
visited and routes to be taken . The first man 
wo met was I. G. Wickersham, ex-President of 
the Society, who gave us a hearty welcome and 
very promptly and generously proposed to spend 
his time, and with his team to convey us to such 
points in the district as we might wish to visit. 
President Ellsworth and Secretary Grover wire 
absent but we were soon called on by Vice- 
President Denman and Director Meecham, and 
arrangements were completed by which we 
were to take a seat in the private carriage of 
the ex-President for a visit to some of the rep- 
resentative dairies of the two counties the next 
morning. 

As expected on that morning, wo met our 
traveling companion, Col. Younger, who had 
spent Tuesday among some of the stockmen in 
the vicinity. The Colonel accepted an invita- 
tion to ride with Director Meecham and thus ac- 
companied and provided for, we were soon on 
our road for the dairy of Captain O. Allen & 
Son, which we were assured was one of the 
best arranged and managed in the State, if not 
in the United States. This dairy is situated in 
Marin county, in a westerly direction from Pet- 
aluma about 18 miles. It is six miles from the 
ocean and about 2% from the head of Tomales 
Bay. 

General Information. 

As we rode along, we kept up a chat with 
our agreeable and well-informed companion 
and our readers may be interested in what we 
saw and learned, or, as Horace would say, in 
" What I Know aboutFarming" in Sonoma and 
Marin counties. 

The entire road from Petaluma to Captain 
Allen's dairy, is through a rough, hilly country 
presenting the appearance, to a casual observer, 
of worthless, barren, waste land. Now we 
wind one way around the steep, rocky side of a 
mountain, now descend into and cross a deep 
canon and follow up the rocky bank of a 
mountain rivulet — but all the way, the road is 
fenced, and nearly all the way wo are in sight 
of well-conditioned and well-cared-for herds of 
dairy cows, foeding, as we have read of, of old, 
on a "thousand hills." And every now and 
then, we pass a thrifty looking dairy establish- 
ment, with rows of bright tin pans glistening in 
the sun where they have been put out to dry. 

Notwithstanding the barren and worthless ap- 
pearance of this hilly region, every foot of land 
is under fence, and fully occupied, and is val- 
ued by the owners at from twenty-five to forty 
dollars an acre, and we are assured is assessed 
at those figures under the rule of "full cash 
value," adopted by our Legislature for the 
guidance of our assessors. Sonoma and Marin 
are known throughout the State as the dairy 
counties of the Pacific Coast, and the fame of 
this dairy region has spread far and wide 
through the best dairy countries of Europe. 
Swiss Dairymen. 

Especially have the sturdy Swiss dairy-mas- 
ters been attracted from their Alpine homes by 
the superior advantages offered by our Coast 
Range districts, for carying on their favorite 
rural occupations. It is said that already fully 
two-thirds of all the dairy business of Marin 
and Sonoma counties is in the hands of the 
Swiss, either as renters or owners. These peo- 
ple seem to be peculiarly adapted to this kind 
of business, as the Chinese, Italians and Portu- 
guese are to market gardening, and are said to 
be a very peaceable, iudustrious and thriving 
people, and make the best of citizens. This is 
proved by the fact that their first introduction 
into this country as dairymen was as late as 
about 18G0 and 18G2 and some of those who 



came hore at that time with no money or capi- 
tal, except their industry and knowledgo of the 
business, are now paying taxes on property to 
the value of from two to three hundred thou- 
sand dollars and nearly all seem to be on the 
sure road to wealth. 

One of the peculiarities of these people is 
their disposition to assist each other. This dis- 
position takes the form of a practical mutual 
aid system. A poor boy comes to the country 
and begins by working i'n one of the dairies by 
the month ; if he proves himself industrious, 
honest and saving of bis wages, in the course 
of two or three years, he can command suffi- 
cient capital to rent and carry on the largest 
dairies in the county. His countrymen, who 
are able, take a practical interest iii him, and 
by small loans for a long time, and at small in- 
terest, he is soon in possession of funds to 
make the first payment of fifty per cent, of the 
rent money of a good dairy of cows. The sec- 
ond and third payments he is able to meet from 
the business itself, and the poor boy is, in a 
very short time, one of the stable men of his 
neighborhood and is known among the bankers 
of the town by his stated and increasing depos- 
its. Soon, instead of money he deposits his 
title papers and is the owner in fee simple 
of a section or two of Uncle Sam's domain 
and a citizen of his adopted country. The 
history of this young Swiss is the short but 
true history of many of that country now 
in Marin and Sonoma counties. And it fore- 
tells the state of the dairy business there in the 
not distant future. The large dairies will bo 
sold out ami divided into smaller ones. The 
American owners will give place to Swiss own- 
ers, and the products of the business will bo 
greatly increased and the prices lessened. 

Mode of Renting. 
Some rent their dairies ou shares, but more 
generally it is the custom now, to i 
money rent. If on shares, the owner finds the 
land, cows, tools, houses, and all the necessary 
conveniences, except the teams and wagons, 
and receives one-half tl 

cash. The custom anion.; those who rent for 
cash is to obtain from $25 to S35 pi r cow per 
year — ono half down in advance and the other 
half in equal payments, say in July or < > 
or such other times as may be agreed upon. In 
the case of cash rent the owner furnishes the 
the same as above stated when the rent is ou 
shares. 

The average net profits of the lessee is said 
to be about $30 for each cow per year. Thus 
we have a key to the profits of the dairy 
business. The net profits per cow per year on 
an average, SCO. This is pretty good, consid- 
ering that the average price for common dairy 
COWS is about 940. It must be remembered, 
however, that a necessary amount of land 
to support the cows, goes with them — 
experience, proves that it requires about seven 
acres to the cow, of land covered only with the 
native wild grasses. Or, to support a dairy of 
100 cows 700 acres of land is required. II. i 
tofore very little hay has been cut or fed by 
the dairymen, but they are now generally con- 
vinced that a change in this respect will not 
only be economical but that the continued pros- 
perity of the business requires it. Of this we 
are fully convinced and the most prudent and 
prosperous dairymen will be the first to intro- 
duce the winter feeding of dairy cows. 

Native and Artificial Grasses. 

These Coast Counties have more rain gener- 
ally than the interior counties, and they also 
generally have fogs through the summer season 
very frequently and hence the native grasses are 
kept green and in growing condition a greater 
portion of the year here, than in the interior. 
These facts together with a cooler summer, but 
more equal climate the year through, give to 
this county its natural advantages as a dairy 
county. The nearer you approach the sea 
coast we noticed that a larger portion of tho 
native grasses are perennial, the very nutritious 
bunch grass becoming more prevalent. But tho 
dairymen have very generally been experiment- 
ing with artificial grasses with a view to their 
introduction, if any are found, adapted to tin 
country. Timothy, Red-top, Blue gra 
falfa, Mesquito and other varieties have been 
tried. None but the two latter have met 
with much success. It seems very probable 
that both the Alfalfa and Mesquite will 
be gradually introduced and double and per- 
haps quadruple the capacity of the county for 
the dairy business. Both have been proved 
perennial even to the tops of the highest hills, 
and both have cut for hay, yielding as high as 
three tons per acre to the cutting. Both are 
found doing well and growing luxuriously, pre- 
senting a beautiful green, in contrast to tho 
yellow color of all the native grasses at this 
time. 

Capt. Allen's Place. 

We have enjoyed our ride immensely, and 
obtained a fund of information, and now, al- 
most before we had thought of it, we i 
from a winding canon and behold across a small 
valley on the brow of an oblong hill, extending 
across the entrance of another canon which 
leads off in another direction, the beautiful cot- 
tage residence — dairy house, carriage house, 
barn and other outbuildings of Captain Allen, 
all painted white, and relieved and shaded with 
the deep green foliage of the locust, the native 
walnut, and fruit trees of various kinds, andfl s- 
tooned with the climbing rose, passion flower 
and other climbing vines. The first view pre- 
sents to the mind a picture of prosperity, of 
comfort, of home — a country home in all its 
simplicity and rural beauty. 



July 6, 1872.J 



Sheep Husbandry. 

From a State standing the sixth, then the 
fourth, and three years ago the third in the 
Union among the great sheep-producing States, 
we are now probably the foremost of all in 
point of numbers, and these producing more 
wool than the same number of sheep in any 
other State or country ; and paying a larger 
per cent, on their value as property than any 
other kind of stock, where circumstances com- 
bine to favor their propagation. 

There are two good reasons upon which we 
base the foregoing assertions. It is not unusual 
for one hundred ewes in California, to present 
their annual increase of one hundred and 
twenty, and in some cases one hundred and 
thirty lambs. This then more than doubles 
the flock, or is a hundred and thirty per cent, 
increase, whilst the wool more than pays the 
expenses of care and keeping for the year. 
Two Shearings. 

The great source of profit, is found in the 
fact, that we can shear twice instead of once in 
a year, making a large saving; for the two clips 
far exceed in quantity, that which is obtained 
from only a single shearing performed once a 
year; and though the wool of the two short 
clips per pound, is not worth quite as much as 
the same number of pounds of the longer clip, 
the increased quantity more than makes up the 
difference. 

The great item, however, in favor of our 
sheep growers over the Eastern, is found in the 
comparative cost, of feeding both summer and 
winter, but particularly the latter. No hay is 
necessarily required for winter feeding, and 
the general mildness of the climate renders it 
unnecessary to provide costly shelter either for 
the animals or their food. Nature supplies 
them both to a great extent; all the sheep grow- 
er has to do, is to avail himself of her prodigal- 
ity; but as the numbers yearly increase, there 
is not a doubt but the limit of food will soon be 
reached, and recourse must be had to cultivated 
grasses or clovers for winter feeding to some ex- 
tent. 

Quality of Our Wools. 

It has been amply demonstrated that the 
climate of California is highly favorable to the 
growth of fine wools, and as the size of the ani- 
mals of all breeds yet introduced is actually in- 
creased, from the influence either of food or 
climate or both, there seems nothing in the way 
of making wool one of the great and perma- 
nent exports, and the number of sheep to ex- 
ceed that of any other State of the Union. 

Native Wild Fruits. 

Editobs Rural Pkess: — There is a dispute 
here, as to whether there is such a fruit in Cali- 
fornia as a native wild plum or native grape, 
except the Mission grape. Will you please to 
enlighten us in your next Rueal, and oblige a 
subscriber. , l. f. 

Stockton, June 24, 1872. 

While a residentof Placerville, ElDorado Co., 
in 1855, we had heard of there being wild plums 
in some of the valleys of the Sierras; we had 
talked with those who said they had seen the 
trees, and eaten of the fruit. Our curiosity a 
little excited, we offered to furnish a team and 
put in five day's time to visit the locality where 
the plums were said to be growing; connecting 
the search for the same with our annual visit to 
the mountains, for trouting, recreation and 
other pleasures of such a trip. 

The result was, no plums; but we did find a 
plentiful growth of a small apricot, just then 
ripe for eating, and were really very fine. These 
were what our informant had called plums; but 
they are the true " Armeniaca vulgaris," some 
of the trees being 12 feet high and bearing 
abundantly. 

The same fruit is found wild in the mount- 
ains of Asia, and seem to be, in connection with 
tho fossil elephant, to represent animals, evi- 
dences that at least tho western coast of our 
Continent at some former period, produced ani- 
mals and fruits to some extent in common; 
whilst no where east of the Sierra Nevada has 
this apricot been found, though wild plums in 
considerable variety are very common. 

In all the little valleys of the foothills where 
springs or rivulets abound, and along the Sac- 
ramento river, are found an abundance of wild 
grape vines, bearing a very small and extremely 
sour grape, fit for no earthly use without their 
full weight of sugar with them, as a conserve, 
and then they are but little more than seeds 
and skins. 



The Larkspur. 

This beautiful garden plant and flower, the 
Delp hinium of Botanists, is a great favorite on 
account of its adaptability to flower garden and 
lawn decoration. It sports in wonderful variety, 
in its habit of growth, from a few inches in 
bight to four or five feet; some with a close 
compact bush, and others open and branching, 
and all bearing a profusion of flowers remark- 
able for their variety, brilliancy and durability. 

They are annuals, with blue, red and purple 
flowers, with every admix'ure of those colors 
possible, but never yellow. They are single, 
double and semi-double, the upper sepal of 
which, as in the rest of this genus of flowers, 
is spurred. The dwarf varieties, as the Double 
Rocket and the Stock Flowering — the latter 
producing magnificent spikes of very double 
flowers — are particularly fine for growing in 
masses; whilst the Pyramidal is tall, branching 
and graceful. Besides the kinds enumerated 
there is the Tricolor Elegans, a new and beau- 
tiful variety, and the Mixed Hybrid, which, on 



Fruit Drying Prospects. 

Though the unusually late spring frosts were 
destructive to our fruits in many localities, yet 
California will still show a large surplus over 
what can be used in its ripe, fresh state, and 
large quantities will be dried, canned or wasted. 
We have just had a few moments talk with a 
fruit grower in the vicinity of Haywood's, Ala- 
meda Co., on the subject of drying the different 
fruits, usually subjected to this process, either 
for home consumption or shipment. 

We find that the supply of plums last year 
was such, that large quantities were sold at one 
and a half cents a pound, which does not pay 
the cost of production and marketing. But, 
that three cents a pound will pay, and it is 
thought to be a better disposition of the fruit 
than to be to the trouble of drying it ; and yet, 
a capital business is this same drying of plums, 
either for our own or the Eastern market. 

Three pounds of German or French prunes 
will yield when stoned, one pound of dried 
fruit, worth twenty cents. Here is a hundred 




DOUBLE-BRANCHING LARKSPUR. 



account of their great beauty, should be found 
in every flower garden of any pretentions. 

Our illustration — for the use of which we are 
indebted to E. E. Moore, seedsman and florist, 
425 Washington street — shows in the lower 
corner a single flower of the natural size. It is 
this plant in all its varieties that is so deadly 
to the grasshopper ; they take but one bite at 
the leaf, and they never bite again; so say the 
Australian papers. 

Salt Mabsh Lands foe Beets. — Wc have 
before us a half inch section of a beet four 
inches in diameter, firm and crisp as all beets 
should be, presented us by Mrs. Rev. Wm. 
Taylor, Oakland, that we are assured grew so 
completely in a salt marsh, that it was daily 
overflowed by the tide. Here we have an evi- 
dence of the entire adaptability of salt lands to 
the production of beets for animal feeding at 
least, even though they may contain too much 
salt in their composition for sugar making pur- 
poses. 

We cordially welcome the renewal of pleasing 
and interesting communications to the Rubal, 
from D. J. Ingraham, and hope he may find 
time to continue them indefinitely. 



per cent, gain over selling the fruit at three 
cents per pound undried, which is enough to 
cover all the expense of drying, and leave a 
large profit. When dried with the stones, the 
same fruit will bring only from six to eight 
cents per pound. 

It is found better to stone the fruit before 
drying, though many persons pursue the 
European method of drying on the stones. It 
seems simply a paying of freight upon an article 
which is wholly useless, though the reason giv- 
en for the practice in France and Germany is, 
that tho stones give a particular and desirable 
flavor to the cooked fruit, which it never at- 
tains when dried without the stones. 

The comparatively few dried plums, on the 
market last year, two or three thousand pounds, 
were eagerly taken on Eastern account at twen- 
ty cents per pound. If the quantity had been 
a hundred tons, the demand would not have 
been supplied. 

Blackbeebies.— Ripe, wild blackberries of good 
quality were on sale a week ago ; and for tho 
last five days, the cultivated varieties have put 
in an appearance, large, ripe and delicious, 
and selling at retail from 20 to to 25 cents per 
pound. 



Fires in the Grain Fiel 

Already in every direction, we hear oj ures 
sweeping through the grain fields of the great 
plains, destroying in a day the labor of months 
and bringing loss and dismay to hearts that 
but an hour before, were buoyant in tho hope 
of an abundant harvest. In March last, we 
were the first to propose the growing of belts 
of Alfalfa of from ten to twenty yards in width 
at intervals across the grain fields, as effectual 
barriers against these sweeping fires. 

Of course, it was too late in the season then, 
to grow Alfalfa for the present grain crop ; but 
belts of thirty or forty feet in width, might 
have been mown off and made into hay, just as 
the wheat commenced running up to head, and 
then the same root would have produced 
another growth so late as to be now green, pre- 
senting not quite as perfect a barrier as Alfalfa, 
but one that in many instances would havo 
saved hundreds, perhaps, thousands of acres. 

The following from the San Joaquin Valley 
Argus of June 29th, is, but one of the many 
fires that we have already heard of, and pro - 
bably will hear of many more. 

"Fire broke out in a grain field near Merced 
about 11 o'clock on Wednesday evening last, 
which destroyed a considerable amount of 
grain. J. F. Goodalo and Jesse Hackworth are 
mentioned as among the losers. The origin of 
the fire was not known when our informant 
left. We understand that when the alarm was 
given, the citizens of Merced and surrounding 
country rushed en masse to the scene and 
worked like Trojans to prevent it from spread- 
ing." 

Now, if between th ese two sufferers, unless 
they are partners, owning the burnt district in 
common, either had interposed a belt of forty 
feet in width of Alfalfa or very late sown grain, 
which would have been now green, there need 
not have been but one loser instead of two. 

And, it is the more strange that our farmers 
do not adopt the proposed preventive, when 
the very hay crop would be worth to them more 
than any grain crop could be, upon the same 
extent of ground. AVe believe this year's losses 
will open the eyes of our wheat growers to the 
importance of interposing these green belts, as 
preventives of the annually recurring fires in 
grain fields. 



An Extensive Wheat Field. 

On the west side of the San Joaquin river in 
this vicinity, there is a grain field which ex- 
tends for thirty-five miles and is of an average 
width of eight miles, thus covering an area of 
179,200 acres. Persons who have lately travel- 
ed through this immense grain field estimate 
the total average yield at sixteen bushels to the 
acre, which will give a total yield of 2,867,200 
bushels, or 8G,015 tons. 

This amount of grain would load 8,fi01 cars, 
which, if made up in one train, would reach for 
over eighty miles, or from Bantas to the Oak- 
land wharf. There is, however, a much larger 
area cultivated on the east side of the San Joa- 
quin than on the west side. 

From Lathrop to Merced, a distance of over 
fifty miles, the railroad runs through an almost 
unbroken grain field, extending as far as the 
eye can see on either side. The product of th is 
whole valley will be much greater than ever be- 
fore, and the railroad company will find it very 
difficult to move the immense amount to mar- 
ket before the commencement of the rainy 
season. 

AVe copy the above from the" Stoclton Inde- 
pendent, for the purpose of letting the world 
abroad know, that California has tho largest 
wheat field in the world. AVith an average 
length of 42 miles by .a width of 16 miles, it 
r, .mains 672 square miles, or 430,080 acres. 
Tine, there is a small creek, that just out of 
compliment, is called the San Joaquin river, 
and one railroad running through our big 
wheat field ; but this we could'nt help, and 
would'nt if we could ; but except these, we 
claim for it the largest disconnected wheat field 
in the world. 



Rasi'BEEBIks.— These berries are remarkably 
fine this year, and continue to bring twenty 
cents a pound retail. AVe occasionally make 
quotations of this kind, giving the retail prices 
by the pound, as we find them by just stepping 
out of our office for a moment and asking the 
prices of the different products at some half 
dozen fruit stands, that the producer who may 
read our notice, may see just what is made on 
the: fruit between his hands and the consumer. 

Tomatoes.— This vegetable is in market in 
great abudauce, fully ripe and retailing at eight 
cents per pound. 




10 



sfc&ezviQ ^tciail wmmm 



[July 6, 1872. 




How to Get Rich. 

by wii. d. hobanob. 

Put on the airs of an eight-keyed flute, 

If you're only a penny- whistle; 
Pass where you can for a garden rose, 

If you're only a wayside thistle. 

Blow, whenever you blow your horn, 

So people can understand 
That you may be sharp, but you won't B flat, 

In society's great brass band. 

Pass the plate or the hat in church 

AVith the usual Sabbath air, 
But move with a mild, religions squeak, 

That people may know you're there. 

If you carry a nose six inches long 
(And a beak can scarce be longer), 

Believe it a sign of perception strong, 
And the longer it is the stronger. 

But if in the order of nasal tubes 

Your organ is brief in measure, 
Then, brevity being the soul of wit, 

Consider your pug a treasure. 

Love your neighbor —but mark the force 

Of the gospel rule of grace — 
The more you admire yourself, my friend, 

The higher your neighbor's place. 

Clink yOTU dime in the deaeon's pan 

As if you were throwing gold. 
And give with an eye to the business hope 

Of reaping a hundred fold. 

Whether your reading is little or great, 

Quote right, or never <[Uote; 
Polish your uppers, though down in the heel, 

And never indorse a note. 

Always advance best hand, best foot, 
(Best hand, best foot your own), 

And thus you may feast on the fat of the land, 
"While others enjoy the bone ! 



Female Literary Ability and Labor in 
San Francisco. 

The avenues of labor for women in San 
Francisco, as in most all cities, are very 
limited — still there are radical steps of im- 
provement made from year to year in this 
respect, and we are frequently directed to 
notice the rapid development of talent and 
the opportunities offered for that develop- 
ment and culture in our midst. In our 
city at the present time ladies are employ- 
ed at type-setting in one daily newspaper 
offices, one large publishing house, and 
five weekly newspaper offices. Of ladies 
as editors we have four, all educated 
women, who understand their business 
quite as well as men. Of reporters, regu- 
larly employed by the press, we believe 
there are only two — one of them a short- 
hand expert. Lady correspondents regu- 
larly employed by Eastern papers number 
four, and several occasionals in addition. 
One of the ladies is a commercial and busi- 
ness reporter for two foreign journals, 
whose position on these papers is very re- 
sponsible and remunerative; this is the 
short-haml reporter we have alluded to. 

Literary ability is rapidly developing in 
our female circles— romance-literature is 
not receiving any additional workers by 
this development, but strong, earnest, 
practical branches of good-sense literature, 
that are calculated to cultivate, refiue and 
educate the masses. Women who are 
writing professionally in California, are at 
work in sensible avenues, and dealing less 
with fiction than the writers of other 
States. 

Practical ability has but few first-class 
laborers, but the far are above the average 
of practical amateurs. Among these we 
must notice Miss Ina Colbrith; she de- 
serves mention and prominence; her efforts 
are conceded to be far superior to any oth- 
er poetic writer on the coast. 

In descriptive talent their are several 
lady authors of more than usual ability 
and taste, and whose names will shine 
among the list of noted American authors 
a few years hence. In dramatic author- 
ship, we have two ladies eminently fitted 
in this direction, and who are studying for 
this especial branch of literary industry. 
We regret that there are so few opportu- 
nities offered for the culture of literary 



talent in California, and so little encour- 
agement for our virtuous writers. As our 
country progresses in age and education, 
we hope to chronicle a_great change in this 
particular, and that female labor shall find 
a remuneration equal to that of the other 
sex, and no discrimination made on ac- 
count of sex, if the same amount of work 
is as creditably performed. 

From Leafy Glen. 

Dear Bubal: — I have been induced by 
reading Farm House Chat in the last num- 
ber of your very excellent journal, to 
write you a few of my ideas in regard to la- 
bor. It is a lamentable fact now-a-days, that 
women and girls try every means in their 
power to shirk what they call drui 
You can see daily, poor, tired, over-worked 
mothers, saving three or four bouncing 
girls from dirty work, like cleaning vege- 
tables, washing dishes, scrubbing floors, 
sweeping, making beds, etc., when if the 
work had been properly divided, each 
one's share would have been easily and 
cheerfully performed, thereby prolonging 
that dear mother's life a number of years. 
Y'ou perhaps remonstrate with her, tell- 
ing her that she is neglecting her duty to 
her daughters, she looks at you with a 
mournful, self-sacrificing look, shakes her 
head and replies, "No, no, the dear girls 
shall bo educated in other things, but I do 
not want them to drudge as I have done." 
I do not know what the mothers of to-day 
mean by neglecting this important branch 
of education. Too much cannot be said to 
arouse them to the great truth that they 
cannot make good wives and mothers un- 
less thoroughly educated in housework. 
I once happened at a suffrage meeting, 
where the question rose for debate; "Is 
labor degrading." They could find no one 
among the debating members willing to 
take the negative of the questiou, because 
in their secret souls they knew their own 
daughters were being waited upon by 
servants; not a single one of them were 
capable of keeping their bedchambers in 
proper order, some of them having reached 
the ages of fourteen, fifteen and sixteen. 
I say of such women and mothers, that all 
their talk and lecturing about " wo- 
man's sphere," " rights," etc., is a 
humbug. Let them do the work their 
hands find at home. Let them see 
to it, that every boy and girl (however 
worldly endowed) lend a helping hand to 
some of the duties belonging to the house- 
hold work. It will not take them from 
their books, music or embroidery, and my 
word for it, they will be healthier, more 
active, and make better men and women. 
Three months ago my husband and I 
moved on to a ranch, since which time I 
have helped to do part of the out-door 
work, he helping me in the house so that 
I could find the time, as out-door exercise 
was quite necessary on account of poor 
health. I at first found it fatiguing, but 
not at all degrading, on the contrary, en- 
nobling. Now I can work out all day, only 
stopping to get the meals, (very light 
ones) and at night rest better than I have 
since a child. I have an idea that all the 
lady readers of the Rural do know how to 
work in -doors and out, but if there be any 
not used to it, I recommend it as the best 
cure for ennui. Now in closing, I wish to 
thank the proprietors for their ever wel- 
come paper, and I am sure if it is welcomed 
everywhere as it is at the Glen, their 
friends must be legion. Marion. 

Leafy Glen, June 16th, 1872. 



A Few Questions. 

Is there anything gained by a hashing 
and rehashing of family matters before 
children or strangers'? 

Are children taught to love and obey a 
parent by hearing his or her failings dis 
cussed, or do strangers improve matters 



and their mother is willing to let them 
grow up so rather than drive them to their 
books with a birch rod, which they need 
three times a day." Are a woman's charms 
enhanced when she asserts before a totally 
uninterested party, that her husband is a 
"perfect tyrant and treats his wife and 
children as if they were brutes ? " or ' 'that 
he neglects his family and takes his pleas- 
ure abroad." These are very delicate sub- 
jects which ought never to be mentioned 
before children or outsiders, if people 
would have home as pleasant as possible 
to all who come within its influence. — Elm 
Orlu. 



Educating Girls. 

Educating girls for household duties 
ought to be considered as necessary as in- 
struction in reading, writing and arithme- 
tic, and quite as universal. We are in our 
houses more than half of our existence, 
and it is the household surroundings which 
affect most largely the happiness or misery 
of domestic life. If the wife knows how to 
" keep house," if she has learned how to 
"set a table," if she has learned how things 
ought to be cooked, how beds should be 
made, how carpets should be swept, how 
furniture should bedusted.howthe clothes 
should be repaired, and knows how pur- 
chases can be made to the best advantage, 
and understands the laying in of provis- 
ions, how to make them go farthest and 
last longest; it she appreciates the impor- 
tance of system, order, tidiness and the 
quiet management of children and servants, 
then she knows how to make a little heaven 
at home — how to win her children from 
the street; how to keep her husband from 
the club-house, the gaming table and the 
wine-cup. Such a family will be. trained 
to social respectability, to business success 
and to efficiency and usefulness in what- 
ever position may be alloted to them. 

It may be safe to say that not one girl in 
ten in our large town and cities enters into 
married life who has learned to bake a loaf 
of bread, to purchase a roast, to dust a 
painting, to sweep a carpet or to cut, fit and 
make her own dress. How much the per- 
fect knowledge of these things bears upon 
the thrift, comfort and health of families, 
may be conjectured, but not calculated by 
figures. It would be an immeasurable ad- 
vantage to make a beginning by attaching 
a kitchen to every girl's school in the na- 
tion, and have lessons given daily in the 
preparation of all ordinary articles of food 
and drink for the table; and how to purchase 
them in the market to the best advantage, 
with the result of a large saving of money, 
an increase of comfort and higher health 
in every family in the land. — Hall's Jour- 
nal. 

How Soon Forgotten. — Some one has 
said truthfully, generation after genera-' 
tion have felt as we do now, and their 
lives were as active as our own. The 
heavens will be as bright over our graves 
as they were around our paths. Y'eta little 
while and all this will have happened. The 
throbbing heart will be stilled, and wo 
shall be at rest. Our funeral will wend its 
way, and the prayers will be said, and we 
shall be left in the darkness and silence of 
the tomb; and it may be that for a short time 
we shall bespoken of, but the things of life 
shall creep on and our names shall be for- 
gotten. Days shall continue to move on, 
and laughter and songs will be heard in 
the rooms where we died; and the eyes 
that mourned for us be dried and ani- 
mated with joy, and even our child will 
cease to think of us, and will remember to 
to lisp our names no more. 

If you see half a dozen faults in a 
woman you may rest assured she has half 
a dozen virtues to counterbalance them. 
We love your faulty, and fear your fault- 
less women. When you see what is 
termed a faultless woman, dread her as 
you would a beautiful snake. The power 
of concealing the defects which she must 
have, is, of itself, a serious vice. 



The shortest expression, supposing 
equal perspicuity and elegance, is the best. 

D rintorfering? "(^rtainl y Tt i ypoTl8TVi8U The T *3% of s * nse ' like * hose °* ih ? 8un 

. *■'. . -..*'. * . ... . nrt^i ,1 , ».£. fr\*r>& hv ^nnuorffinnr anil ant mrtrc 



when quarreling, bickering, twittering 
and flinging up of each other's faults, take 
the place, between husband and wife, of 
pleasant hospitality and general conversa- 
tion. 

As children grow up they learn the fail- 
ings of their parents fast enough, without 
being told of them while too young to un- 
derstand that no one is perfect. Who 
thinks more of a man because he taunts 
his wife before strangers; that she is a 
"perfect gad-about, taking no interest in 
home " or that she "has no government, 
and is ruining the children by indul- 
gence;" or that "his young ones are fools 



acquire force by converging, and act more 
vigorously in a narrow compass. 

He that feasts his body with banquets 
and delicate fare, and starves his soul for 
want of spiritual food, is like him that 
feasts his servant and starves his wife. 

Answeks to Atlas Puzzles in Young 
Folks' Column Last Week. — State of New 
Lockport. Marion. Kinderhook. 
Cherry Valley. 

State of Pennsylvania. — Ealston. Clarion. 
Beaver. Carlisle. Somerset. Monroe. 
Shippen. 
Answer to Charade— Cotton. 



YodflCt Folks' Goulpufl. 

A "Blowing Cave." 

[Written for the Press.) 

My dear young folks, did any of you 
ever hear of a "blowing cave?" I will tell 
you of one I visited and explored while I 
was followingtheflagof our country, in the 
State of Arkansas. I was a private Soldier 
in the army of Gen. Steele, and our regi- 
ment was encamped atBatesville, a charm- 
ing little village on White river, not far 
from a low range of hills, called the Boston 
Mountains. I call it a Ion- range of hills, 
for in comparison with our gigantic 
Sierras they appear very small. During 
our stay at Batesville I chanced to be de- 
tailed as one of a party to go foraging up 
the valley about forty miles. We were 
absent from camp three or four days. We 
passed through some very beautiful val- 
leys, in which were clearings with the 
usual log cabin and a few acres of corn 
and potatoes, while running at large in the 
woods and feeding fat on the mast, were 
countless hogs. While our foraging party 
was camping one night near a beautiful 
little clear creek that braw Is along over its 
pebbly bottom and joins White river just 
below, one of our number while hunting 
for wood to kindle our fire, came suddenly 
upon a low rent in the rocks that seemed 
to be the entrance to a cave. Stooping 
down and looking in, he was surprised to 
fiud a cold wind meeting him face to face, 
and to notice the grass and flowers sway- 
ing as in a stiff breeze. Communicating 
the news to his companions, quite a num- 
ber visited it that night. I resolved on 
making a thorough exploration of it, as I 
learned from the Captain that we would 
remain in camp over the next day, gather- 
ing forage for the horses. Accordingly, 
the next day I equipped myself with a 
good lantern and with a companion en- 
tered the breezy cave. After crawling on 
our hands and knees for about one hun- 
dred feet, we found the roof somewhat 
higher, and soon came to a large chamber, 
twenty feet high and forty or fifty feet 
long by twenty-five wide, having doorways 
going out right and left. In this chamber 
the breeze entirely ceased, but to the right 
we found a narrow, low passage through 
which it blew as strong and as cold as 
ever. One of the neighboring chambers 
contained an enormous stalactite reaching 
from the roof above nearly twenty feet to 
the rocky floor beneath. It measured 
eighteen feet in circumference. The water 
was still dripping and had formed some 
beautiful terraces, one above another, each 
full to the brim of the clearest and coolest 
water I ever saw. There were numberless 
stalactites and stalagmites hanging from 
the vault above or projecting from the 
level floor below. A little further on we 
found a stream of water which on wading 
proved to be over waist deep. Some places 
were very rough and rocky, and as we went 
further in, the walking became climbing 
and wading. Wherever the channel nar- 
rowed, the wind blew strongly in our faces; 
wherever the passage widened into a cham- 
ber it ceased altogether. Finally we came 
to a place where the overhanging roof 
seemed to have fallen down and to be still 
threatening to overwhelm any daring ex- 
plorer who might attempt to go any fur- 
ther. The stillness, the death-like silence 
was unbroken save by the rippling stream. 
We sat down to rest ourselves upon a huge 
rock and tried to think where that breeze 
came from. Outside the cave in the val- 
ley all was still and quiet. The weather 
was excessively hot and the air that was in 
the cave was very cool. So we came to 
the conclusion that the breeze coming out 
of the cave was only Nature's plan for 
equalizing the different temperatures. 
You know that if you open the door of a 
closely heated room a little way and hold 
a light at the top of the opening, the flame 
will be drawn toward the cool open air by 
the heated air rushing out at the top, while 
if you hold the light near the floor, you 
will find the flame drawn into the room by 
the cool air finding its way in. So the 
"blowing" cave may have had some other 
opening higher up the mountain side 
where the warmer air entered. Perhaps 
in winter the breeze may be found enter- 
ing the mouth of the cave or ceasing al- 
together because the temperature without 
has changed. Another time if it be con- 
sidered no intrnsion, I will tell you all 
about a "floating meadow" which I saw in 
my soldier travels in the South. 

Duncan G. In-graham. 



July 6, 1872.] 



11 



IOMESTIC 



,CONOMY. 



Real Lace— How to Wear it and How 
to Glean It. 

It has been said that women will fall down 
and worship a bit of dingy lace. Men wonder 
why ladies, dainty as regards the cleanliness of 
every other article of dress, will wear lace which 
is, to say the least, yellow, if not positively 
soiled. Point d' Alencon, one of the most beau- 
tiful and costly of the lace family, has a dingy 
appearance, even when new — the dirt appear- 
ing to be in the thread itself. This doubtless 
arises from the fact that it is slowly made, from 
handspun thread, and the poor lace-makers 
weave into it the sweat of their fingers, if not of 
their brows. 

The fashion of dingy or yellow lace is one of 
ancient origin. In the days of Elizabeth, im- 
mense lace ruffles were worn at the neck and 
wrist, the lace being generally handed down 
from one generation to another. To have old 
lace, was to have an ancient lineage. Of course, 
the yellow tinge of age was not to be bought by 
parvenus, and to have washed one's lace, for- 
sooth ! would have been to take away its pres- 
tige entirely. 

But doubtless the fashion has another reason 
for its origin. The moment the delicate meshes 
are wet the tiny threads shrink and the lace 
" fulls " more or less. I have heard ladies say 
that they could not do up lace to look "just 
like new." Now, this very fact of shrinkage 
proves that it can not be done by any but a 
"professor." The art of washing fine and 
costly lace is a trade in itself. It is spread, 
while wet, upon a cushioned table, and, after be- 
ing pulled smooth, a pin is stuck into every 
mesh, to prevent shrinkage, a whole day some- 
times spent upon a single yard of lace. When 
ladies can do that they can perhaps do up lace 
to " look just like new." I once knew a lady, 
possessed of a rare collection of valuable laces, 
and also a rare passion for them, who washed 
and pulled them until they were dry, and then, 
slightly oiling some fine writing-paper, pressed 
the lace between the folds of it for several days. 
Of course she had not much else to do, and the 
lace, especially the Valenciennes, did really look 
beautiful, but it did not look new after all, and 
lacked the spirit-like delicacy of that which 
has never been wet. 

There is no finish so perfect to a lady's attire 
as a set of lace collar and cuffs. One should 
wear linen in the morning to be sure, the 
pure whiteness and washableness harmonizing 
well with the plain print or merino morning- 
dress. But for full-dress, one must have lace, 
fine and clear, both for beauty and fashion. To 
wash it is to spoil it. To throw it away as soon 
as it has become soiled — well, only people who 
wear diamonds at breakfast can do that; while 
to wear it positively dirty with oil from the 
hair or neck, is to forfeit the respect of all whose 
good opinion is worth having. 

But there is a way out of this dilemma both 
easy and feasible. If a box of powdered mag- 
nesia be kept at hand, and the laces thrown in 
and covered as soon as they are taken off, and 
kept there until they are wanted again, they will 
come forth as clean and fresh as could be de- 
sired. The magnesia can all be removed by 
beating the lace across the hand. Lace which 
has become much soiled by long use may be 
cleaned in this way so as to be quite presenta- 
ble over a dark dress; only, it must be thor- 
ougely rubbed with the magnesia. 

Lace-mending forms a separate branch ofjn- 
dustry in Europe ; as distinct, if not as widely 
followed, as lace-making. Like that, the trade 
must be learned, for the delicate meshes and 
pattern must all be restored. Ladies of rank 
often employ lace-menders to teach them their 
art — that being, I suppose, as fascinating an 
employmentas embroidery. Charlotte Bronte, 
in "The Professor," makes her heroine a lace- 
mender. — Hearth and Home. 



Strawberry Syrup. 

Somebody recommends the following as a very 
excellent preparation from strawberries: Take 
two pounds of nice berries, all the green ones being 
carefully picked out.and put them into a large bot- 
tle with a wide mouth, and at the same time 
two and a half pounds of finely pulverized 
white sugar. The bottle should not be quite 
full. They are to be left standing at the ordi- 
nary temperature, being occcasionally gently 
shaken up. The sugar takes up the liquid part 
of the berry, forming a clear, aromatic syrup, 
while the solid parts shrivel up almost odorless 
and tastless, and may be easily separated by 
straining through a linen cloth. Milk or wine 
may be poured over the residue to make a pal- 
atable dish for the table. The above quantity 
of berries and sugar make one and a half quarts of 
syrup. It may be kept for some time in closely 
stopped bottles in a cool place. It. must not. be 
heated, because the flavor of the berry is very 
volatile; a long exposure of the juice to the air 
is also injurious. The syrup, diluted with 
water, makes an agreeable ice; or it may be 
mixed with«ome light wine as a drink, Rasp- 
berry syrup may be prepared in the same way. 
The flavor of the raspberry is not injured by 
heat, and the syrup may be more quickly pre- 
pared and with less sugar by placing the bottle 
for a short time in boiling water. This syrup 
may also be used for ices. As a drink, when 
diluted with water, it is less piquant than that 
made in the usual way by crushing the berries 
and letting the juice stand for a week. 



A Chapter on Eggs. 

Would it not be wise to substitute more eggs 
for meat in our daily diet? About one-third 
the weight of an egg is solid nutriment. This 
is more than can be said of meat. There are 
no bones or tough pieces that have to be laid 
aside. A good egg is made up of ten parts 
of shell, sixty parts white, and thirty parts 
yolk. The white of an egg contains eighty-six 
per cent, of water, the yolk fifty-two per cent. 
The average weight of an egg is two ounces. 
Practically an egg is animal food, and yet there 
is none of the disagreeable work of the butch- 
er necessary to obtain it. The vegetarians of 
England use eggs freely, and many of these 
men are eighty and ninety years old, and have 
been remarkably free from illness. A good egg 
is alive. The shell is porus and the oxygen of 
the air goes through the shell and keeps up a 
sort of respiration. An egg soon becomes stale 
in bad air, or in dry air charged with carbonic 
acid. Eggs may be dried and made to retain 
their goodness for a long time, or the shell may 
be varnished, which excludes the air, when, if 
kept at a proper temperature, they may be 
kept for years. The French produce more eggs 
than any other, and ship millions of them to 
England annually. Fresh eggs are more trans- 
parent at the center, old ones on the top. 
Very old ones are not transparent in either 
place. On water in which one-tenth of salt has 
been dissolved, good eggs sink, and indifferent 
ones swim. Bad eggs floatinpure water. The 
best eggs are laid by young healthy hens. If 
they are properly fed the eggs are better than if 
they are allowed to eat all sorts of food. 

Eggs are best when cooked about four min- 
utes. This takes away the animal taste that is 
offensive to some, but does not harden the 
white or yolk as to make them hard to digest. 
An egg if cooked hard is difficult of digestion, 
except by those with stout stomachs; such eggs 
should be eaten with bread and masticated very 
finely. An excellent sandwich can be made 
with eggs and brown bread. An egg spread on 
toast is food fit for a king, if kings deserve any 
better food than anybody else, which is doubt- 
ful. Fried eggs are less wholesome than boiled 
ones. An egg dropped into hot water is not 
only a clean and handsome but a delicious 
morsel. Most of the people spoil the taste of 
their eggs by adding pepper and salt. A little 
sweet butter is the best dressing. Eggs contain 
much phosphorus, which is supposed to be use- 
ful to those who use their brains much. — Her- 
ald of Health. 

Hygienic Bill of Fare. 

Breakfast. — Brown bread, wheaten gems, 
corn-meal gems, buttter, sugar, cracked wheat, 
mush, milk, tomatoes, baked apples, baked po- 
totatoes, sweet potatoes. 

Dinner. — Roast beef, potatoes, squash, 
string-beans, tomatoes, brown bread, butter, 
cold gems, apples, and grapes. 

Supper. — Wheat-meal gruel, sugar, milk, 
brown bread, butter, cold gems, graham cake, 
stewed apples. 

By wheat-meal is meant unbolted wheaten 
flour. Cracked wheat is the same, very coarsely 
ground. 

Water is placed on the table at noon, but no 
drink at breakfast or supper. Eastern water- 
cures generally furnish no meat. 

Good Harvest Drink. — Mr. Blair Burwell, of 
Powhatan, communicates to the Southern Farm- 
er the following recipe for a harvest drink: 
Water, 33 gallons; Sharp Vinegar, 1 gallon; 
Molasses, 1% gallons; Ground Ginger, % lb. 

This will last thirty hands until dinner time, 
when as much more may be mixed up to serve 
until night. It is carried to the field daily in a 
cart, and moved about after the hands, each 
one of whom is limited to a cocoanut full at a 
time, always without ice — (they drink nothing 
else. ) 

For our part we see no harm in ice. We 
have used it regularly for fourteen years with 
out any bad result, but on the contrary, we 
think with benefit. 

We know persons who have used it benefi- 
cially for a still longer period. A venerable 
friend of ours, recently deceased, assured us 
that he had used it thirty years or more, and 
never without advantage. His plan was too 
carry out a barrel of ice on a cart, and keep the 
water tubs nearly filled with it. His theory, 
and we believe the true one, was, that the ice 
acted as a tonic; and the hands could never 
drink to distention. 

Strong coffee should always * be given at 
breakfast and at night. 

Cream Beer. — As the warm weather is now 
upon us we begin to think of refreshing drinks. 
I have a famed receipt which I give. It is an 
effervescing drink, but far pleasanter than soda 
water, inasmuch as you do not have to drink 
for your life to get yotir money's worth, the 
effervescence being much slower. Two ounces 
tartaric acid, two pounds white sugar, the juice 
of one lemon, three pints of water. Boil to- 
gether five miuutes; when nearly cold, add the 
whites of of three eggs well beaten, with half a 
cup of flour and half an ounce of essence of win- 
tergreen. Bottle and keep in a cool place. Take 
two tablespoonfuls of this syrup for a tumbler 
of water, and add one-quarter of a teaspoonful 
of soda. — Household. 



How to Cook Potatoes. 



Baked Potatoes. — Potatoes are more nutri- 
tious baked than they are cooked in any other 
manner; and they relish better with those who 
have not been accustomed to eat them without 
seasoning. Wash the potatoes clean, but do 
not soak them. Bake them as quickly as pos- 
sible, without burning in the least. As soon as 
they are done, press each potato in a cloth, so 
as to crack the skin and allow the steam to es- 
cape. If this is omitted, the best potatoes will 
not be mealy. They should be brought imme- 
diately to the table, as they will soon become 
solid and lose their flavor. 

Steamed Potatoes. — Potatoes are much 
more nutiitious and palatable if they are prop- 
erly steamed, than they are boiled. Wash 
them clean and place them in a steamer over 
boiling water. If the potatoes are of a good 
quality, the secret o : having them mealy and 
palatable is in steaming them very rapidly — as 
without a rapid condensation of steam and a 
detention of steam in the steamer by a close 
lid, the potatoes will be hard and appear not to 
be done, however longjthey may have been cook- 
ing. They should steam until the skin cracks, 
and a fork will easily penetrate the centre. If 
not to be brought to the table soon, they should 
continue to steam until wanted, as steamed po- 
tatoes become solid much sooner than boiled 
ones do. 

To Boil Potatoes with the Skins on. — After 
the potatoes are properly washed and a little 
of the skin taken off at the ends, place the 111 
in a kettle of boiling water, allowing no more 
water than is sufficient to cover them. They 
should boil slowly, as the agitation of water 
in rapid boiling dissolves and breaks the 
potatoes before they are done, and leaves them 
insipid and moist. They are better left unmoved 
to boil, and there should always be a vessel of 
hot water, from which the kettle may be replen- 
ished in case there is rapid evaporation from 
the state of the atmosphere. A pot with 
the top drawn in is better for boiling potatoes 
than a wide-topped vessel'. The water should 
be poured from them before they are quite done 
to the centre. A few spoonsful of cold water 
should then be added, and the vessel be placed 
upon the hot part of the stove with a clean nap- 
kin thrown over until the potatoes are wanted. 

If the best potatoes cannot be obtained (and 
no others are really fit to eat, ) when about half 
done pour off the water; add cold water, but 
not enough to come to the top of the potatoes, 
and finish boiling and steaming them off as be- 
fore. A close cover should never be placed over 
potatoes after cooking, either in the kettle or 
upon the table. After potatoes are about half 
boiled, for variety they are very nice finished 
off in the oven, either with the skins on or 
after removing them. They will need but a 
short time to bake in this manner. — Herald of 
Health. 

Uses of Paper. — Few housekeepers are aware 
of the many uses to which waste paper may be 
put. After a stove has been blackened it can 
be kept looking very well for a long time by 
rubbing it with paper every morning. Rub- 
bing with paper is a much nicer way of keeping 
the outside of a tea-kettle, coffee-pot and tea-pot 
bright and clean than the old way of washing 
them in suds. Rubbing with paper is also the 
best way of polishing knives and tin-ware and 
spoons; they shine like new silver. For polish- 
ing mirrors, windows, lamp-chimneys, etc., 
paper is better than dry cloth. Preserves and 
pickles keep much better if brown paper, in- 
stead of cloth, is tied over the jar. Canned 
fruits are not so apt to mold if a piece of writing 
paper, cut to fit the can, is laid directly on the 
fruit. Paper is much better to put under a car- 
pet than straw. It is warmer, thinner, and 
makes less noise when one walks over it. Two 
thicknesses of paper placed between other cov- 
erings on a bed are as warm as a quilt. If it is 
necessary to step upon a chair always lay a 
paper upon it, and thus save the paint or wood- 
work from damage. 

Selected Receipts. 

Raspberry Jam. — Let the raspberries 
be thoroughly ripe. Mash them with a 
wooden spoon. To every pound of raspberries 
add a pound of sifted sugar. Boil this 
well together during half an hour, stirring 
it continually, lest it should burn. When of a 
good thickness, put it into pots, let it cool thor- 
oughly, and cover with brandied paper. 

Blackberry Jelly. — Gather the fruit when 
perfectly ripe, and in very dry weather. Put 
the blackberries into a jar and place the jar in 
hot water, keeping it boiling until the juice is 
extracted from the fruit. Pass it through a fine 
sieve or jelly-bag without much pressure. For 
every pint of juice add fourteen ounces of sugar 
and boil in a clean preserving-pan about five 
minutes, carefully taking off the scum as it rises 
to the surface. Place it hot in small jars and 
cover it down with thin tissue-paper, dipped in 
brandy, and brown paper over it. Keep it in a 
cool, dry place. 

Apple Tapioca. — Pare and core fine apples, 
place thorn in a deep pudding dish, fill the 
openings where the core was removed, and 
sprinkle thickly over the apples with white 
sugar. Have a dessert spoonful of tapioca 
soaked in water for eacli apple; and a little salt, 
and place this about among the apples; fill up 
with water to the top of the apples, and bako 
until the apples are soft and delicately browned, 
but not until they have lost their shape Eat 
cold, with cream or a soft custard. 



yi'isciti^flJeotJs, 



Silk Culture. 

Editors Press:— The progressive, enter- 
prising and enthusiastic Newman, whose 
experimental cocoonery I have this day had 
the pleasure of visiting, has resolved upon 
not being unduly represented in the 
present trial of sericulture. He is loud and 
bitter in his complaints agaiust the press of 
the State, accusing it of having based its 
instsuctions to the people upon the silliest 
theoretical suppositions of the most igno- 
rant scribblers, thereby disjiaraging the 
enterprise in the estimation of capitalists, 
and hence robbing it of tho support it 
so much needed to make it a success. He 
intends giving the result of bis present ex 
periment to the public as occassion de- 
mands, fully believing that silk growing i3 
not a failure, but can be made a success, 
provided experiments are conducted 
thoroughly, and by persons well qualified 
to conduct them, He says, "As good 
cocoons can be produced amid the snows 
of the Sierras, and the fogs of coast counties 
as can be brought forth from the warmer 
and more genial climes of the south, pro- 
vided certain conditions are at our com- 
mand." Which conditions will be revealed 
fully as he progresses. 

Mr. Newman has at present, in the dif- 
ferent stages of advancement 1,200,000 
worms which appear to be healthy and in 
a flourishing condition. He is confident 
that the present trial will determine the 
fate of the silk-growing interests of our 
State, 

The silkgrower meets \»ith considerable 
difficulty in obtaining feed for his worms, 
owing to the fact that the unprofitable 
speculations of the past, contributed to the 
almost complete destruction of the mul- 
berry plantation. 

It is possible, and probable that silk 
culture may be a success here, provided, 
it becomes the earnest endeavor of parties 
interested to make it such. Yet while the 
country is full of unprincipled parties who 
are too ready to turn the assistance rendered 
honestly by the State to a dishonest pur- 
pose, discouragement will enevitably re- 
sult, and any assistance from the State had 
better be witheld, since its genuine pur- 
poses are subverted to the fatal injury of 
the object sought by the speculatively in- 
clined. But as the history of the past has 
undoubtedly cooled the speculative ardor 
for the future in this branch of business, 
we may predict with safety that Mr. New- 
man will be left alone this time, and that 
the well-wishes of all will follow him 
in his effort to place upon a paying basis 
the great object of his enthusiasm. 

Aeurelius Kamp. 

San Jose', June 10, 1872. 

Peach Leaf Blight. 

Eds. Press: — In your article in the 
Kural of June 29th, you say that the leaf 
curl, so injurious to peach trees this year, 
is caused by atmospheric influence. Allow 
me to differ from you, and give my reasons 
for doing so, without charging you with 
making "ignorant assertions," because we 
differ. You believe that heat, cold, or 
moisture alone caused the blight. I did 
think myself at first, that it was caused by 
the late spring frosts acting in some way 
upon the sap of the, as yet almost unde- 
veloped leaves; but this cannot bo the 
cause, for here and there all through my 
orchard are trees that have not been in the 
least affected by the curl leaf, and yet were 
exposed like all the rest to the same severe 
frost. 

I find the trees not struck by the blight 
are my poorest peaches, while the best va- 
rieties suffer the most. I think there is 
some kind of very minute insect that either 
bites, because preferring the juice of the 
leaf of the best peaches in preference to 
the common ones, or, perhaps, stings 
them, and thus they alone suffer from the 
blight It was not tho frost with rny trees, 
I am sure. c. v. 

Napa Valley, July 1, 1872. 

Our correspondent is referred to an ar- 
ticle in another column for our views in re- 
lation to the cause of the "curl leaf," of 
the peach tree. 

The object of conversation is to entertain 
and amuse. To be agreeable, you must 
learn to be a good listener. A man who 
monopolizes a conversation is a bore, no 
matter how great his knowledge. 



V 



12 



[July 6, 1872. 



Monday as Pay-Day. 

In this age of progress experiment often 
decides important questions in the social 
economy, as well as in science. One of 
the late innovations upon former custom 
has been the payment of workingrnen on 
Monday, instead of Saturday. Several 
large manufacturing establishments in 
England and America have inaugurated 
this system, -which has generally been 
found to work well. An Eastern exchange, 
speaking of the plan, presents the follow- 
ing argument in its favor: 

The temptation necessarily involved in a 
day of leisure and a pocketful of money, 
have been no longer felt. Sunday, instead 
of being devoted to dissipation, lias be- 
come a day of healthful recreation and 
rest ; and the week's wages, formerly in 
great part wasted, have been used to far 
better advantage. Under the old system it 
often happens that lirst-class workmen 
lose from one to three days early in the 
week in recovering from the effects of their 
Sunday excesses. Under the new system 
this evil no longer exists. It is said that 
the same number of men do one-and-a-half 
t Imes as many days' work in the same time, 
The efficacy of the ohange has been thor- 
oughly proven. It is to the interest of 
both master and man; and it therefore lies 
in the power of every employer to add 
greatly to the physical and moral welfare 
of his employes, not only without any loss, 
but with a positive gain to himself. 




Weights and Measures. 

ed by the laws or thb Dotted States. 

J'oun'le. linshrl. 

60 Blue G 4-4 

lluekv, ]i..it 62 

Dried Peaches :;:; 

Dried Appl. s 36 



Shelled Corn N 

Ooru in (lie ear 711 

Bye 60 

Oats }2 

47 

Irish Potatoes 90 

.",:, 

White Beans 60 

Beans w> 

Clover Seed 60 

Timothy Seed US 

ed 56 

Hemp Seed 14 

Millett Scud 50 



57 

Sail 50 

C .a] so 

Malt 38 

Bran 20 

Plastering Han- h 

Turnips .",:, 

Dnslacked Lime 30 

Cornmea] 4s 

Fine Salt Go 

Hungar .1.. ..:.n 



l' as 00 Ground Peas 24 

A box 24 l'.v 16 inches, 22 reel. 

A box 16 by 16 'v Inches, 8 di ep, i tains 1 bushel. 

A In" ih( s, 8 deep, its 

A. box 1 by 4 inchee, IX deep, peck. 

A box 4 by 4 inches, ! 2-111 deep, quart. 

Tin- standard bushel of the i 

The ■■ Imperial bushel " 
Inches. Any boi or me I stents ol 

whirl! are equal to 2150.4 cubic inohes, will hold a 
ol grain. In measuring fruit. . 

and other Substances, on -fifth must be added. In 

other words, a times even full makes 

one bushel. The usual practice is to " heap the meas- 
ure." 



How to Kalsomine. 

There are as many ways to kalsomine as 
there tire to whitewash. The simp] st mode 
is tu take ten pounds of Paris white, and 
soak it iu cold water — just enough water to dis- 
solve it well. Take one-eighth of a pi mud best 
white Cooper glue, soak in cold water, 
to cover. Let it soak three to four hours; or 
till well swelled. If there is much liquid by 
the time the glue is well swollen, take the glue 
out and put it in a saucepan over the fire, with 
;i little water to keep it from burning. Mit tin 
dissolved whitening thoroughly with the hand. 

This 
mixing needs to he done in a large Teasel, 
Then pour into these ingredients a 
ol a pint of linseed oil, and on top of the oil 
pour sufficient mnriatio ado (perhaps ten cents' 
worthj to cut the oil, stirring it the while. After 
this is done, add cold wal to the 

whole, in thin it down so as to remove the 
tinge, and make it a bluish white, apply 
with ;t clean whitewash brush, one or two 
coats. 



A Potato Mine. — An Italian garedner, who 

his twenty acres of land near Bay View, Bays 

that tli" profit from : thereon 

ason amount to $9,000. The lulls were 

three feel 

—total p t acre 9,000 pound.,. They w 
and brought to market in the early part of May 
and sold at live cuts per pound, which makes 
the return per acre some $150 — total for twenty 
acres $9,000. 

aa farmer 
thai after trying to trap, poison, and st- 
rata that overrun his pn n i ht two 
goats ami gave them th the yards and 
stables. Within a week every t, 
an 1 staid away until the goats were sold, nearly 
1, when they all came back 
with their friends, a second edition of goats 
was procured, and since then not a rat has been 
seen on the premises. 

AIu : dates that a Clearfield Fair 

consisted of a calf, pkin. It 

rained so hard, the first night, that thi 
swam off, the calf broke loose and ate the pump- 
kin, and a thief prowling around stole the calf, 
and that ended the fair. 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE AT WHOLESALE. 

IThe privs riven below are those for entire consignments 
from first bands, unless otherwise speciti 

San Francisco, Wedns., a. m., July 3. 

FLOUR — Market is quiet. We quote prices 
tis follows: 

Superfine, $4.50@4.75; extra, iu sacks, of 
19C lbs. |6.12%@6.25; Oregon brands, $5. 36 
(a $6,133 l!l sacks of 1:li; |,,s - 

WHEAT— The market has been dull at de- 
clining rates since our last review. The 
w is 81.55(2 1.60, and old, $1.60@ 
1.76 per 100 H's. 

The latest Liverpool market quotations come 
through at 12s, 3d.(a l.s.l.l. per cental. 

BAKLEY- Market dull. The ranee at close 

i; old feed 
old brewing $1.50(5 1.65. 
OATS— Market has been dull during the 

week under review. S.ths ordinary coast to 
choice bay, at $1.55(3 1.70 per 100 Ids. which is 
the extreme at close. 
CORN— Is quotable at $1.4 5t a 1 .50 ^100 lbs. 

COENMEAL— Is quotable at S'J.OOc S-J.75 

$ 100 lbs. from the mill. 

I C WHEAT— Is, iuiet at 91.75 per 100 lbs. 

EVE— Is quiet, at !?l.K0<t/ 2. on per 100 lbs. 

STBAW— Quotable at 50@G0c per bale. 

BEAN — Is selling at $17 per ton from the 
mill. 

MIDDLINGS— For feed, are $27.50 per ton 
from mills. 

OIL CAKE MEAL— Is selling at $30 per ton 
from the mill. 

HAY— Light sales at a range of $8@$15 per 
ton. 

HONEY— New is selling at 12%@25 in the 
i-o nib, and I2@16c strained; old incomb8@15; 
do strained 8@12%C per ft). 

POTATOES— The supply of Mission and 
Half-moon Bay is not very heavy, and prices 
are fair. Sales of Red at $1.85@1.90 per 100 

lbs. 

WOOL. — The market is still very quiet and 
prices are nominal. 

TALLOW— Good quality of Cal. 8c. 

SEEDS— Flax 3c; Canary, 5(3 Bo. 

PROVISIONS— California Bacon ll@12>^c 
per II..; Oregon, 1SJ^@14„" Eastern do. 10(5 12 
for char ana 14:iti.i for sugar-cured Break- 
fast; Cal. Hamsl2@13; Eastern do, 14^@15c; 
California Smoked Beef, I3%@14c. per lb. 

BKANS -The following are jobbing rates: 
Pea .*::.7:.(.' l.nii; small 'White $3.75@4.00 ; 
Small Butter |3.37%@3.50; 

I'.avo, l.00@$4.25; Pink and Bed, .s.V2o(</ $5.50. 

NUTS— California Almonds, 8@10c. for 
hard and 18@25 for soft shell; Peanuts, 5@ 
8c; Pecan, 25c ^ lb.; Hickory, 12c; Brazil, 
I it ; i liili Walnuts, 15c. ; Italian Chestnuts 25c. ; 
Eastern Chestnuts, 15@20c. ; French Almonds, 
25 @ 30c.; Princess Almonds, 3£@40c. ; Los 
Angeles Walnuts, 18c; Cocoa-nuts, §10.00 per 
100. 

FBESH MEAT -We quote slaughterer's rates 
as follows: — 

BEEF — American, 1st qualify, 7@8 ^ lb. 
do. 2d quality 6@7^ II...; do. 3d do. 3@5c. 

VEAL— Quotable at7@10c. 

MUTTON— 6@6%c. Tp, ft>. 

LAMB— Easier at 8(5 

PORK — Undressed grain-fed is quotable at 

. dressed, grain-fed, 8%@9%c. per lb. 
POULTRY— Live Turkeys^ 25@27o. # lb.; 
dressed, 27(5)30 per lb.; Hens $8.50@9.50; 
Boosters, S!S.50@9.50 per dozen ; Spring 
Chickens, $3.00(3)6.00 J Ducks, tame, $6.00@ 
$7.00 ]n r ilu/..; Geese,$15(a>18 ^do/.n. 

DAISY PRODUCTS— Fresh California But- 
ter, common to good in rolls, may still be 
-7%c, with a few choice lots 
at 30; New lirkin is quotable at 26@27%0. 

Chbbse New California, 10@llc; Eastern 
is jobbing at I4@15c. ~r/> lb. 

Boos— California fresh, Jare 37>J@40o. <$ 
doz. ; I .. 20. Oregon, 25 

LABI) -California 12%(*14; Oregon, none 
in market. Eastern iu cases 14@ll%c; do 
in tcs. ll%@12o. per lb. 

Kit I I P. 

Tah. Oranges, M.. 40 X@5Q QUtStrawberries lb 4 @ s 

.:■:..' 

I bi rriea ! 

AustlaLeraons.M — — Gooseberries — w — 

t - i 'berries Ill %<Zl . 

do, bx. 15 00.5 IT 00 Apricots 



Banaaas,ybanch i 5 
Currants 4 & 5 

i.\ 1 ii 

: les f* oz. 6 (cjl 7 



v 1 

Hg8 B (3) 9 

Peaches 8 512S 

Plums 



apples. 9 m.. 
Pears, 3 lb 

iprlcoLs, j? lb. 

l'lums, %» tt 5 @10 

VEOETABLES 

y* ib 

$ etl — I, 

Peaa 

Sweet Peas — — 

I troell ( 'i,:n 9. dot! . S @.8 

M irrowial Bq d lata 

:. tl 



DRIED FRUIT. 

IMtc-il, do V. Ib 22'iS 

a-. tt tb 5 £ 

111 will Hlnr.k KiRS, *«>.... 6 



White, do 15 ©20 



' luetunhet 

Suiuiner Seen, Iti . . 
Asparat-.e 

ft 

Beans 

Eeg Plant - 

Peppers - 

Okia — § in, 



Ki l 1 , 



GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 

A( 1BICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS— Dealers 
report an active inquiry for seasonable articles 
under this head. Stocks are in good supply 
and prices unchanged. 

BAGS AND BAGGING— Prices are as fol- 
lo ■ ■ . Burlap sacks 18c. ; Elour sacks 9%@10%c 
for ijrs. and 14%@15;'.;c. for hlfs. Standard 
Grunmeeare jobbing at 20(2 21c; Wool 75(5 site. ; 

Hessians III melt goods lie. ]«'f vard. 

BOOTS AND SHOES— Demand continues 
active for goods under this head and assort- 
ments are complete. 

BUILDING AND FENCING MATERIALS— 
The demand for lumber in the interior 



is light; city trade'fair. Export trade is light on 
account of scarcity of vessels and high freights. 
I), alers pay for cargoes of Oregon as follows : 
Rough $16@$ 17; do. surfaced at $28; Spruce 
$17@18; Redwood rough f 16; refuse do. $12; 
dressed do. $30; refuse ,do. $20. Rustic $32%; 
refuse do. $21%. Wholesale rates for 
descriptions are as follows: Laths at $2.50 
@2.75; Shingles $2.50@2.75. Sugar Tine $35 
@45 5 Cedar $27% f> .37%. Tickets: Rough, 
$14; pointed, $16 ; dr. . The follow- 

ing list of retail prices is continued by the 
Lumber Dealers' Exchange. 

Puget Sound Pine- 
Rough, 3 M $22 50 

Fencing arnlSteppiuit, V M Sf (k) 

Fencing, second quality, "it SI 25 00 

Let hs. jt M 3 00 

Fencing, ¥ lineal toot Jic 

Redwood — 

Rough, 3» M 22 50 

ins., f) M 17 on 

Etongh Pickets, "tf M 18 00 

Icki ts, pointed, 9 M 30 00 

h'.inrv Pickets, "^ JI SO 00 

Siding, '$ M 25 00 

Tougued and Grooved, surfaced, it M 37 50 

Do do refuse jt tl 

Ualf-inch surfaced, Tjt M 35 00 

Rustic %» M 40 00 

Batten it lineal foot 5jc 

Shingles ¥M 3 uo 

Sustar Pme is jobbing at (65 fur clear and $15 lor 

w.e. .lid qualitv. 

COFFEE— Costa Rica 20J^o; Guatemala 18c. 
Javt 26c; Manilla, 10%; Rio 19%@20; 
Ground Coffee in cases 30c; Chiccory, 12%. 

SPICES— Allspice 14(5J l.'.c. Clove's 16(a 17c. 
Cassia 35(5; 30c. Nutni. 1.10. Whole 

Pepper 20c. GroundSpices — Allspice $1.00 $ 
doz.; Cassia $1.50; Cloves $1.12%; Mustard 
$1.50; Ginger and Pepper, each $1.00(5 1.12 \> 
doz. ; Mace $1.50 $ lb. ; Ginger 15c $ lb. 

FISH— We quote Pacific Dry Cod in bun- 
dles at 4%c.@5%, Salmon inbbls. $6.00@7.00, 
hf do, $3.50@4.50; Case Salmon, $2@3 ^ doz 
for l@;2-lb cans respectively; Pickled Cod, 
I, hf bbls and $8 in bb'ls; Puget Sound 
Smoked Herring, 60@85o per box; Mackerel, 
No. 1 hf bbls, $8.00@9.00; extra, $9.50(5 10.00; 
in kits No. 1 $1.75@2.15; do No. 2, $1. 50® 
1.62%. Smoked Salmon, 7@7%c per lb. 

NAILS— Quotable at - 1 1 for assorted 

si/es. 

PAPER — California Straw Wrapping, sells at 

$1.50(« 1.60, Eastern $1.60(5 1.80 $ team. 

PAINTS— AVhite Lead s ( „i2%.;; Whitening, 
2%c; Chalk 2c; Paris White 3c; Ochre and 
Venetian Red each ;;' [; Bed lead and Litharge 
each 10%0*llc. |> to. 

BICE -Sales of China No. 1 at7@7%c.and 
No. 2at 6%@6%o "& lb; Siam, quotable at 5%(SJ 
6%c in mats; Carolina Table, 10@11; Hawai- 
ian, !'(« 10c per tt). 

SI 'tl Alt— We quote Cal. Cube at 12~;c; Cir- 
cle A Crushed, 12%C, and Granulated 12e; 
Golden C. 10%@llc; Hawaiian 8(5 10%c. ases- 
lb. 

SVBUP — Prices may be given as follows: 
57%c in bbls, 60 in hf bbls, and 05c in kegs. 

SALT— California Bay sells at $5@$14; 
Carmen Island, in bulk, S14(ml5; Fine Liver- 
pool, $23.50'$ ton ; coarse, $18@19. 

SOAP — The prices for local brands are 5@ 
10c, and Castile, 13@13%c $ lb. 

TEA — Sales as below, less duty, which was 
taken o!f on the 1st inst. We quote Young Hy- 
son at 70c@$1.15 ; Gunpowder, 85(5>$1.45; Im- 
perial, H5e(o si.25; Oolong in bulk 40c(«/ 11.00, 
in % lb. papers 37%c(5)$l. 10; English Break- 
fast |Sonchong 15c $1.0l>; English Breakfast 
Congou, 50@85c. ; Basket 50@65c. per lb. 



San Francisco Metal Market. 



PKICKS FOR 1NV01CI8 

fdbbblQ j'ricts ntofrom fm tofiftan pur cent. Myhtr than tht 
folloioiiid q-tot»'i"ti*. 

W i i sksdaT, July 3, 1872. 

Sootoh Pig Iron, 3 ton fnl 00 @ 85 00 

I'a:. E* ton TUU0 tg, 7.SIK1 

i Bar, bad assortment, «B — 0»H@ 

i I liar, good assortment, %t lb —05 toi 

H.iiler, No. 1 to I — 0"'!a'«j 

Plate.no. t to 9 —on @ 

So. iu to 13 — 08 @i 

s t. No. U to 20 — 08 @ 

So. u to n — 08 ® — 

II nrao Shoes 7 50 (a) 

Nail Rod 10 

Norway Iron 

Rolled Iron • • S 

Other Irons for Blacksmiths, Miners, etc. 6 @ 6 

■ in*. J9 lb — 40 @ — 45 

Sheathing, Yellow •■ — 30 <<a - 3.1 

Sheathing. Old Yellow — 12 © — 1'i.f 

-ition Nails — '•.'■< — SO 

Composition Bolts — 28 — ^0 

I'latos. Charcoal, IX |t boi 19 00 Ml 

Plates, ICCharcoal 17 00 17 So 

Rooting Plates 18 00 18 50 

BancaTin, Slabs, H lb —40 — 55 

STEEI..--English Cast, ¥ lb — 15 — 16 

Drill 15 18 

FlatBar 17 .18 

Plough Points 3 75 

Russia (for mould boards) 12,S 

Qt-IL'KSII.VER.— 3 lb -—85 

LEAI>.-l"iK,Hlb --05?.,' —118 

Sheet — 10 

Pipe - » -10 

Bar OS'i —07 

Zin. .-Sheets, » B) — 11 — l\H 

BoitAX.-Retined —27 - 30 

Borax, crude — 5 



HINTS FOR 



Wa will send on receipt of stamp for 
postage, nUUI, our .W-page Circular, 
containing 112 Illustrated Mechani- I KII/LT KITHPC 
cal Movements; a digest of PATENT 111 » til I Un»3. 
LAWS; information how tc obtain patents, and about the 
rights and privileges of inventors and patentees: list of 
Ooverment fees, practical hints, etc., etc. Address DEWEY 
& CO., Publishers and Patent Agents, San Francisco. 



State University.— The next term of the Prepara 
ti.ry Department will begin April 20tb, 1S7J. 

The course of study embraces the Ancient and the 
Modern Languages and the higher Mathematics, and is 
specially adapted to the University curriculum. 

Terms, $12 a term. GEORGE TAIT, Oakland. 

13v3bp-tf 



San Francisco Retail Market Rates. 



Butter, Cal fr. lb 
do Oregon, lb.. 

Honey. $ lb 25 

Cheese, $ lb ... . 20 

Eggs, per doz . . . 45 

I-ard, "f" lb IK 

.NuiMr, cr., 7 Ib.l 00 

Brnwii.do.cttti H 

Beet, do 12 

Sugar, Map. lb. 25 

Plums, dried, ti. IS 

Peaches, dried. • '.M 
Wool Sacks, new 



Wel.m-.sdat Noon, July 3. 1872. 
MISCELLANEOUS. 

25 O 35 Flour sks, or 10U@ 1| 

(* I <lu Hlf Ib (g> 18 

25 % 30 Potato G'y Bags. . 

20 % 25 Second-hnddo 12 H 16 

50 Deer Skins, V lb. I., 

20 Sheep sks, wl on 50 @ 75 

Sheep wks. plain. L 



a 
a 13 



Goat skinH.eacli 
Dry Cal. Hides. 
1 do.... 
30 Dry Max. Hides 

I do 
i ',„ltish, drv, Ib 




Second-hnddo 82X« -:, Live Oak Wood. 

Wheat-sks, 22x38 Is ® Tallow 8S® 10 

PRODUCE. I I ■' 

Flour, ox. $bbl..fi 00 

Superrine, do .6 N 

Corn .Meal. lot' lb. J tin 



P 100 tt.s.2 
Oats, * 100 lbs... I 



Hay, * ton.. ..1 
Potat... - 
FRUITS. VEGETABLES, ETC. 



W.I ... I 7.S 



Barley, cwt 1 50 Oil 85 

,vt . . -.4 00 <S5 oo 






Apricot?. Ib Itj @ IS 

Pme Apples. t...5 (HI Bfi (III 

, >' bnch SO 



( 'at. Walnuts. Ib. 

Sti.ivv lurries. . It, U 

Raapberriea, It. . . j.i 

i i. nil,.!'! lea, * i,'. 

( Iherrlea, 91 tb... IS 
Oranges,%» 1000..-JH mi w ,Vl nil 
Lemons. V 100... 5 W to 10 Oil 
Lines, per ISO.. .2 w tgt 
Figs, freah, |* n>. 13 
us, wh.* 12 
\ . I n tiokes, doz. 50 
Brussel's sprts, • 10 

Beets, ft doz 

Potatoes.New^in) 2 
Potatoes, sweet,* 

ii. ~f» doz.l 50 
l 'aiilitlower, t .. 
( 'abbage, it doz. . 1 00 
Carrots^ doz... 15 
Celery, ^ doz 75 fa 

POULTRY. ||, MEATS. ETC. 






I r' "' . 

Cress,jBdozbun 20 
Dried Herbs, b'h 25 i™ .50 

Oarlioa 5 toy 

Green Peas, C 1 

l .leell lorn, ii i 

ttdox... 12 (31 25 

Mushrooms, y tb @ 

Horseradish, & lb tjh 20 

Okra, dried, 74 lb 50 @ 

Pumpkins, ft tb. i («, i 

Parsnips, -tbnebs 20 w> 

. (a) 25 

,V gal... 50 m «D 

Rhubarb, %t B. . . B '>i 
Radishes, t buns 

Suninier BQnash 

Marrowfat, do. 

Hulitwrd, do. . 
Dry Luna. shl... 
Spinage, %A bskt. 



in 



9 R 

sil's'it'yrW'bunch 12 ^) 2C 
Turnips,^* doz.. 15 C^ 20 



('hickens, apiece 50 (ftil 00 

Turkeys, "ft tb.. (J 30 

Ducks, wild, it p (g> 

Tame, do 1 50 taj> 50 

Teal, it doz — 

Geese, wild, pair @ 

T«nie, %t pair. .2 50 to* 00 

Hens, each 7J 

Snipe, it doz ... 10 

ish.do.... (at 

Quails, it doz ... (i 

Pigeons, dom. do3 "0 to 3 50 

Wild, do 2 00 @ 

each ... 40 tm 50 
Rabbits, tame*. IS 

Wild.do.it dz.1 75 (g,2 00 

]■■■-!. tend, h tt. is is 22 

Corned, Vlb.. 10 (m 12 

Smoked, tt lb . 15 (3 18 

Pork, rib, etc., Ib 10 .4 15 

• 'hops, do.il B> 15 @ 

Veal.it lb IS 13 

Outlet, do («4 20 

Mutton chops,* 12 m 15 

Leg.it lb 15 <S 18 

Lamb. |t lb » 18 

Tongues, lieef, ea % 75 

Tongues, pig, ea to 15 
Bacon, Cal.. jjl tt, Is 

Oregon, do . 18 (si 18 
Hams! Cal, it lb. 18 » 20 
Hams, OronP ■ — © 25 
• Per lb. t Per dozen 



s is 



Ii 14 



10 



u 



( noiee D'tBeld 

Whit taker's .. 

Johnson- Or. 
Flounder. > It,. . 
Salmon, it lb 

Smoked, new,* 1; 
i. V, lb . . ( 
I. *lb.. 
Perchi s water. r. 

Fresh water. Ib 
Lake Big. Trout* 
Smelts.;. 

Small do 

SiK, r Smelts. .. 

I lb 

Herring, (reefa. 

Sm kil, per 100 
Tomcod.it lb.... 

in, it doz.O 00 
Mackerel, p'k.ea 

Fresh, do — £& — 

Sea Bass, $1 tb. . . — 14 — 

Halibut — 

Sturgeon, Tft ft... 4 .4 5 
Oysters. » 100... 1 On 

Chesp. it doz..l 50 «2 00 

Turl.ot 10 

Crabs it doz....l Oil a 

Soft Shell - - 

Shrimps 10 

Prawns. — ay 

Sardines 8 @ 

1 Per gallon. 



',1 00 



25 S 



- a m 



Leather Market Report 

[Corrected weekly by Dolliver i Bro., No. 109 Post St.] 
San FltANelseo, Wednesday, July 3, 1872. 

Sole Lbathsb. — The Eastern market is higher, and some 
tanners have advanced their prices here. We quote as 
below : 

City Tanned Leather, V lb 2*329 

Santa Cruz Leather, ft lb 28ra29 

Country Leather, i^Ib 2>V«28 

Stockton Leather, ft lb 26@28 

French skins continue firm. All California skins are 
scaroe and bring full prices. 

. I, ., lot. K Kil. per do/. $80 ( 

Jodot, 11 to 19 Kil., per doz 

Jodot, second choice, 11 to 15 Kil.it doz 80 I 

Lemoine. 18 to Is Kil , it doi 

Levin, 12 and 13 Kil., per doz 

Cornellian, 16 Kil., per doz 

Cornellian. 12 to 14 Kil., per doz 60 OOojy 68 00 

Ogerau Calf, it doz 54 OIKgt 

n,18 Kil., it doz 65 00 

Simon, 20 Kil. V doz tsu 00 

Simon. 24 Kil. ft do/. 72 00 

Robert Calf, 7 and 8 Kil 35 00(3 40 00 

French Kips, it lb litis 130 

California Kip, « dox 80 00to80 00 

French Sheep, all colors, it doz 15 (Hi 

Eastern Calf for Bai*s, ft lb 115 

Sheep Roans for Topping, all colors, it doz 9 001;, 

Sh.ep Hoansfor Linings, ft doz 5 .Vila 

California Russett Sheep Linings 1 7Vg 

Best Jodot t.'a'.f Hoot Legs, it pair 5 Vi 

Good French Calf Boot Legs, it pair 4 50® S 00 

French Calf Boot Legs, ft pair * 00 

Harness Leather, it lb 3(IS» J7W 

Fair Hri.tlo Leather. » doz 48 

Skirtingl.eather.il lb 3*<» 37<s 

W( It Leather, it doz 30 (I 

Bull Leather, it foot 18® 21 

Wax Side Leather. » foot 20(0 22 




Ct.iniBiNr, Papers.— To induce further patron 

oral papen an this coast, we Will hereafter fnr- 
111-.I1 to new subsi-rib- 1 OB2IU A. ,l;l. 1 1.1 (KIM 

(a $1.50 monthly), with the Path 
one year for $4.50. ritmnnt BnbBczlDarB t.» thi 

eau also reoelve tin it for one year by 

Bending us 75 cts. additional to their regular subscription 
to our paper. 

Thursday Noon our last forms go to press. Cere. 
iniinii -itions should be received a week in advance aad 
advertiseiuents as early in the week as possible. 



Send us Communications.— They will be re 
If you have not time or the experience to 
write finished articles, send us facts brief and plain. 
We will take care of them. Remember that writers Im- 
prove themselves with others by use of the lam. Ofli- 
ens of societies, clubs and meetings, please report. 



It is not a little merit that an article for 
common uso should be tastefully finished as 
well as thoroughly made. The jilunchard 
Churn is one of the handsomest things a 
farmer can have in his house. 



a s. BE Thino.— CABLE SCREW WIRE Boots and 
111 Dot rip, leak or come apart, and are the 
, v. r worn. Try them. 
All bear the Patent stamp. 



The Farmeb's Journal.— The ItuRAi. Pbjms, 
published by Dewey & Co., of San Francisco, 
is publishing some of the finest illustrations of 
the farming interests of the State, which huve 
, \, r adorned the pages ol an agricultural jour- 
nal in the Great West. Every tanner should 
subscribe. Often the information gleaned from 
a single article is worth more than the price of 
many years' subscription. Try it at least to« 
a year. — Mountain Mesa 



July 6, 1872.J 



a nuna 



13 



Our Agents. 

OtJB Friends can do much in aid of our paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their 
influence and encouraging favors. We intend to send 
none but worthy men. 

Wm. F. Spenceb— California. 

C. H. Dwineixe— Special Corresponding Agent. 

I. N. Hoao — Sacramento, General Agent. 

F. M. Shaw— San Diego. 

L. P. McCabtv — California. 

Samuel Ccshmak — Colorado Territory. 

A, C. Knox, City Soliciting and Collecting Agent. 

H. Bahlen & Bho., formerly of Havilah, Kern county, 
will please communicate with this office. 



Pnn.ADEi.PHiA Agency.— W. H. Damn, formerly of 
Kaii Francisco, is our correspondent and business agent, 
Frankford, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Oub London Agent. — Frederick Brash, 21 South Grove 
East, Mildmay Park, N. London, England, will act as 
n^ent fur th<" Press and receive subscriptions and adver- 
tisements at our lowest rates. 



Out Printed Mail List. 

Subscribers will notice that the figures found on the 
right of the pasted slips, represent the date to which 
they have paid. For instance, 21sp70 shows that our 
patron has paid his subscription up to the 2lBt of Sep- 
tember, 1870; 4jy72, that he has paid to the 4th of 
January, 1872; 4J173, to the 4th of July, 1873. The in- 
verted letters (15 ji 1, etc.,) occasionally used are marks of 
reference, simply for the convenience of the publishers. 

If errors in the names or accounts of subscribers oc- 
cur at any time an early notice will secure their imme- 
diate correction. Please notify us if you are not prop- 
erly credited within two weeks after paying. 

V£f postmasters, please send corrections also. 



A Good Binder for $1.50. 

Subscribers for this journal can obtain our Patent 
Elastic Newspaper File Holder and Binder for $1.50 — 
containing gilt title of the paper on the cover. It pre- 
serves the papers completely and in such shape that 
they may be quickly fastened and retained in book form 
at the end of the volume, and the binder (which is very 
durable) used continuously for subsequent volumes. 
Post paid, 25 cts. extra. It can be used for Harper's 
Weekly and other papers of similar size. If not entirely 
pleased, purchasers may return them within 30 days. 
Just the thing for libraries and reading rooms, and all 
who wish to file the Pbess. lambp 



Soft "White Hands. 

Wo believe there is no other thing will tend more to 
produce this effect than the constant use of Murray & 
Lanman's Florida Water, mixed with the water in the 
basin; lit removes redness and roughness, and is a re- 
liable beautifier of the skin. For sale by druggists 
everywhere. ^^ 059 

A Neglected Cough, Cold, or Sore Throat, 
which might be checked by a simple remedy, like 
"Brown's Bronchial Troches," if allowed to progress 
may terminate seriously. 

List of Officers of the Agricultural 
Societies of California. 

State Board of Agriculture.— President— Chas. 
F. Heed, Grafton, Yolo County. Directors — Coleman 
Younger, San Jose; R. S. Carey, Yolo; Chas. H. Ross, 
Sacramento; Wm. Blandiug, San Francisco; E.J.Lewis, 
Tehama; W. P. Coleman, Sacramento; C. T. Wheeler, 
Sacramento; Robt. Hamilton, Sacramento; Edgar Mills, 
Sacramento. Officers of the Board — Recording Secre- 
tary, Robert Beck, P. O., Sacramento; Corresponding 
and Traveling Secretary, I. N. Hoag, Sacramento; 
Treasurer, R. T. Brown, Sacramento. 

Southern District Agricultural Associa- 
tion — Los Angeles. — President — L. J. Rose, Los 
Angeles; Vice Presidents— J. A. Johnston, Santa Barbara; 

A. J. Fisher, San 'Bernardino; George A. Johnston, San 
Diego; Wm. Baker. Fort Tejon; L. H. Titus, Los Angeles. 
Treasurer — J. W.Hillman, Los Angeles; Secretary — J. A. 
Fisher, Los Angeles; Trustees — John Reed, F. M. Slaugh- 
ter, James Thompson, W. F. Edgar, T. D. Mott, J. G. 
Downey, J. S. Griffin, Wm. Ferguson, O. W, Childs, Los 
Angeles. 

Northern District Agricultural, Horticul- 
tural and Mechanical Society. — President - S. T. 
Brewster, Marysville; Secretary — J. C. Donly, Marys- 
ville; Treasurer— M. Marcuse, Marysville; Vice Presi- 
dents— D. E. Knight, Marysville; P. Pumyea, Marys- 
ville; A. W. Johnston, Marysville; M. C. Duffrey, Ma- 
rysville; Chas. Kent, Nevada; John Boggs, Colusa; E. C. 
Singletary, Colusa; J. R. Nickerson, Lincoln; Harmon 
Bay, Chico; R. E. Garland, Quincy; Dan. T. Cole, Brush 
Creek: Thos. Dean. Yuba City; C. F. Reed, Knight's 
Landing; J. B. Frisby, Suisun; J. B. McDonald, Ma'vlle. 

Santa Clara Agricultural Society. — Presi- 
dent — W. C. Wilson, San Jose; Vice Presidents— Cary 
Peebles, San Jose; J. P. Sargent, Gilroy; Directors — Win. 

B. O'Donnell, San Jose, S. B. Emerson, Mountain View; 
Treasurer— C. T. Ryland, San Jose ; Secretary — George 
Givens, San Jose. 

Sonoma & Marin Agricultural Society. — 
President — Lee Ellsworth, Pctaluma; Vice Presidents— 

E. Denman, J. A. Rose, Petaluma ; Treasurer— F. W. 
Lougee, Petaluma ; Secretary — I. Grover, Petaluma ; 
Directors — H. Meehan, Petaluma; G. w atson, San 
Rafael. 

Upper Sacramento Agricultural Society.— 
Presidont— Harman Ray, Chico; Vice Presidents — G. C. 
Perkins, Oroville; G, F. Jones, Chico ; Secretary— E. 
Hallell, Chico; Treasurer— C. L. Pond. Chico; Directors— 
D. M. Reavis, S. M. Sproul, Chico; T. L. Daniels, Oro- 
ville; R. M. Cochrun, G. F. Nourse, C. A. Miller, G. B. 
Cosby, Chico; J. F. Martin, Dayton ; G. W. Colby, J. L. 
Rufee, Noval; M. Biggs, Hamilton; Wm. DeHaven, 
Chico; H. A. Rawson, Red Bluff; A. G. Townes, J. C. 
Tjier, Tehama; J. Boggs, Princeton ; George Hoag, Ja- 
cinto; H. I. Glenn, Princeton; J. J. Rule, Shasta; L. M. 
Breed, Susanville; M. B. Bramford, Quincy. 

Siskiyou Co. Agricultural Society.— Presi- 
dent — William McCimnell, Yreka; Vice President - Jas. 
Vance, Yreka; Secretary — J. M. Strauscr, Yreka; Direc- 
tors— William Irwin, Robert Wixon, Samuel Magoffy, L. 
Swan, James Quinn, Yreka; Jesse Davis, J. W Evans, 
Little Shasta ; David Horn, Fort Jones; George Smith, 
Rough & Ready . 

Solano and Napa Agricultural and Me- 
chanic Arts Society. — President — A. M. Stevenson. 
Vacaville; Vice Presidents— J. B. Carrington, J. L. Heald, 
Vallejo; Nathan Coombs, Napa; James M. Thomson, 
Suscol; A. C. Palmer, OaUstogai M. R. Miller, Pleasant 
Valley; Secretary— John M. Gregory, Vallejo; Treasurer 
—J. B. Frisbie, Vallejo. 

San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Society. — 
President — J. K. Doake, Stockton; Vice Presidents — D. 

F. Douglass, George Worst, Linden ; Secretary— H. T. 
Compton, Stockton; Treasurer— T. K. Hook, Stockton; 
Directors— J. R. W. Hitchcock, French Camp;W.D. Ash- 
ley, Stockton. 

Bay District Agricultural Association. — 
President — J. M. Dune an, San Francisco ; Directors — 
8. B. Whipple, J.N. Killup, R. F. Morrow, H. R. Covey, 
C.S.Crittenden, William Ware, It. A. Finnigan, Oscar 
Lewis, S. L. Theller, W. Hendrickson, J. B. Dorr, San 
Francisco. 

Contra Costa Agricultural Society.— Presi- 
dent, G. P. Loucks; Vice-Presidents, G. M. Bryant and 
Chas. E. Howard; Directors, J. H. Hazcltine and Henry 
O. Gallagher; Secretaey, O. F. Alley; Treasurer, S. W. 
Johnson. 



BRIGHT UNION SAFETY LAMP. 

A CALIFORNIA INVENTION. 





Patented May 3d, 1871. Is the Best and Safest Lamp ever 
put in the market, for the following reasons : 

spcn m'7,T, hl ;i, La „ m . p -!? contracted with two tubes, as will be 
Sfli outside one (D) intended only for the attach- 
receive tin ^ r r r 'A and ^ the ^ side one < c > to contain oil and 
S, , it ,v?n i As there 1S no connection between these 

" ;' ," ,,V ,e , e 7 ld ^nt that there is no possibility of commu- 
■ m hi Lf J "l lt J? the oil; and •' IS long ;IS the oil in a Lamp 
explosion pertect 'y co ° l - there is, of course, no chance for an 

lias'l. 1 een U »ecured the ° nly ° ne eTer invented in which this result 
seen tnaTthere the burner is attached to the Lamp it will be 
is uo opportu- 
nity for tne oil 
toescapeshould 
the Lamp be 
overturned, 
and in case any 
accident sho'ld 
occur, the worst 
consequ ence s 
that could en- 
sue would he 
the breaking of 
a chimney or 
shade. From 
these facts it 
Will be evident 
that those who 

adopt this Lamp will secure themselves against the possibility 

11 or explosion iirisini; from the use of kerosene oil. 
„„„' '"• — ln eLamp is strongly and well made, attractive in ap- 
pearance, and something entirely new and novel. It will burn 
t ™ s ? ne ada Pt ed to any burner. With all of these advantages 
l;„S3 . V? es cl >eapness, and from present indications it is des- 
tined to become very popular. 

frnmtir' 1 ? 1 !'"^ 6 £° ^ hich the burner is attached (D) is free 
th» I, tah f £ f the ol1 <C) ' anrt a s P ace for <"''■ Passing from 
}!'?? end. between the tube of the burner and the tube of 
the oil, keeps it always cool. 

Lamp i it can Urner ' S the CaUSe of 8 eneratin S the gas in a 

not do it in this 

Lamp, as the 

burner is set on 

a tube which ■40%* 

contains no oil, 

consequently it 

cannot make 

any cas. 

6th. — Tn case 
of accident, the 
Lamp falling or 
thrown over, by 
which many ex- 
plosions occur, 
is the cause of 
the oil rushing 
to the flame. In 
this Lamp it is 
not so; it can 
be ihrown over and cannot send the oil to the flame ; it will run 
trom it, so the e is no danger of catching fire. 



This Lamp can be filled from the fount, on the top of 
~ g=. which is a screw. 

This Lamp can be attached to any Chandelier or Bracket 
fc\~- made. 



State and County Rights for Sale. Agents Wanted. 




Slnt?^ ™ UNI ° N " alKl aH Trimmin 8 s ca » be had by addressing the Manufacture 



and Patentee, 



JL.. MERRELL, 

No. 148 J Street, Sacramento. 



FOR 25 CENTS we will send, postpaid, four 
sample copies (recent numbers) of the Press. This, 
we believe, will induce many to subscribe who have not 
yet read our paper. It is a cheap and valuable favor to 
send a friend anywhere. 



FOR THE BEST OF 

SUMMER READING 

Get the Lives of the Great Music Masters; 
Of Beethoven ($2.00); of Handel ($2.00) ; of Mozart 
($1.75); of Mendelssohn ($1.75); of Rossini ($1.75); of 
Chopin $1.50) ; or of Schumanu $1.75). 

These are no Heavy Biographies, 

But are charmingly written and very entertaining 
books, as are 

Mozart's Letters, (2 vols., each, $1.75) ; 
Beethoven's Letters, ($2.00); 
Mendelssohn's Letters (2 vols., each, $1.75) ; and 
Reminiscences of Mendelssohn, ($1.75). 

To have a Jubilee at home, send for 

THE WORLD'S PEACE JUBILEE CHORUS 
BOOK 75 

For a good work on Composition, buy 

BAKER'S THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL 
HARMONY $2.00 

To make Sabbath School children's eyes sparkle, get 
that Gem of the Season, the New Sabbath School Song 
Bojk, entitled: 

SPARKLING RUBIES ! By Asa Hull and Harry 
Sanders, Esq 35 

The above Books sent, post free, on receipt of retail 
price. 

OLIVER DITSON h CO., Boston. 

CHAS. H. DITSON & CO., New York. 
25-vftt-ly 

SAVE $40! WHY PAY $80? 



THE IMPROVED 

Home Shuttle Sewing Machine. 

PRICE $40. 

This has no superior as a Family Machine. It uses a 
Shuttle and Straight Needle and two threads. It makes 
the Lock Stitch (alike on both sides). It is simplo, 
easy to understand, and light to run. Send for a Circu- 
lar. Agents wanted in every town. 

E. W. HAINES, General Agent, 

17 New Montgomery street, Grand Hotel Building, 
San Fbanoisco. 



CHALLENGE FEED MILL, 




For Farm use and Custom work. The only Practica 
Farm Feed Mill ever invented. Can be used with from one 
te eight-horse power, and grinds from 2. t >U lbs. to one ton of 
barley per hour. Price of Mills from $75 to $1U0, according 
to size. Adapted to Wind, Water, Steam, or Horse Power. 
The grinding surface is adjustable, and can be replaced in 
fifteen minutes at an expense of one dollar to one dollarand 
a quarter. Over :t,000 now in use. Every Mill warranted to 
give satisfaction. For sale by all leading agricultural firms 
on the coast. For further particulars send for circular. 
M. H. tfOWDISH, General Agent, 
With Hawley & Co., cor. California and Battery sts., 

18v:i-sa San Francisco 



L0NGSH0RES COMBINATION TOOL. 




This device is just what its name indicates. As a 
Kitchen Tool it is indispensable. It will tit and lift 
with perfect safety, any Stove Lid, Frying Pan, Pie Pan, 
Pot, Kettle, or any other vessel or dish used about a 
stove. It is a complete tool for stretching i-npcls, 
driving tacks, pulling tacks, &c, &c. It answers the 
double purpose of hammer and pincers, and is also a 
good Nut Cracker. It is made of the best malleable 
iron, and the Hammer, Pincers and tack puller are all 
hardened so as to stand the roughest usage. An Agent 
is wanted in every town on the Pacific Coast to sell this 
valuable little implement. Retail prico fifty cents. 
Special inducements to agents. 

WIESTER & CO., 
17 New Montgomery St. (under Grand Hotel) , S. F. 



Thresher's Guide and F 
er's Friend — Just 
Published. 

Written by D. Hollihan, a practical thresher for over 
fifteen years. 

It contains facts and hints of great value to both 
threshers and farmers. A small book worth many times 
its cost to those specially interested, who thresh or em- 
ploy threshers. 

CONTENTS. 
Beater, care of; Belt Protector, Hollihan's (Illus- 
trated); Belts, Management of ; Cracking of Grain; Cyl- 
inder, How to balance; Cylinder, Movement of; Cylin- 
der, Motion of; Engineer's Duty; Geared or Belt Ma- 
chines; Gears, Management of: General Management; 
Horse Powers; Horse Power, Moving a; Introductory 
Remarks; Machines; Machines, Management of: Ma- 
chines, Moving them; Management, General; Rake, 
Speed of; Shoe, the; Shoo, Improved; Shoe, What it 
is; Sieve, New Jointed (Illustrated) ; Stacking Wheat; 
Steam Powers . 

Published and for sale, wholesale and retail, by 
DEWE? & CO., at this office. Single copies, in flexible 
cloth, $1. In extra binding, SI. 50. Post free. 



Agricultural and Industrial 

BOOKJS. 

For Sale at this Office. 

American Manures, and Farmers' and Planters' 
Guide — comprising a description of the elements and 
composition of plants and soils—the theory and prac- 
tice of composting — the value of stable manure and 
■waste products, etc, etc.; also chemical analysis of 
the principal manufactured fertilizers — their assumed 
and real value — and a full expose of the frauds prac 
tised upon purchasers. By Wm. H. Bruckner, Ph. D., 
and J. B. Chynoweth. Price $2, post paid. Address 
Dewey & Co., this office. 

The Fruits and Fruit Trees of America, or 

the Culture, Propagation, and Management, in the Gar- 
den and Orchard, of Fruit Trees generally, with descrip- 
tions of all the finest varieties of Fruit, Native and 
Foreign, cultivated in this country. By A. J. Downing. 
Illustrated; ltllis pages; lsiiii. The best authority, and 
only complete work. Price, in cloth and gilt, $5, post 
paid, by Dewey & Co., this office 
New American Farm Book — originally by R. L. 

Allen: revised by Lewis F. Allen, 1871. Embracing in- 
formation on all general subjects pertaining to Farming 
and all branches of Husbandry— a wide range, yet very 

fully and ably treated. 5'2fi na#es. Price $3, postpaid. 
Address Dewey it Co., this office. 

Harris (Joseph) on the Pig. Breeding, Rear- 
in.', Management and Improvement. Illus., 250 pages. 
18T0. Interesting to all readers; instructive and full of 
hints to raisers. Price $2, post paid from this office. 

Cranberry Culture, by a Practical Grower in 

N. J., Joseph J. White. A special treatise of 126 pages, 
Post paid from this office, $1.75. 

Farm Implements and Farm Machinery, and 

the principles of their construction and use. W ith simple 
and practical explanations of the Laws of Motion and 
Force as applied on the Farm ; by John J. Thomas ; Wi 
illustrations and 302 pages. Sold by Dewey <fc Co., post- 
paid, for $1.75. 

Ten Acres Enough: A practical experience, 

showing how a very small farm may be made to keep a 
very huge family, with extensive and profitable experi- 
ence in the cultivation of the smaller iruits. Tenth 
edition, 1871. Price, post free, $1.50, at this office. 

Cotton Culture; by J. B. Symon; with an ad- 
ditional chapter on Cotton Seed rind its uses. 1!)0 pages, 
lH(j». Price, post free, 91.75, at this office. 

How Crops Grow: by Johnson; A treatise on 

the chemical composition, structure and life of the plant . 
for all students of agriculture; with illustration and 
analysis. 394 pages; 186s. Post free from tins office, £2.50. 

American Grape Growers' Guide; by Wm, 
I 'horlton (N. Y.) 204 pages, 1852. Post free, $1, from this 
office. 

American Fish Culture, embracing all the de- 
tails of artificial breeding and rearing of 'I rout, and the 
culture of other fishes; by Thad. Nonas. Illustrated, 304 
pages. 1868. Post, free from this office, $2.50. 

How Crops Feed; Johnson, 1870. On the At- 

mosphere and the Soil as relal ed to the nut ritinn of agri- 
cultural plants, Illustrated. 375 pages. Post free from 
this office, $2 50. 
Randall's Sheep Husbandry, illustrated, with a 

treatise on the Diseases of Sheep, Prevention and.tJure 
Post free from this office, cloth edition, $2. 



Endless Chain Elevator, 

FOR RAISING WATER FROM WELLS. 

BALL & CHARY, Patentees. 




The inventor claims that his ELEVATOR excels any 
other apparatus that has ever been brought before the 
public for the purpose of raising water from wells. Its 
chief merits are: First— The water is obtained from the 
well in a purer and colder itatOj for the reason that it is 
drawn from near the bottom, Second — It is operated with 
the least difficulty) particularly in Lifting a certain amount 
of water from any depth in a given time, as compared with 

any other mode. Third — It obviates nil necessity for going 
down into the well in put ting in the machinery, or in, i 
pairing the same, as such labor can be performed at the 

-nil. ire. Fourth— It can be easih taken ont of one well 

and transferred to another, fifth— It is less liable bO get 

out of repair— but when repairs are necessary thej 

easily made by any one , the action made by the Kndh <s 

Chain and bnokets keeps the well properly ventilated; 

(lure is no possibility for tho person operating it [ nor for a 
ehila I to fall into the well. 
For circulars and particulars address 



20v24awbplm 



JOHN A. BALL, 

Grass Valley, Nevada Co., Cal. 



14 



3? «A,(i/X,E 1G/ jt\* 



[July 6, 1872. 




IMPORTANT TO FARMERS. 



It will be to the Interest of the Farmers of California 
to know that I>. M. Osborne il Oo., of Auburn, N. Y., 
manufacturers of the 

KIRBY REAPING & MOWING MACHINES 

Have established an office on the corner of Clay anil Pa- 
ris streets, San Francisco, for the sale of their Celebrated 
Machines. The KIRBY COMBINED is a machine that 
has been favorably known on this coast for the last leu 
years. Its performance aB a reaper or mower, as a 
HAND-RAKE or SELF-BASE MAi'lllNK, has never been ex- 
. -elled; and while it has kept up with all the late im- 
provements, we present it this vear with the new BAL- 
I'lYiuUE SELF-RAKE, which has proved itself to be 
all that can be required in that line. 




We would call especial attention to the twimviii ill'] 

kikky if owsb, a late invention of three yeat 
1 i:s r. it embraces several 1 which no other 

two-wheeled Hover has ever yet attained, and which 
givesit Beveral advantages which no other machine of 
its kind possesses, among which are, 

1st— A jointed PITMAN, which allows the knife or 
cutter-bar to work on any angle without tan 1 
OB friction. 

3d — It can be run with a stiff or limber pole, as 

DESIRED. 

3d — The points of the yards or fingers can be] 
pick at any angle to suit the condition of grass or ground. 

4th — The driver's seat is also a lever to eosamsnd tie 
heel of tho Cutter-bar, and also to change the pick of 
the guards. 

5th — A new device of the Pitman, expressly 
for California, by which it will take up its own weir, 
thus preventing shako or jar and the breaking of tin 
knives . 

There are other points of advantage we will omit to 
mention, but which can be readily seen by the Farmer 
on investigation. 

We design to have local agencies at all the principal 
points of trade in tin-state, where the Farmer can inves- 
tigate the merits of tho Machines before purchasing 
elsewhere. 

D. M. OSBORNE & CO. 
irner Clay and Davis streets, San Fri 

By OMAR JEWELL, Manager. 1«\ 3-Sm 



Hill's Patent Eureka Gang Plow, 




The following are some of the reasons why these 
Plows, are entitled to preference over any other Plow 
in use. They are made of tho best material, and every 
Plow warranted. They are of light draught, easily 
adapted to any depth, and are very easily handled 

They will plow any kind of Boil, and leave the ground 
In perfect order. 

FIRST PREMXTJMS! 

These Plows have taken First Premiums at the State 
Fair, at the Northern Distrii t Fair, at the 1'pper Sacra- 
mento Valley Fair, and the State Agricultural Socletj 
Premium of $10 for the best dang Plow, after a fair test 
and competition with the leading Plows of the stair 

Champion Deep-Tilling Stubble Plow, 

Took the First Premium over all competitors at the 

Slate Fair, 1871. It furrows 14 in. deep and '2-1 wide. 

This Gang Plow combines durability with cheapness, 
being made entirely of iron by experienced workmen, of 
the best material. Over three hundred are now in use. 
and all have given entire satisfaction. 

Manufactured and tor Bale at Marysville by 

HILL & KNATJGH, 
And also by most leading Agricultural Dealers in the 

State. Send at once for Circulars, prices, etc. 21v3 



MATTESON & WILLIAMSON'S 




o 



Took the Premium over all at the great Plowing 
Match in Stockton, in 187(1. 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who 
have been long in the business and know what is re- 
quired in the construction of Gang Plows. It is quickly 
adj usted. Sufficient play is given so that the tongue will 
pass over cradle knolls without changing the working 
position of the shares. It is so constructed that the 
wheels themselves govern the action of the Plow cor- 
rectly. It has various points of superiority, and can be 
relied upon as tho Beat and Most Desirable Gang Plow 
in the world. Seud for circular to 

MATT .-.SON & WILLIAMSON, 

14v2-3m Stockton. Cal. 



San Francisco Wire Works, 

NO. 665 MISSION STREET, 

Hear Third Street San Francisco. 

0. H. GRUENIIAGEN A 00. 



"The Head of the Family." 

NICHOLS, SHEPARD & CO., 

Grain-Saving-, Time-Saving-, Money-Making 

"VIBRATOR" THRESHERS, 

AXD THEIR ELEGANT CONVEBTTBLE 

11 Mounted" Horse Powers. 
Office and Factory at Battle Creek, Michigan. 




nized, in the trade nnd In the field, as the 
" leading thresher" of the period. Fcli.y i.sTABi.TsirEjt 
through many years of successful use. Endoksej) bj 
more than sixty thoxisand fanncru and grain rai*< rswhii 
have employed and used them. Is use in eighteen 
States and four Territories, with largely increasing de- 
mand and growing popularity. Universally com- 
kesbed :is embodying tin- only true principle, and pro* 
• machine." Pukkminekt for pav- 
ing grain, saving time, fae* worJL, perfection. of cleaning. 
n t<> varying conditions of grain, eoUVe&lence. 
<",-■>■ ■•! limit, and i-Jise of management. PEctLiuti.Y 
adapted to handle Flax, Timothy, Alfalfa and other 
seeds, so difficult with others. In DJEMaXD l»y gHkia 
raisers, at remunerative prices, while nelghl>orin£,' ma- 
chines :ire idle. Attractive in simplicity of parts, hav- 
ing only four belts and one set of gears. Specially 
NOTi-KAiu.E for making no "litter," and requiring no 
'cleaning up" process after it. AncFTrrMNEM BY farm- 
ers to save them the COBt of their threshing lulls, by the 

t saving of grain alone, over and above the best 
of others. Obtaining the *'pick" of Jobs and extra 
prires for its work. Unrivalled in durability, handi- 
aese.saseof management, ease of draft, elegant finish, 
mbstantial construction. 




TuKMv;\vr "MomrrED" Power -mounted on tour 
. h. r ■ it remains when in operation. Attrait- 
ive FEvwt'RKs : securely t astened with two stakes; lev- 
ers, tromDiing rods, * to., carried with it; the "angling" 
line shaft, by which all short kinks are avoided in 
'coupling up;" all boxes, journals, shafts and gears in- 
dependent of the wood frame: gears "clutch" on; only 
one key used; convertible to different speeds, at trifling 
cost, to match other machines; of tho lightest draft, 
very durable, easily and cheaply repaired; sold sepa- 
rately, if desired, and speeded bo match other separators 
or machinery, 

All Persons who think of buying a new Thresher and 
want the *" leading machine," and all farmers who raise 
grain and want it threshed, saved and cleaned to the 
best advantage, arc cordially invited to send me their 
address, and receive ifree) our Illustrated Pamphlet 
and Circular, containing a full description of thesi 
superior machines, with other valuable information. 

JOHN NICHOLS, 

20v4-2m 285 K street, Sacramento. 



Thimble-Skein Farm Wagons. 




JUST RECEIVED FROM 
THE CELEBRATED ZUFELT & CO., 

Sheboygan Falls, Wis., established in 1850. Also the 

Celebrated La Belle Wagon, 

Manufactured by FARNSWORTH, WOODWARD & CO., 
At Fon du Lac, Wis. 

run']'. List it eithoi of the above named Waoon-s. 



3 in Thimble Skein.. J120 
3Sf " " •' .. I2G 
3ii " " •• .. KiO 

4 " " " .. 140 
Above prices include Box 

and Top-Box, Spring-Seat, 
Brake, Double and Single- 
Treee, stay Chains, Neck- 
Yoke ami Wren-li. Backs 
with California Brakes, in 
lieu of Boxes. $5 additional. 



3 in Running Gear. .$90 
3?rf " " "... M 
•64 '• " " ...100 

4 ...110 



Above prioaa include 
Double ami single. Tries, 
stay Chains, Neck-Yoke 
and Wrench. 

All sizes of Wagons with Boxes, Brakes and Spring 
Seats, or without. All Wagons are manufactured to my 
order for this coast, and are warranted for two years in 
any climate, and will be delivered OS t>"ard of any boat 
or railroad ears free of expense to the purchaser. 

13 A. VI 13 r>. MILLER'S, 

IMPORTER AN'D MANUFACTURER, 

715 Market street, near Third, San Francisco. 

19vl-9m 



THRESHING AND REAPING 
Lubricating Oil. 

Wi invite attention to this superior Lubricator, spe- 
cially for all out door machinery exposed to the dust 
ami dry air of a California climate. Being of Heavier 
Gbavity than Sperm, a less qnantity Is needed. It 
neither gums or becomes thick and sticky, like the ordi- 
nary machine oil in common use, with a saving of from 
15 to 25 per cent, in reduced friction, and at a coet 50 
per cent, less than the best Lard Oil. 

W. STRINGER & CO., 

20v4-3m 424 Davie street, SAN FRANCISCO. 



STUDEBAKER WAGONS 




Have become 

The Standard Wagons of the Pacific Coast. 

For Quality, 

d usability, 

Lu.nr Rcnnlno, 

Good Pbopobtion, 

and Excellent Style, 
Tliey ZTa-v-o no Peer. 
Iron Axle, 

Thimble Skein, 

Header and 

Spring Wagons, 
Of all sizes, with heavy ttres rlvited on, always on 
hand and sold for $100 to $165. 

Having established a Manufactory to build Waoons, 
Reus. Brakes and Seats, I am better prepared thaD 
ever to furnish 

Just the Kinds of Wagons Needed, 
As I make a specialty of the wagon trade. 

The attention of Deaiers is especially requested. 
Send for Circular and Prick List. 

16vH-3m E. E. AMES, General Agent. 

Factory and Depot, 'il" and 210 K street, Sai hamento. 



Farm Wagons. 




JACKSON MICHIGAN WAGONS are known to be 
the best FARM ami TEAM Wagons sold on the Pacific 
Coast. Bend for Certificates. The 

JACKSON WAGON 

Received the FIRST PREMIUM, 1971, at the State Fair. 
Michigan, over the Studebaker and all others. 

Important improvements have licen made in our 
Wagons now arriving. Our large Two-horse and Four- 
horse Wagons bssve Beefier Urea, broader and deeper 
felloes, and extra iron braces, making them tho 

Best and BSoejftt Complete 

FARM and TEAM WAGONS ever SOU on this coast. We 
Bell gearing only; or fitted up with California Racks and 
Brakes, spring Seat, etc. or with Eastern donbli 
box bodies. Persons ordering will get Waoons at SAME 
PRICES as if here — Warranted perfect and complete In 
ever; respect. Buying strictly for cash and in large 
quantities (twelve car loads on the way), we are enabled 
to sill. Wholesale or Retail, at verj Low Mess. 
N. B. — Warranted FOB Three Years. 

J. D. ARTHUR & SON., 
Corner California and Davis streets, 
17v3eOWta SAN FRANCISCO. 




FIRST PREMIUM AWARDED at the State Fair of 
1S70; also First Premium at Mechanics" Fair, San Fran- 
cisco, 1871; and Silver Medal and First Premium for 
best Farm Wagon, and First Premium for the best im- 
proved Thimble Skein at State Fair, 1871. Also State 
Fair GOLD MEDAL for 1871. 

E. SOULE, 



ap22-3m 



Corner Tenth and I streets, 
Sacramento, Cal. 



THE CELEBRATED 

"H. H. H." Horse Medicine 

Is truly a Scientific Preparation. Having adopted the 
Hi BBEB CORK, it ran safely be kept for months with- 
out losing any of its healing properties. 

No Farmer, Teamster, Liveryman or 

STOCK DEALER should be without it. It will remove 
Lumps, Splints, Wind Galls and Spavins. 
Sweeny, Stiff Joints and Contracted L aders readily 
yield to its penetrating qualities. 
COLIC has lost its sting. The 

H. H. H. 

Will Cure in Fifteen Minutes. 
It is sold everywhere on the Coast. 

WILLIAMS & MOORE, Proprietors 
4v3-6m 8tockton, Cal. 



W ILCOX'S 

IMPROVED STEAM WATER LIFTER, 

With neither Engine, Piston, or Plunger. 

The most Simple , Durable, and In al 
respects the most Economical of all 
Steam Pumps. Uses the same steam 
twice instead of once. Any person can 
run it. They are used on the Central 
and Western Pacific R. R. from Oakland 
to Ogden. They are used for Water 
Works" Mining, Irrigation, and all other ordinary pump- 
ing Send for Descriptive Circular and Price List. Ad- 
dress ALLEN WILCOX, No. 21 Fremont street, San 
Francisco. Ifiv2-3m 




THE PATENT 

Novelty Mill and Grain Separator 




Is one of the greatest improvements of the age for 
cleaning and separating Grain, while it combines all the 
-ssential qualities of a first-class Fanning Mill. It also 
- anything that has been invented for the sepa- 
ration of Grain. It has been thoroughly tested on all 
the different kinds of mixed Grain. It takes out Mus- 
tard. Grass Seeds, Barley and Oats, and makes two dis- 
tinct qualities of wheat if desired. 
For further information apply to 

R. STONE, 
2Gv3 422 Battery' street, San Francisco. 



FABRBANK'S. 




THE UNITED STATES 

STANDARD. 

• 6,000 to 4-0,000 Pounds Capacity. 

THE SAME SCALE IS USED FOR WEIGHING 
CATTLE, HOGS, ETC. 

Scales of every kind. Address 

FAIRBANKS & HUTCHINSON, 
126 California street, San Francisco. 

Agents for Miles' Alarm Money Drawers. 

17v :{-eO\v!ip*'.m 



Patronize Home Industry— Buy California- 
Made Fruit Jars. 




For sale by Crockery Dealers generally throughout the 
city and interior. 

JOHN TAYLOR & Co., 
Agents Pacific Glass Works, 512 and SH Washington St. 

ls,-i.:im BAM FRANCISCO, 

R. M. CHAMBERLIN & CO., 

COMMISSION 
Merchants 

AND DEALERS IN 

Flour, Grain, 

"WOOL, 

Hides. Butter, 
Eggs, Etc., Etc. 

N. B. — Office of 
the Oil Cake Meal 
Co. 

SEEDS of all kinds advised and furnished by appli- 
cation. 

228 Clay Street, near Front. 
sM-lsa 




CO-OPERATIVE MARBLE WORKS. 

JOHN DANIEL, & CO., 
Manufacturers of and Dealers in 

Monuments, Headstones, Tombs, 

MANTEL PIECES, ETC., 

121 Pine street, between Montgomery and | 

Kearny, San Francisco. 

21v2.lv 



July 6, 1872.J 



15 



THE IMPORTED 
TROTTING STALLION 

"N AU BUC." 




Foaled in May, 18(14, Is seven years old, past; BLACK, 
with a small Star in the Forehead; fifteen hands, two 
and a half inches high, and weighed when five years 
old 1,000 pounds; sired by " Toronto Chief," by " Royal 
George," by " Black Warrior," by "Tippoo," by "Og- 
den's Messenger," a son of Imported Messenger, who 
was thoroughbred and out of the celebrated ten-mile 
trotting mare " Gipsy Queen," bred in Kentucky. 



"NAUBUC 



Was bred by Thomas Vail, on Long Island, imported by 
DR. B. J. SMITH, arriving in San Francisco on the 
steamer " Colorado," Christmas Eve., 18G8. 



Terms for the Season : 



$50, Gold Coin, payable at or before the close of the 
season, July 1st, 1872. 

Good pastures will be provided at $4 per month, with 
the best of attention, but accidents or escapes at the 
risk of the owners. 

Any gentleman having a trotting mare, with a record 
of 2:40, or a thoroughbred mare, will be made welcome 
to the services of '• Naobuc" this season. 



With the compliments of 



DR. BARLOW J. SMITH, 

637 California Street, S. F. 



8£?" The horse is in charge of the experienced groom, 
NED CUNNINGHAM, at the Naubuc Breeding Farm, 
San Lorenzo, Alameda County. 

Owing to the increased patronage that this horse is 
receiving, the season will be continued until the 1st of 
August. 22v3-3wsa 



Important to Wool Growers. 




BONNET'S PATENT HAT HAKE. 

The only Rake that gathers all the hay upon the roughest as well as upon the smoothest ground, 

free from dust and dirt, and does not roll and wad it together. Has extension 

teeth to preserve its holding capacity, giving it a very great 

advantage over those of stationary teeth. 




First Premium at the State Fair. Every Farmer Should Have One. 



PATENT GRAIN LIFTERS, 

For use on Headers in cutting Grain thrown down by the 
Wind or Rain. 

The Cheapest and Best in the Market. 

Are Light, Strong and Durable, and can be adjusted to 
run at any inclination to the ground, as at D in cut. 

A party ran save more than the price of a set additional, 
in cutting gr iin that is down, in one day's run. 

Manufactures also Draper Aprons, Grain Carriers, Straw Carriers and Farming Implements generally, all of 
the best material and workmanship. 

Also, Wool-working Machines, such as Band Saws, Circular and Jig Saws, Shaping Machines, etc. 

Improved Pattern of Band Saws, equal to the high priced Eastern Saws in work, at one-half the cost. War- 
ranted to give satisfaction. 

All orders to O. BONNEY, Jr., 221 Mission Street, San Francisco, 

Promptly attended to. 

State and County Rights for Grain Lifter sold by WIESTER «fe CO., 

8v3-lam0m No. 17 New Montgomery street (under Grand Hotel), San Franci6co. 




THE EAGLE HAY PRESS. 



PURE BLOODED 

FRENCH MERINO RAMS 

FOR SALE BY ROBERT BLACOW, 
Of Centerville, Alameda County, Cal. 

These Rams are guaranteed to be pure blooded French 
Merino, and I would respectfully call attention to them 
from tiiose who desire to see or purchase the best and 
purest of stock. 16v3-Gin 



FULL BLOODED STOCK FOR SALE. 



The undersigned has perfected arrangements to re- 
ceive consignments of the Best Bred Stock from Europe 
and the Eastern States, consisting of Short-horned 
Durham, Devon and Alderney Cattle; Cotswold, Span- 
ish Merino and Sileeian Sheep; Angora Goats; Berk- 
shire and Essex Swine. All of which will be sold on 
reasonable terms, and pedigrees guaranteed. Persons 
living in Utah or Nevada, by giving timely notice, may 
have stock delivered on their way westward, thereby 
saving the cost of freight back. 

26v3-tf ROBERT BECK. 



WATT & MCLENNAN, 

WOOL COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 

625 Sansome street, corner Jackson, SAN FRANCISCO. 



ML 



Receive Consignments of Wool, Sheep 
Skins, Hides, etc. Liberal advances made to 
consignors. Keep on hand the best quality of 
Wool Sacks, Twines, and other supplies. 
10v3-3m 




THE PRICE HAY PRESS. 



WARNER & SILSBY 

Manufacture all sizes of 

Bed and Sola Springs, 

Which they offer to the trade at 
reduced prices; also the <ele- 
brated Obermann Self- 
Fastening- Bed Spring:. 

Any man can make his own Spring Eed with them 
by attaching them to the slats of any bedstead. 

642 Mission Street, above New Montgomery, San 
Francisco. 23v3-0mbp 




Eagle Hay Press, 

THE INVENTION OF J. A. McGILLIVRAL, OF ILLI- 
NOIS, TO WHOM LETTERS PATENT WERE 
ISSUED JANUARY 10th, 1865, 
AND JULY 24th, 1866. 

Several years were devoted by the patentee to the per- 
fection of this powerful press, and its unprecedented 
sale in the East induces the proprietors to introduce it 
into California and the Pacific States. 

All who have seen or used these Presses pronounce 
them superior to anything used heretofore. The power 
is applied by means of two levers, and it will be seen 
the power increases in ratio to the resistance; as the 
levers approach a horizontal position the power can 
scarcely be estimated. It is not only a powerful Press, 
but has the advantage of being Cheap, and also Simple, 
therefore not liable to get out of order. 

Three men with one horse can bale from Ten to Fif- 
teen Tons per Day, each bale weighing 250 to 300 lbs. It 
obviates all necessity by beating the hay before press- 
ing. On account of its great power, it is well adapted 
for pressing Hydes, Rags, Wool or Cotton. When a bale 
is pressed and fastened, tho follower runs down of its 
own weight, and the bales can be taken out on either 
side. 

Those Presses are now manufactured in San Francisco 
by the 

Kimball Car and Carrisige 

MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 
Who are the proprietors on the Pacific Coast, and will 
endeavor to have a supply constantly on hand. 
Every Press made by them is WARRANTED to give 
satisfaction. Agents wanted. 

PRICE, $250. 

UiMm 




(Sometimes called tho Petaluma Press.) 

Bales twice as fast as any other in the world. 

Frequently bales over 

Twenty Tons Per Day. 

NEARLY 300 IN "USE IN THIS STATE. 

Eight years' use, and the sale of three hundred ma- 
chines on the Pacific Coast in competition with the best 
Eastern baling presses, has proven this to be the most 
Extraordinary and Successful Machine of its Class ever 
invented. For the past six years it has baled nearly 
nine-tenths of the hay west of the Rocky Mountains. 

Their wonderful capacity is due chiefly to the fact 
that they are not setup on stilts, with the machinery in 
the bottom, like every other Power Press in the United 
States, but the box for the reception of hay extends from 
the top of the Press clear down to the ground, thus giv- 
ing room in alow, small Press, for a large bale. 
Description and Phice List. 









U H H 


h a 


Size and 


HlGHTOF 


Weio't 

OF 


Weight 
of 


O H < 




Quality. 


Pbess 


Bale. 


Press. 


>b* 


a z 

<v2 










*d£ 


No. 1, Hardwood 




1 






door timbers.. 


7 feet. 


200 lbs. 2000 lbs. 


13 tons. 


$300 


No. 2, Hardwood 












door timbers.. 


8 feet. 


250 lbs. 


2400 lbs. 


15 tons. 


$400 


No. 3, nearly all 












har 1 wood 


8 feet. 


2.30 lbs. 


2CO0 lbs. 


15 tons. 


$450 


No. 4, nearly all 












hard wood 


8 ft. 8 In. 


300 lbs. 


3000 lbs. 


17 tons. 


$500 



These Machines are sold 
and for cash 



without DISCOUNT, 
ONLY. 



Address the 

PRICE PRESS COMPANY, 

In care of I. J. Truman, 17 Front St., San Francisco, 
Or C. H. Hubbard, 9 J St., Sacramento. 
»9" Send for Circular. 16v3-tf 



1857. SEEDS. 1872. 

X3 Years EstaTrHsTiecl. 

W. R. STRONG, 

8 and 10 J street SACRAMEMO 

Garden, 

Flower, 

Field, 

Fruit, " 

Tree and Shrub, 
Grass and Clover Seeds, 
Fresh, Pure and True to Name. 

Seeds forwarded by mall to any part of the United 
States at 8 cents per pound. 

My annual catalogue is ready and will be forwarded 
on application FREE. 

ALFALFA. 
50,000 pounds California Alfalfa, grown by J. Wil- 
coxsou and others of the most careful and reliable pro- 
ducers. 

Kentucky Blue Grass, Red Top Timothy, Red and 
Whito Clover, Mesquit or Gramina Grass, etc. 
Seed Potatoes. 
Early Rose, Bruze Prolific, Climax, Excelsior and 
other of the best tested varieties. An Eastern Agricul- 
turist offers $1,000 for a potato superior to the Excel- 
sior in good qualities. 

W R. STRONG, 
16v3-3m 8 and 10 J Street, Sacramento. 



THE OLD 



Maple Leaf Nursery. 



Has constant- 
varieties of 
ORNAMENT- 
GREEN and a 
SHRUBS; also 
ment of Choice 
merous to 
Green House 
ers and Bulbs, 




ly on hand -ill 
FRUIT AND 
A L EVER. 
DECIDUOUS 
a large assort- 
ROSEStoonu- 
m e n t i on. 
Plants, Flow- 
Garden, Grass 
and Flower Seeds of all kinds, are for sale by 

L,. M. NEWSOM, Proprietor, 
12v3-tf Washington street, Brooklyn, Cal. 



H. K. CtJMMINGS. 

1858. 



J. M. MAXWELL 
1871. 



HENRY K. CUMMINGS & CO., 

Wholesale Fruit and Produce Commission 
House, 

ESTABLISHED 1858. 

115 and 417 Da.vis street, cor. of Oregon, San Francis, o. 

Our business being exclusively Commission, we have 

30 interests that will conflict with those of the producer. 

4v23-ly 



GEORGE HUGHES, 
FRUIT, PRODUCE, 

And General Commission Merchant, 

313 and 315 Washing-ton street, 
Between Front and Battery SAN FRANCISCO. 



HOUSE ESTABLISHED IN 18.50. 
14v3-6m 



THE 




Will sew everything needed in a family, from 
the heaviest to the lightest fabric. 

IT OOES MORE AVOBSi, 

MORE KIXDS OF WORK, 

A>'» RETTER WORK, 

Thau any other machine. 

If there is a Florence Sewing Ma- 
chine within one thousand miles of 
San Francisco not working well and 
giving entire satisfaction, if I am in- 
formed of it, it will be attended to 
without expense of any kind to tlio 
owner. 

SAMUEL HILL, Agent, 

19 New Montgomery Street, 
Grand Hotel Building, San Francisco. 

Send for Circulars and gamplr/i of 
the irorh. Active Agents wanted ill 
every place. 



"Wanted, Agents! 

$100 to $250 per month, everywhere, male and 
female, to introduce the Latest improved, most Simple 
and perfect 

Shuttle Sewing Machine 

Ever invented. We challenge tho world to compete 
with it. Price only $18, and fully warranted for rive 
years, making tho Elastic Lock Stitch, alike on both 
sides. The samo as all the high priced Shuttle ma- 
.'Imtmh. Also, tho celebrated and latest improved 

Common Sense Family Sewing' Machine. 
Prico only $15, and fully warranted for five years. 
These machines will stitch, Hem, Fell, Tuck, Quilt, 
Cord, Bind, Braid and Embroider in a most superior 
manner, and are warranted to do all work that can bo 
done on any high priced machine In the world. For 
Circulars and terms, address 8. WTNKOOP & CO., 2054 
Ridge Avenue, or P. O. Box 2726, Philadelphia, Pa. 

22v3-3m 



16 



PACIFIC &VM& 8PRSS8. 



[July 6, 1872. 




DEWEY & CO., 

American and Foreign 

IV o. :?:sx Montgomery r*t-, 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

Patents Obtained Promptly 
Caveats Filed Expeditiously. 
Patent Reissues Taken Out. 
Patents Secured in Foreign Lands. 
Assignments Made and Recorded in Legal Form. 
Copies of Patents and Assignments Procured. 
Examinations of Patents made here and at 

Washington. 
Examinations made of Assignments Recorded 

in Washington. 
Examinations Ordered and Reported by Tel! - 

GRAPH. 

Rejected Cases taken up and Patents Obtained. 

Interferences Prosecuted. 

Opinions Rendered regarding the Validity of 

Patents and Assignments. 
Every Legitimate Branch of Patent Agency lius- 

iness promptly and thoroughly conducted. 

Illustrated Circulars Free. 

DEWEY & CO., 

Mining and Scientific Tress, S. F. 



ONE DOLLAR A. YEAH 

— FOIt THE — 

PACIFIC COAST 

[mantilq jjiratm[. 



This is a new 16-pa™o monthly newspaper, of special in- 
formation for wholesale and retail tradesmen. Ii will also 
eontain reading of Interest and importance to all business 
and professional men on the coast. 

OUR TABLE OF CONTENTS 
Will comprise Full Prioee Current and Monthly R 
the Wholesale Markets; Diagrams of the Fluctuations of 

l [-eight and i 

Fares— corrected monthly; Illustrations and Bki 

it Men and Buildings ; Editorials on Manufactur- 
ing an.l industrial Progress; De partm ents containing ap- 
propriate reading matter and reviews for various branches 
ui trade, inclndin and Provision ;" "Dry Goods;" 

"Trades and Manufactures," etc., etc. 

embracing 
I'olM'VddVK COLUMNS ol important reading matter- 
mostly original and by first-class writers. Bam pie copies, 
post p iid. tu cts. Yearly subscription, in advance, SI. Sub- 
to the .Mi\iN» f and Si 1 1 \ i : i 1 or the Pa- 
il] be supplied at half price. 
Published by MURRAY, DEWEY & CO., 
At the Publishi ng ic Press and Pacific 

Rural Press, San !• 'rancisco. 



GENTS WANTED to canvass 



A every town on the Pacific Const for llie Mixinc and 
Scik.niitio Press, Pacific r.trRAL Pbess, and the 
Pacific C' iabi Mercantile Director. Experienced 
aaraesera] referred. Good men can make large wa- 
<;es, b isSdefl learning much and improving their talents. 



Every 
Description of 
Fanning _ 



Machiner y 

FOE THE HABVE8T OF "73 I Ncl.ruiNi, HOADLET'8 
Portable Engines, EtasseU's Thresl Head) rs, 

Mowers, Ball's and McCorihick's Reapers 
Kirby's Mowers and Reapers, Beader-Wagona, Stude- 
baker Farm Wagons. Horse-Powers, Trucks, Hay- 
Sone-Rakes, Scythes, Snaths, Rakes, Cradles, 
Forks, Cultivators, Hay Cutters, sto., etc., all at less 

than Invoice oost, at ti i<i Fanners' Agricultural 

Warehouse and Machine Depot of 

TREADWELL & CO., 
Market, eor. Fremont St., San Francisco. 
v3-Miu 

CASHMERE GOATS FOR SALE. 



Head Hall Bn 
."hi Head Five-Eighths Bn 
ISO Head 'I'll i. Bre< ds, 

60 Head Fifteen-Sixteenths Breeds. 
Two Half-Blood Bucks of the celebrated Homeless 
Stock. The whole band win be sold for 13,600 cash if 
applii [ 
july6-at A. RIKER, 

Salinas City, Monterej Oonnty, Cal. 



DU1UIAMS. 

TEN HEAD OF THOW >1'< ,lll'.l;l.l> 
DTJBHA.MS FOB SALE. 



All Superior Animals, 



For particulars inquire of 



lv4-4t 



E. S. HOLD! 



GOOD CABLE SCREW WIRE 

Boots and Shoes 

LAST AS LONG AGAIN AS ANY OTHER 
KIND. 




BLAKE'S PATENT STEAM PUMP. 



These 1'nmpK ha\< 
in the Pacific Stat 
speak for itself. Thi 



red. \v 
water than any 
others <>f the same dim* 
Has do leaky joints ( the steam 
part being casl in on 
i tie steam val ■•• 

■ .. is cobbioni d at 
1. and slides with the 
greatest faoiUt&havingnocwns 
nor complex Rotary J 
nun.s to get out odF * rder. Will 
start .it any point of thi 
and will dischaigeall t lit- tra or 
of ci ndenssbtftomu The Pomp 
i iik or fly-wheel, there- 
by sa\ ing a coo 
ol expense to the bnrchaser. 
Having do dead points, it there- 
fore m-''. is do vratohinfl 

ntly ready to start 
without usinca starting bar or 
any band-woik whatever. The 



sen tested, ami found to be Indisputably without an equal wherever tnea, Tiioy liav been sold 

urs, and we are willing every one in e sferred bo ;e* ery Pm 

are. con : . mo«t simple style, and built in the most thorough manner— en ]• 

fob 

1'ire 

Hand Power 



calculated ror simplicity, duraDility and power Some of the advantage* of the Blak< I be summed uj< as 

lows: ,[ '-';■ "'V — io Hotels; t.-r Mining and 

■;..':V sSbbI X Sand Power purposes; in Breweries, 




purposes: in Breweii 
iugax House -. 
les, .Mills, Laundries, and as 
n berever Bteam 
i- employed in tact, wherever 
water or other liquids are de- 
• m d to be raiseu in large or 
smell <|iiaiitities, or against 
in-, ivy or light pressu e, it is the 
cheapest and bent Pump that 
can be used. It is offered to t he 

puhlic as the most perfect inde- 
pendent steam Pump ever in- 
\ ,> tied . ** orty different rises 
are mad*-, capable ol throwing 
from LOOT to 800.000 gallons an 
Igi hour. and adapted tu anj 
^ of work that may be required. 
5 Bverv Pump will be warranted 
^ to perform the wort required 
(ol it by the purchsser, or it may 
be returned.and the money will 
hi cheerfully refund* d 
award 



[Blake Pump wa» awarde 

at i be Exhibition, of 



Blake Pump is extensively used 

on Kailroad' and Mraml" 

i, Pump on Inhibition. Thi 
ave recently im p«.rt i d st-x ( - i;i l ..f the I arm st-sized Mining Pumps for water works and deep mines, and will be 
pleased to refer parties to them; we claim ror it, that it is the most simple and durable 

bteam Pump ever built. Por sale by TREADWELL A CO., M Depot, old stand, Market, head of Front Street, 

ban liancisco, who w ill be pleased to send circulars to any ad its advantages bo parties calling on them. 



Pubchaseks please say advertised in Pacific Rural Press. 



Fourth of July Celebration 



95?" Headquarters of the Grand Marshal, No. 417 
Kearny Btreet. 

A CORDIAL INVITATION 

Is extended to all Military and Civic Organizations in 
this City and County to participate in the Celebration of 
tho approaching Anniversary of American Indepen- 
dence. The heads of all organizations are earnestly re- 
quested to signify their acceptance of this invitation, 
and make immediate application at these headquarters, 
that they may be assigned positions in the line. 

By order. 

R. BEVERLY COLE, 

2fiv3td-bp Grand Marshal 



GAS LIGHT FOR EVERYBODY! 

Coil Oil Lamps Changed to Gas Lamps at a 

Trifling Cost, by mererj Changing the 

Burner and using Different Oil. 

This valuable little invention can 
!. il tn any coal nil lamp by 
any one in half a minute. It makes 
its own gas just as fast us it is re- 
quired, ami wli.n the light is blown 
nut. the gas ceases b 

NO CHIMNEY IS REQUIRED. 

Tlie flame is as white a- c 

and produces do ami U or so 

Due Burner is equal to Six C'an- 

i 1 l'nST3 ONLY O.Nlv CENT 
l'RIt HoOB. 

Tliis burner ' im Fluid, Danforth's Oil. 

Gasoline or Taylor's Safety Fluid. One burner sent to 
any adiii I ree, on receipt of BO cents currency 

mps. « n s'l'Hit I 

No. 1" New IXontgomi ry street, S. F. 




J 31 PORT ANT. 



^a> To arrive in Sal f the first 

a f a ^nf*days of August, proximo, 350 Full HI I 

SPW SPANISH MERINO BUCKS AND 
J i W . II- EWES, select) <l from the folds ol t] 
noted Bheep-breeders oi six oounties i it Vermont — all 
fullv pediereed. Bend orders to MOODI i fauisii. 
CIIRIS'I'V \ WISE, MII.T-EK k CO., or to us, rare oi 
.Mi rt ii House. 

SAXF. ,<c JEWETT. 

N. B.— Pure Blood Kentucky Cotswold Bucks and 
Ewes, now on hand in the city. julft-3t-16p 

MOWER, and REAPER 
SECTIONS 

Ou hand and made to order at Lowest Prices by the 

PACIFIC FILE WORKS, 

53 Beale Street, S. F. 



New FILES on hand. 



Old FILES i. 



St. Augustine's College, Benicia. Cal. 

ENGLISH AMi CLAS8I3A1 BOARDING SCHOOL. 
■ forthe Dnrversi ties or "for Basis 

Healthy location. New and large Bnililngs. Military' 
discipline. Fh ai hers. 

References in Ban ' Bev. Bishop Kip, 

Rev. Drs.Lathrop and Tyman, and numerous patrons. 

Trinity Term for IST'2 begins August lBt. 

For Call irtieulars, apply to 

lvi-i;t REV, W. P. TUCKER, Rector, Benicia. 

WINE GROWERS, ATTENTION. 

Tie re will be a lie eting "t tin- California Yin 
rs ami Wiin- and Brand] Sfanufaetufers Assi.eiation at 
iiii on Thursday, the 18th of July, inst.. at :i 
o'ciock p. M., for tho transaction of business of Import- 
ance eonneoted with the Association and the Wl 
Brandy Interest generally. 
All parties interested are invited to attend. 
By order oi the Board, 
julO-tt I. N. HOAG. Secretary. 



AVERILL'S 
CHEMICAL PAINT, 

Of any desired Shade or Color, 

Mixed ready for application, and sold by the gallon. 

It is Cheaper, Handsomer, more Durable and Elastic 
than the best oi any other 1'aint. 

Otliec, corner Fourth and Townsend streets, San 
Francisco. Send for sample card and price list. 

15v23.Sm HELY & JEWELL, Agents. 



CHINESE SERVANTS AND LABORERS 
of all kinds furnished at the shortest notice by apply- 
ing to WOLF & CO., Olu Pine Street, San Francisco. 
13v*24-3m 



WILLCOX & GIBBS 

IMPROVED NOISELESS 

Family Sewing Machine 

IS THE BEST IN THE MARKET. 

It is the Mo9t Simple, 

Easy to run (a child can operate it) , not liable to get out 

of order, sews the heaviest or lightest goods, and 

Is remarkable for the great variety, perf i c- 

tion and durability of its work. 

It is the only Machine 

Making the triple-threaded seam, with the twisted loor 
stitch, the strongest and most clastic made. 

The Willcox & Gibbs 

Received the only honorable mention and strong recom- 
mendation at the last Stockton Agricultural Fair. 

Its "Work Received the First Premium 

At the San Francisco Mechanics' Institute Fair, 1871. 

Don't Fail to Examine. 

*3- FEItl F.CT SATISFACTION GUARANTEED. 

Other Machines taken in part payment. 
Call on or address 

WILLCOX & GIBBS S. M. CO., 

113 Post Street, S. P. 
22v2-9m 



Genuine Haines 

Headers, from 10 to 16 feet cut, made by Walter A. Wood 
at Hoosuk Fulls, N. V., with all his iMi'iiovr.MKNTs. and 
having alwn Doanb's P .. *3T No 

other Headers have these b tts: Take nunc 

but tin- Halms' Impboyss iii-u>t:i;s made by Wood, 
: iiv to California. 

RUSSELL'S THRESHER 

as dcbovbd is the perfection of the Threshing Machine. 
We have them (rom 30 to 40 inch, with n< mDiuu, 

i.aki.k sunt:, jhhiilt: fan. i □ , BUI DX8CHABOK, 

dees] ially fur the wants of California, alter 

yiiirs of stiiilv. It lias greater cleaning capacity than 
any other, and is imhv wai 1^" No other 

machine baa ever equalled "The Russell;" noni i an 
excel it. 

Treadwell&Go. 



BAH FRANCISCO. 

17v:t-i I 



GLEN FLORA 

Stock Breeding Association. 

,n to 0. 0. 4B. H. r»rk«, Wankegan, III. Or- 
^iini/.iil iiiuliir tho la\VB of the State of Illinois. 
Importers and Breeders of 

SHORT-HORNED CATTLE 

Thoroughbred and Trotting Horses, O 
Sheep, Improved Berkshires, and 
Poze-Bted Poultry in Qreat 

varieties 

Stock of all kinds fnrsale at reasnnable prices. Kend for 
Catalogue giving full description. Address 

C. C. PARKS, Pres't., 
!Jv3-tf WAUKBGAR, ILL. 



Tule Land for Sale. 

13.000 Acres at $2.50 per Acre— Terms Easy. 

Also, several choice Tule Ranches, .it from 10(1 to 800 

acres, adjoining the main land, thoroughly reclaimed, 

well located, with Dwelling Souses and other Improve- 

inl accessible both by steamboat and railroad, 
i re of 

J. STRATTON or C. H. PWINELLE, 
No. 3 Stevenson's Building, 
Cor. Montgomery and California Bts.,SanFranciBCO. 
2-iv.'4-lm 



Los Angeles County Lands. 

Farming Lands in I.os Angeles County for sale, in 
si • timis ami quarter sections, at reasonable prices and 
on accommoilatinp; terms — say, one-tourth cash and 
balance in one, two and three years, with interest at 10 
per cent., payable annually. Apply at tho oflice of the 
Company, No. 54L', corner Market and Montgomery 
streets, over the Hiliernia Bank, San Francisco, or to 
the agent, W. R. OLDEN, Anaheim. 12v3-3m 

A. Ne-\v JtTii-iik. 

JEWELL & FLINT, General Commission 
Merchants, and Sacramento Agents lor Walter A. 
Wood's Harvesting Machines, No. 39 Front street, be- 
tween J and E, Sacramento. O. R. JEWELL, 

16v3^m T. B. FLINT. 



FRESH GARDEN SEEDS. 

ALSO, 

Grass and Clover Seed-. 

ALFALFA. 

Trees, Plants, Roots, Etc., 

For Sale at Wholesale or Retail by 

GEO. F. 8ILVEKTEH, 

No. 317 Washington Street, 

•y Send for a Catalogue. 

GTJATXO. 

100 Barrels Guano for Sale, 

In quantities to suit purchasers. 
6v2-ly.l6p GEO. F. SILVESTER. 



OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS, 

Corner Sixteenth and Castro Streets. 

SEASON OF 1872. 

Eggs for Hatching from Pure Bred Poultry 

Carefully packed in handled boxes With elastic 

bottoms, and guaranteed to curry safely 

to any part of the country. 




Scud Stamp for Circular to 

GEO. B. BAYLEY, 

Importer and Breeder of 
CHOICE POULTRY. 

P. O. Box 659, San FranciBco. 



EGGS FOR HATCHING 

FROM 

THE FINEST BRED FOWLS IN AMERICA. 

Twelve First Premiums 

At the Sacramento State Fair. 

Lioiit Pn.viiMAS, Seven Different Strains; 
Dark Braumas, Imported from England and Ireland; 
if 'i"ii \.ns, direct from France; 
La Flkche, direct from France; 
Silver Spangled IIamiuxbohs, 

ui to laj '.MO Ejrgs per year). 

(I . .1.1 irv POLANDS, Non-Setters and Fine Layers; 
Sin KB r.i.AMJH. Non-Setters and Fine Layers; 
White Cuchiss, 
Buff Cochins, 
Ditck Wished Bantam*, 

lou.nuN Skaiiiiii.ht Bantams, 
Japanese Bantams, 

Ukathwood Games, Finest in the World. 

Also, rifsoon-. 

Pouter >.( '.in iirs, Nuns. Priests, Magpies, Ruffle-Necked, 
Black-Tailed Turbits, Fantaus: and Mada- 
gascar and Lop-Eared Babbits. 

PIGS. 

China and Chester Whites; the Largest and Best bred in 
America. 

Eggs nrxtl Fo«ls for Sule. 

Apply to THOS. E. FINXEY, Manager, 

California Stock and Poultry Association. 

Office— No. 113 LeidesdorfT stn ■ t 
Yards— Cor. Laguna and Washington streets. 

4vMm-lCp 



TX. GILMORE, 

Importer and Breeder of 

Angora or Cashmere 
GOATS 

— OF — 

PURE BLOOE 

— AND — 

A I.I. <. icai>i;^. 

For sale In lots to suit purchasers. Location, fon 
miles from Railroad station, connecting with all part 
of the State. For particulars address 

N. GILMORE 
El Dora do, El Dorado county, 
Cv3-tf California. 




Volume IV.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JULY 13, 1872. 



[Number 2. 



Alfalfa — Its Relative Value. 

A correspondent, two years in California, asks 
us why it is tbat Alfalfa — which he says is but 
one of the clovers — is so much more talked 
about as possessing a higher value for feeding 
and for hay, than the red and -white common 
clovers of the Eastern States; and questions its 
superiority. 

In reply we say, that we have never heard it 
claimed that alfalfa makes a pasture or hay, su- 
perior to either white or red clover, but its su- 
periority consists in this, that whereas in Cali- 
fornia but a single cutting can be had from the 
common clover, or at best but a very light sec- 
ond crop in a season, the alfalfa will produce 
three or four cuttings, or more than double that 
from any other species of clover known; and if 
the quality is not quite equal to the red and 
white clovers, it certainly makes a very good 
feed, in far greater abundance. 

Our long protracted season of uninterrupted 
sunshine, without a shower to moisten the veg- 
etation of our hills from May to October, is a 
little too much for the red and white clovers to 
endure, they generally succumb to the drouth 
months before the autumnal rains set in, unless 
occupying the alluviums of the rivers or are ar- 
tificially irrigated. 

Not so with alfalfa; it sends its roots down 
to water if they must go twenty feet to find it, 
and then if no permanent water is found, they 
arc deep enough in the moist earth to secure in 
any season a green and perpetual growth the 
entire summer. This is the great advantage 
claimed for alfalfa over any other clover or 
grass in our exceedingly hot and dry climate. 
The quality of its hay is at least good; its close 
aud vigorous growth when properly occupying 
the land, chokes out all weeds and other less 
valuable vegetation, and its culture is every 
year extending. 

Fruits Without Flavor. 

Among all people there are grumblers; some 
have, or think they have, a pretty good reason 
for grumbling, others have no reason at all; 
among the latter we class those who, having 
seen our splendid fruits, unequalled in size, and 
without a blemish from insect attack, are yet 
determined they shall not possess the merit of 
quality, so go grumbling along with the appar- 
ent satisfaction at least, of believing that with 
every other perfection, our fruits are "insipid" 
at best. 

All must admit that our very climate with its 
preponderance of warmth over cold, is peculiar- 
ly favorable to the concentration of all the bet- 
ter qualities of fruits that have the saccharine 
quality as a basis; for nothing was ever better 
established at the East, than the fact, that the 
driest seasons produce the finest flavored and 
flie best keeping fruits, though not as large as 
the fruits of wet seasons. 

We here combine all the requisites of the best 
fruit producing countries. We have a sufficiency 
of moisture for fruit growth, with all the heat 
that fruits can bear; so there seems no good 
reason why our fruits and vegetables should be 
supposed inferior, merely because they attain 
extraordinary size and beauty. One thing we 
know, that all, yes all, who go from here to 
Eastern homes, sigh for the fair and luscious 
fruits they have left behind. 



Hollyhocks, Double and Mixed. 

Who that was born and lived in a country 
town of Old New England, and in olden times, 
that does not recollect the still older, common 
garden flower the hollyhock, with its long, 
straight stems full of flowers of snowy white- 
ness, reaching above the rather extra high fence 
around that dear spot, the old garden, hallowed 
by so many of the dearer 
memories of childhood ? 

And then in after school- 
boy days, we well remem- 
ber when the first red hol- 
lyhock was introduced, and 
then the yellow, and after 
that the dark crimson, but 
never the black. Finally 
another improvement ap- 
peared; instead of the sin- 
gle coralled flower, partially 
double ones were grown, 
and at last by careful cul- 
ture, a flower so double 
was produced, as to be only 
second to the rose and fully 
equal to the magnificent 
dahlia for autumnal deco- 
ration; and from its stately 
growth, and the varied col- 
ors of its splendid spikes 
of intensely double flow- 
ers, may justly demand a 
place in every large garden 
or pleasure-ground. 

We are particularly de- 
sirous of calling the atten- 
tion of our farmers' wives 
and daughters, to this time- 
honored, old-fashioned but 
beautiful flower; give it a 
place along side the fence 
where it makes a perfect 
shield of beauty, or group 
the different colors, either 
mixed, or each color by 
itself, and a mound of bril- 
lancy wiU result. 

For the center of a large 
standing bouquet, there is 
nothing to compare with it, 
and by shortening the stems 
and stripping the lower 
ends of a part of their flow- 
ers, they make the richest 
outside bordering for a 
large bouquet that can be 
found among the whole of 
the great family of garden 
flowers. A dahlia is a sing) e 
flower of great beauty; but 
the hollyhock is like the 
assembling together of 
hosts of dahlias upon a 
single stem. 

Once established, being 
a hardy perennial, it will ever after maintain 
its position against the encroachment of either 
grass or weeds. Another year don't fail to pro- 
cure of E. E. Moore, 425 Washington street, a 
variety of the seeds of the double and mixed 
hollyhock. 




Wine Stamp Duty. 

By the new law which goes into effect im- 
mediately, all champagne wines, made by the 
injection of carbonic acid gas are declared 
"imitations of wines," and all such as are 
" doctored," meaning sherry, port, claret, etc., 
are declared to be "substitutes for wines;" both 
of which, the "imitations" and "substitutes," 
must, when sold in bottles 
holding a pint or less, bear 
a ten-cent stamp on each 
bottle. 

To be exempt from the 
tax, wines must be made 
from the juice of the grape 
by the usual process of 
fermentation, and any ad 
dition to the same, for the 
production of the stronger 
wines, as practiced in wine 
cellars, makes it a wine 
that must bear the ten-cent 
stamp. Cordials and com- 
pounds made of brandies, 
whisky or other spirits, 
with sugar, cherries or oth- 
er fruits or admixtures will 
be exempt from the opera- 
tion of the ten-cent bottle 
stamp tax. 

The effect of this law 
will be to give us a pure 
champagne wine by the old 
process of a skillfully man- 
aged fermentation, instead 
of by the injection process, 
which is simply the con- 
version of a dead flat wine 
of no character, into an 
imitation champagne. We 
shall either get the genuine 
article or the inferior one 
bearing the stamp, we shall 
know just what we are buy- 
ing; and to make the mat- 
ter a sure thing, all cham- 
pagne wine makers of the 
genuine article can entirely 
dispense with the carbonic 
aeid gas injecting machine 
now in their establish- 
ments. 



DOUBLE 



American Institute. — The forty-first annual 
exhibition of the American Institute of the city 
of New York, will be open to the public on the 
4th of September and the closing address will 
be delivered on the 13th of November. 



At an examination of specimen stalks of Jud- 
son's Branching Corn at Champaign, 111., one 
stalk with five ears was found to have three of 
them glued on, and another with four ears was 
found to be made of parts of two stalks each 
with two ears. 



If they are not willing to 
do this, it is strong presum- 
tive evidence, that they 
manufacture the imitation 
wines and as such must bo 
stamped, and if not stamp- 
ed, that they are wilfully 
defrauding the revenue. 
The only fear is, that the 
imitation stuff can be man- 
ufactured so cheaply as to 
pay the stamp tax and still 
HOLLYHOCK. leavo a wide margin of 

profit; but the fact that it must always bear the 
mark of inferiority upon its label, consumers 
will know just what they are buying if they 
buy at all. 

We will now be able to see whether all the 
best wines called champagnes are really the 
product of the San Francisco wine cellars or 
whether the Sonoma, Napa, Sacramento and 
Natoma vineyard cellars are not also the pro- 
ducers of some good wines. 



The English robin, a bird totally different in 
size, color and habits of our bravo, soldierly 
red-breast, is being imported into the United 
States for acclimatioi'. here. 



Soils— How Exhausted. 

We frequently see in Eastern agricultural 
journals long dissertations on the subjects of 
deep and shallow plowing, and in most cases 
the attempt is made to show that the general 
deterioration so common to most of the soils 
of those long cultivated parts of the country, 
is owing to a persistent course of shallow plow- 
ing. 

It is a mistake to imagine that this alone has 
produced the unwelcome result, rendering 
large districts of country unfit for the culture of 
wheat, which fifty years ago gave an average 
of from 15 to 20 bushels to the acre. If shal- 
low plowing has had the effect to lessen the an- 
nual yield from fields devoted to constant till- 
age, without the return of some fertilizer — 
which we will not dispute — it might be inferred 
that we believed had the field been deeply 
plowed, there would have been no deteriora- 
tion. 

We believe no such thing; because experience 
has shown that though deep plowing serves al- 
most invariably to increase the product, it is 
equally at the expense of the fertility of the 
soil; the only difference is, the one, by shallow 
plowing and half a crop, has exhausted the 
soil to half the depth that another field is 
by a system of deeper tillage. So that with- 
out some renovating process or the application 
of fertilizers, or something besides simply deep 
plowing, though larger crops may be procured 
for the time being, it is only at the expense of 
a deeper exhaustion of the soil. 

Injudicious Cultivation. 

It is idle then to harp upon the favorite 
theory of many, that shallow plowing has alone 
caused the sterility too often met with in the 
older sections of the Union. It is an injudi- 
cious cultivation quite apart from either 
shallow or deep plowing that produces barren- 
ness. No soil however deeply plowed, can 
forever maintain its pristine fertility under con- 
stant cropping, without a return in some 
measure of the elements, that the crop produced, 
extracts therefrom. 

Upon this important point in good husbandry, 
too little attention is paid. Shallow plowing 
and constant cropping without manuring, has 
very aptly been termed the "skinning" process; 
but deep plowing under like circumstances 
takes not only the "skin," but the very tallow 
from the soil. We shall continue our remarks 
on the rapid impoverishment of the cultivated 
lands of California, in future numbers. 



Wheat Prospects. 

The Commissioner of Agriculture in his 
monthly Report for June, on the condition of 
the wheat crop of the United States, sums up 
the matter as follows: Area, 08 per cent, of 
last year's; oondition, 6 per cent, below aver- 
age. Last year's crop was estimated at 230,000- 
000, and the yield at 11% bushels per acre— say 
four and one-sixth per cent, below average. 
The returns therefore indicate, in the first week 
of June, a prospect of 220,000,000 bushels. 

Cherries, Eault ani> Late.— In New York 
and New England, we used to think we were 
doing well to get the Mayduke ripe, even as 
early as the last days of May, and more 
frequently by the 10th of June. The latest,' 
were from the middle to the last of July. 

Here we get Baumau's May as early as the 
10th of May, and the Belle Agatha and Bumsey 's 
Late, through the whole of August and extend- 
ing into September. 

Why do not more of our fruit men turn their 
attention to cherries. 



. 



18 



spaglufsq 3&TOAS imsss 



[July 13. 1872. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



Meteorology of San Joaquin Valley. 

Editors Press : — Observations on temperature 
and rain in tliis part of San Joaquin Valley, 
for the Truss, are now completed for the fust 
half of the current year, with the following 
Results: 



1872. 


Aetragt Wtnperatmra, 


Right* 

T.„„,. 


T'-mJ,. 


RnAl. 

Irt'hr*. 






Mn 










7 a.m. S P.M. 9 P.M. 


Mean 








January — 


40.20 n 30 «6 IS 


46.21 


fit 


'-'7 


2.B6 




14.68 59.11 W.m 


56.16 


K7 


u 


2.42 




M.16 ra.KO .'0.4" 


M.3N 


70 


36 


1.45 


May 


48.21 66.40 MI.80 


55 13 


77 


38 


0.97 


.Vl.l.i 78 


64 IS 


90 


40 


o.uu 




SUn ^6.86 | 65.25 


78.23 


110 


n 


0.18 



June has been marked by a few days of ex- 
cessive heat. On the 21st, at 2 p. m., the 
mercury in the shade stood at 10G"; on the 22d, 
110°; the 23d, 104-a But let none of your 
readers for this reason dread the extreme heat 
of a San Joaquin Valley summer, even in June. 
These three were the only days in the month 
when the temperature was above 100. The 
highest on the 24th was 86, and the greatest 
heat the remaining six days ranged from 74 to 88 
degrees. At 9 p. M. on the 27th, the thermome- 
ter stood at 58, or a difference of 52 degrees 
from the hottest hour of the 22d. Yet we hear 
of no one who experienced any bad effects 
from this remarkable range of temperature in 
five days. Such a 

Heated Term 
Usually comes but once each summer, and 
lasts only a few days. It generally occurs 
within two weeks after the summer solstice. A 
reason for this can be seen in the fact that on 
June 21st, and a short time before and after 
that date, the sun's rays are more nearly per- 
pendicular to the surface of our valley thau at 
any other period of the year. Its heat is then 
naturally most intense to us. But as the sun 
lingers for some time near the same point in 
the heavens, this causes the heat to OOM 
if one {may be allowed to so express it. Conse- 
quently, our warmest weather is likely to occur 
within a short time after the solstice. 

In keeping with this principle, our greatest 
heat for several years past has been as fel- 
lows: 

In '69, June 26th, 100 degrees; 27th, 106; 
28th, 104; July 1st, 107. In '70, July 1st, 107; 
2d. 110; M, 102; 4th, 106. In '71, June 29th, 
107. 

In the present instance, it came just as 
Old Sol Paused 
In mid-heavens, when he turned back from his 
farthest point north, and gazed upon the boun- 
tiful crops with which his genial influences 
have this year blessed our valley. 

Well might his enthusiasm have grown warm 
as he looked for the last time before turning 
southward, upon our ripe and waving grain 
fields, and the huge stacks of wheat and barley 
rapidly going up in our grain districts now 
scattered from Kern river to lit. Shasta, and 
at intervals filling all the space between the 
Sierras and the Coast Range, But if his en- 
thusiasm always waxes so warm as he gazes on 
this glorious sight, once a year is quite often 
enough for such hot, burning glances. 

Though the heat of the 22d was as great as 
any we have experienced here for four years, 
the latter part of June has been quite cool. 
Indeed, parts of our mornings and evenings 
have been almost too cool to be pleasant. But 
these cool nights bring us the most refreshing 
sleep, and strengthen us to bear the heat 01 
the day without prostration. 

Our intense heat cannot last long at any 
one time, for by one of Nature's great laws of 
compensation, it is its own corrective. When 
our valley air is so intensely heated, it becomes 
very rare, and rises rapidly to a great hight. 
Then the cold, dense, heavy air from the 
mountains on each side of ns, descends to fill 
this comparative vacuum, and our air is chilled 
again and purified. 

It enables the Pacific Ocean, also, to con- 
tribute to our comfort and health. For its 
cooler air rushes as a brisk sea-breeze into our 
valley through the Golden Oate, as well as 
over the passes and crests of the Coast Bange. 
This is proved by the special prevalence of 
strong northwest winds, soon after all such 
heated terms. In this way, 
Our Mountains and Oceans are our Ventilators. 

These are some of the rare advantages of our 
climate — are some of the correctives which 
make our inland valleys inhabitable by ena- 
bling our people to endure such high degrees 
of heat, amounting in the sun even to 140- 
Fahrenheit, and yet enjoy the most perfect 
health, and do as much hard work, perhaps, as 
any other people in the world. 

As regards rain, the 0.18 of an inch in June 
makes the entire amount, measured at this 
point, for the season, 15.92 inches. If to this 
amount we were allowed to add the additional 



rain which fell from ten to twenty miles east of 
U8, it would probably swell the entire rainfall 
for this district of San Joaquin valley to more 
than seventeen inches. 

It is probable that could we take the average 
of the rainfall measured at Sacramento, Stock- 
ton, Grayson, and here, the past season, it 
would amount about to the average annual rain- 
fall at Sacramento since 1849, that is, nineteen 
inches. But not knowing the full amount that 
has fallen at each of those points, we cannot 
give it exactly. Will not some one of your 
readers favor us with the exact amount which 
has been measured at each of those points, 
now that we can expect no more rain until Oc- 
tober. Our mutual observations on the 
amount of rain for the season of '71 — '72, are 
now ended, and it is only by change of our 
thoughts and conclusions, that wo may hope to 
accomplish the most useful results. 

j. w. a. w. 
Turlock, July 1st, 1872. 



Colfax Correspondence. 

Editors Pacific Rural Press : — Being 
in regular receipt of yonr valuable paper, 
I deem it a duty to add my testimony to 
that of your numerous appreciative patrons 
in regard to its merits and usefulness; 
and although a mechanic, being reared on 
a farm, I have always retained a deep in- 
terest in the cultivation of the soil from 
my boyhood; and consequently can hardly 
conceive how any man can be really con- 
tented and happy, and feel that he is living 
aright, without at least a garden spot to 
improve and beautify with trees, plants, 
Mowers, etc. ; much less, how any one fol- 
lowing that branch of industry as a busi- 
ness can invest four dollars with more 
pleasure and profit to himself (and family, 
if he has one,) thau by subscribing for 
your paper; among other interesting fea- 
tures of which are the communications of 
correspondents from different sections of 
the State, especially those from the ladies, 
prominent among whom is your "charming 
writer," "Mary Mountain," who evidently 
possesses superior ideas of what consti- 
tutes a convenient and pleasant home, to 
many of our sex or a majority of her own. 
Such often advance ideas of economy and 
comfort that the opposite sex, in their greed 
for wealth, are apt to ignore; this inter- 
change of ideas, together with intelligent 
questions of interest propounded and ably 
answered through correspondents, or edi- 
torially, creates an additional interest by 
giving a spicy variety to your paper. But 
a small proportion of the soil in this vicin- 
ity is adapted to agricultural purposes; 
cutting and hauling railroad wood and 
miningbeingthe principal business. There 
are, however, some very good ranches, 
where grapes and fruit trees thrive ex- 
ceedingly well, and with the same amount 
of care grow far more thrifty than those 
grown in the Eastern States. As far as 
my observation extends there will be a fair 
crop of grass, wheat and apples in this vi- 
cinity, a heavy one.of grapes, a few pears 
and plums, but the peach blossoms were 
nearly all killed by the frosts. 

For the past few weeks, from one to 
three droves of cattle, sheep and horses 
have passed here, over the toll road from 
Colfax to Gold Run. on their way to the 
summit and vicinity, where they will be 
herded until fall, when most of them re- 
turn by the same way to the valleys; such 
times of transit make business appear quite 
lively along the route. 

It may not be uninteresting to many of 
your readers to learn that our neighboring 
village of Gold Run claims the pleasure 
and honor of sustaining a very good brass) 
band, among the members of which are 
some of the prominent business men of 
the town, including the postmaster, col- 
lector and others. The citizens have con- 
tributed liberally towards its support, hav- 
ing furnished the instruments; and at 
their out-door concort, Monday evening, 
June 10th, theirtalentedleaderand teacher, 
Mr. A. N. Davison, met with an agreeable 
surprise, by being invited, with his band, 
to the Town Hall, where the citizens had 
gathered, and in appreciation of his ser- 
vices presented to him, through Mr. M. 
Lowell, a beautiful gold watch and chain, 
valued at one hundred and fifty dollars; 
and although taken by surprise, the pre- 
sentation speech was responded to by Mr. 
D. in a feeliug and appropriate manner; 
after which the Band performed a few ex- 
cellent pieces, which closed an entertain- 
ment aliko pleasant and agreeable to all 
concerned. 

Evening outdoor concerts, by a good 



brass band, afford such a cheap and agree- 
able entertainment to citizens generally, 
that where ordinary musical talent is to be 
found, it should be encouraged by the cit- 
izens of every town; for where we find a 
brass band, a railroad, and " last, but not 
least," a printing press, we usually look 
for corresponding enterprise in other de- 
partments, and are seldom disappointed. 

1. A. H. 
Colfax, Cal,, July 1st, 1872. 

Alkali Soils. 

Editors Press :— Being a subscriber and 
reader of your valuable paper, I see something 
in nearly every number about reclaiming what 
is known as alkaline soil in California. We 
see it stated in the papers that by sowing sugar 
beets, planting potatoes, and by applying coarse 
manure and irrigation, these soils can be re- 
claimed and rendered productive of wheat, 
barley, etc. Now Mr. Editor I have been a 
farmer in California twenty years, have had 
alkaline soils to contend with, have tried the 
above mentioned modes of reclaiming and have 
never had the satisfaction of seeing one foot of 
alkaline soil reclaimed, and I will pay $500 for 
one acre in Bear Valley of pure, genuine alka- 
line soil that has been reclaimed by the above 
mentioned processes. 

Now after twenty years of experience with these 
soils, and having tried sugar beets, potatoes, etc., 
I am well satisfied that those who live fifty years 
hence will see the same barren alkaline spots as 
barren and unproductive then as to-day. Now 
Mr. Editor after twenty years of observations 
and experience I am fully satisfied that these 
soils are fed from beneath by seepage. Now 
by digging or boring to water on these soils, 
which will be found from fifteen to twenty-five 
feet from the surface, you will find the water 
strongly impregnated with alkaline matter, and 
is constantly rising to the surface and supplying 
the soil with fresh alkaline matter. 

And now Mr. Editor when I look over these 
alkaline spots that have been plowed, cultivated, 
flooded, etc., for the last twenty years to my 
knowledge, and are just as bare and unproduc- 
tive to-day as they were twenty years ago, is 
it not enough to satisfy one that some other 
process will have to bo adopted if these soils 
are ever reclaimed and rendered fit for the cul- 
tivation of wheat, barley, etc. a. e. k. 

Bear Valley, June ;»0,'ls72. 



Scab in Sheep. 

Editors Rural Press :— I herewith send you 
for the benefit of sheep-raisers, a certain remedy 
for scab, long used, and with most satisfactory 
results in Australia. It is not only the cheap- 
est, but in my experience, the best remedy in 
use. 

The following properties may be increased or 
diminished, to suit the size of the flock : 

Twenty lbs. flour of sulphur ; ten lbs. 
quick lime; twenty gallons cold water. Put 
these into a boiler, and keep mixing by con- 
stantly stirring until they boil; and then keep 
boiling and stirring for about ten minutes, or 
until an orange-tinted solution supervenes. 
Then mix one gallon of this solution, with 
three gallons hot water, heat yonr dip or bath 
to 100- or 114 Fahrenheit, plunge yonr sheep 
over head in it for about one minute, and when 
your sheep is dry, the cure is complete. Mj 
little flock suffered terribly with this disease, 
until about one year ago, when I saw a noiioe 
of this remedy in some agricultural paper, and 
tried it — using for my bath, a large iron kettle, 
with a dripping board on one side, to stand the 
sheep on as they were taken out, economizing 
the solution; and the one bath effected a per- 
fect and entire cure. 

I need not suggest to sheep-raisers, that this 
remedy is better applied soon after shearing; 
and the greatest inconvenience, the effect of 
the lime and sulphur on the hands. J. n. b. 

Healdsburg, July 1, 1873. 

A Root in the Wrong Place. 

Editors Rural Press: — I am desirous of 
asking a question that occurs to me a dozen 
times a week. Why is it that " beet sugar " is 
spoken of as beet root sugar by so many able 
writers and journalists? According to Webster, 
and he is Iloyte to scholars, there is no such word 
compound or otherwise as beet-root. So far as 
I can determine by experience and knowledge 
which has been to plant, weed, cook and pickle 
beets for a number of years, a beet is a root 
the best you make of it, and no one has any 
idea that sugar can be made from the leaves, so 
that it must out of sheer necessity be made 
from the beet. You people that publish news- 
papers, and only eat a beet now and then, as 
some kind lady friend cooks it for* you, please 
inform us why you aU say beet root sugar? 
Would you say cane .stalk sugar, potato root 
starch, onion root syrup, etc., etc.? I think 
the root isaltogether out of place in the name 
of the sugar. Your lady friend, 

Sugar Beet. 



Abuse of Anaesthetics. 

[Written for the Pi 

The abuse of amesthetic and soporifics, 
such as ether, chloroform, hydrate of 
chloral, opium in its various forms, and 
other similar medicaments, is becoming so 
serious as to attract attention and demand 
reform. 

To one -who is suffering from constant 
pain, or pure inability to sleep, the 
knowledge that relief may be at once ob- 
tained by the use of a drug, is doubtless a 
very strong temptation. But it should be 
borne in mind that pain and sleepnessness 
are only symptoms. They are nature's ad- 
monitions of the existence of disease; and 
to stifle them is like removing a sentry, be- 
cause it disturbs us by a cry of danger. 

A little thought will show the mischief 
likely to ensue from thouse of these drugs. 
All pain exists in the nerves, and medi- 
cines which relieve pain can only do so by 
acting on the nervous system. The nerves 
are the warders of the body and the danger 
is, that they will either be made insensible 
of performing their offices, or will l>e over- 
stimulated, and thus anew disease will bo 
brought on more serious than that which 
previously existed. 

Tho discovery of ana-sthetics has been 
truly called one of the greatest boons that 
has ever been conferred on suffering hu- 
manity. But in proportion to their value 
is their liability to abuse. Their proper 
use is in surgical operations, and as a tem- 
porary appliance for relieving pain until 
other methods of subduing the disease 
from which the pain proceeds can be em- 
ployed to advantage. They should very 
rarely be nsed except under the direction 
of a medical man. 

Physicians are alwaysgladto employ any 
proper means to alleviate a patient's suffer- 
ings, and when they dissuade from the use 
of an an.-esthetic or other medical agent, 
we may be sure that it is because experi- 
ence has satisfied them of its injurious ef- 
fects. J. II. w. 



Stamp Duties Abolished. 

The amendments to the Internal Revenue 
Act during the last session of Congress abolish 
nearly all the stump duties after the 1st of ( >c- 
tober next. The tax of two cents on checks, 
drafts, and orders is still retained, but the fol- 
lowing instruments 

No longer Require Stamps. 

Contracts for insurance against accidental 
injuries. Affidavits. 

All agreements or contracts or renewal of the 
same. 

Appraisements, of value or damages, or for 
any other purpose. 

Assignments, of a lease, mortgage, policy of 
insurance, or anything else. 

Bills of exchange, foreign, inland, litters of 
credit, or anything of that kind now taxed by 
stamps. 

Bills of lading and receipts, in the United 
States or for anywhere else. 

Bills of sale, of any kind. 

Bonds of indemnification, of any kind. 

Bond of administrator or guardian, or any- 
thing that has the name of bond on it and now 
taxed by stamp. 

Brokers' notes. 

Certificates of measurement of anything. 

Certificates, of stock, profits, damage, de- 
posit, or any other kind of certificate now taxed 
by stamp. 

Charter or its renewal or a charter party of 
any kind. 

All contracts or agreements. 

Conveyances and any part of the work of 
conveying deeds. 

Endorsement of any negotiable or not nego- 
tiable instrument. 

Entry, for consumption, warehousing, or 
withdrawal. 

Gaugers' returns. 

Insurance policies, contracts, tickets, renew 
als, etc., (life, marine, inland and fire.) 

Lease. All through the lease list is abol- 
ished. 

Legal documents. Writ or other process, 
confession of judgment, cognovit, appeals, war- 
rants, etc., letters of administration, testamen- 
tary; etc. 

Manifest at Custom Uonse, or anywhere else, 
or for any purpose. 

Mortgage, of any kind. 

Passage ticket, to any place in the world. 

Pawners' checks. 

Power of attorney for any purpose. 

Probate of will, of any kind. 

Promissory note for anything. 

Protest of any kind. 

Ouit claim deed. 

Receipt. Now generally exempt, and if in- 
cluded in present law in any case, will be here- 
after exempt. 

Sheriffs' returns. 

Trust deed. 

Warehouse receipt. 

Warrant of attorney. 

Weighers' return, of any character. 



July 13, 1872.J 



19 




Recording Musical Notes. 

Each of the many vibrations that have con- 
curred in the production of a musical note can 
be recorded so as to be visible to a moderately 
large audience, by the use of no other appara- 
tus than a piece of chalk and an ordinary 
blackboard. 

The peculiarly shrill, disagreeable sound of- 
ten heard when a slate pencil or piece of chalk 
is drawn rapidly over a slate, is well known. It 
occurs when the contact between the pencil 
and the slate is not continuous. Each time the 
pencil touches the slate a slight tap is produced, 
and these tups, following each other rapidly, 
link themselves into a sound more or less 
musical. They may be legibly recorded as 
follows : — 

An ordinary chalk crayon is held loosely in 
the hand near one end, and inclined so that 
the acute angle made by the other end with the 
surface of a blackboard is about 30°. If now 
the crayon be pushed in the direction of the 
obtuse angle, it will be set into rapid vibrations, 
and, striking against the board at nearly equal 
intervals, will produce a musical note. At each 
contact a legible mark is make on the board. 
By giving the chalk a uniform velocity, the 
pitch of the sound is kept quite constant, and 
the exact number of vibrations corresponding 
to any particular note, can be readily ascer- 
tained by counting the marks impressed on the 
board in a given time. 

A very little practice will enable one to pro- 
duce these effects quite readily. By altering 
the inclination and pressure, the pitch of the 
note can be varied at will, and the class or audi- 
ence enabled to see the cause of the variations 
in notes of different pitch. In many cases, by 
a close inspection of the marks, it will be seen 
that each of them has been formed by two or 
more separate marks, one of which is generally 
more prominent than the others. This corres- 
ponds to the fundamental tone of the sound, 
the others to the overtones, and thus we have a 
visible proof of the cause of the difference in 
quality observable in certain notes of the same 
pitch. By considerable practice, the variations 
in the pitch of the notes can be obtained so 
readily that a tune may even be evoked from 
the board, which after the performance will 
contain a physical analysis of the individual 
notes. 



Star Depths. — The mind of man utterly 
fails to realize the immensity of space, and no 
one unaccustomed to the use of the telescope 
can have any adequate idea of the difference 
presented by the heavens when viewed by the 
naked eye, even upon a clear night, and the 
scene which is disclosed to the eye and mind of 
the astronomer. How difficult it is to realize 
that each star in the solemn depths of the uni- 
verse is a sun like our sun, but separated one 
from each other and our own by distances 
almost beyond the power of man to compute! 

Only about 3,000 stars can be distinctly seen 
and counted by the naked eye, while an ordina- 
ry telescope reveals the presence of something 
like 350,000. Herschel's great 18-in. instru- 
ment, it is estimated, shows 180,000,000, while 
the great Rosse telescope, by its vast penetrat- 
ing power, is supposed to open up to our 
vision not less than 700,000,000! And yet when 
the whole heavens is swept by this telescope, 
we have only penetrated a distance into space 
from our standpoint on this globe, which, when 
compared to the immensity beyond, is no more 
than the space occupied by the room where we 
write or read is to the immensity of depth 
penetrated by the last mentioned instrument! 

Future Eclipses of the Sun. — Mr. Robert 
T. Paine communicates to SUliman's Journal a 
list of eclipses visible in the United States dur- 
ing the remainder of this century. The first 
central eclipse will be that of September 29, 
1875, which will be annular in part of the State 
of New York and in four of the New England 
States. The duration of the ring on the central 
line will be three minutes thirty-nine seconds. 
At Boston it will be only two minutes twenty- 
nine seconds. The belt of country over which 
the annular eclipse will extend will be 110 miles 
wide. Within it are situated the observatories 
of Hamilton College, Albany, Harvard Univer- 
sity, Amherst College, and Dartmouth College. 
The first total eclipse will be that of July 29, 
1878, when the shadow of the moon will pass 
over British Columbia, Montana, Colorado, 
Texas and Cuba. At Denver, Colorado, the 
eclipse will be total nearly three minutes. 

Determination of Hight of AurorXs. — 
Dr. J. G. Galle, director of the observatory at 
Breslau, celebrated as being the first to recog- 
nize the planet Neptune in the telescope, has 
lately given a new method of determinging the 
hight of the aurora. It is founded upon the 
hypothesis that the rays which form the auroral 
crown are parallel to the magnet pole. The de- 
viation from apparent parallelism he considers 
due to parallax, and thus calculates the distance 
of the rays. From a number of observations 
made by himself and Dr. Reimann he finds that 
the direction of the rays in the aurora of Feb- 
ruary 4, deviated from the magnetic zenith by 
from SO 6' to 10© 2'. He thus finds for the dif- 
ferent rays hights varying from 150 to 280 
miles. 



Improved Iron Processes. 

Scarcely a month passes without the an- 
nouncement of some alleged or real improve- 
ment in the methods of smelting iron, convert- 
ing iron into steel, or working up iron into the 
various forms called for in the consumption of 
that important article. 

A new and cheap alloy of iron, called Ster- 
ling Metal, lately produced, is reported to bo 
harder than cast steel, and, if so, will come into 
use for edge tools. The process of converting 
pig iron into wrought iron, in a puddling fur- 
nace worked by machinery, is coming into fa- 
vor, saving much hand labor. The conversion 
of cast iron into steel by puddling, at one op- 
eration, is also becoming important. The slag 
of iron foundries, heretofore valueless, is now 
pulverized and mixed with lime, to make 
bricks, artificial stone, and ornamental articles 
of many kinds. In an Iron smelting furnace 
lately tried at Hudson, New York, the smoke 
passes out not at the top, as in the ordinary 
furnaces, but through flues nine feet below the 
top, and it is said that there is a saving of 
twenty-five per cent, in tho quantity of coal re- 
quired to make a ton of pig iron. Nearly every 
periodical devoted to the industrial arts tells of 
late progress of inventions in the working of 
iron. 



Mechanical Progress. — The surprising ad- 
vances made by the arts at the present time — 
advances which are made at a rate far exceeding 
that of former times — is readily accounted for 
by the reflex action which each invention has 
upon others. Taking the steam engine as an 
example, it will readily be seen that if the most 
perfect drawing of one of our modern steam en- 
gines had been presented to the mechanics of the 
seventeenth century it would not have enabled 
them to construct one like it. The planing 
machine, the slide-lathe, the power punch, the 
shears, and numerous other machines had to be 
invented before the modern steam engine could 
become a possibility. To them the boring out 
of a true cylinder, six feet in diameter and 
eight feet long, would have been an utter 
impossibility. Our modern steamships, lo- 
comotives and factories depend for their suc- 
cess not only upon the invention of steam en- 
gines and special machines, but upon the abil- 
ity of our machine shops to construct these 
engines and machines after they have been in- 
vented. 



Mammoth Car. — Among the mechanical nov- 
elties to be seen at the Grand Central 
Depot, in New York, is a steam railway car 70 
ft. wide, which travels on a track of correspond- 
ing width. This great vehicle is made in the 
form of a low platform car, and the track on 
which it runs is provided with four rails, ex- 
tending from Fourth Avenue to Madison Ave- 
nue. The car is used for the lateral transfer of 
passenger ears from the main tracks of the 
Hudson River, Harlem and New Haven Rail- 
ways to the various side tracks, thus avoiding 
the use of turntables. The car is propelled by 
steam, the engine and boiler being contained 
within a sheet-iron house carried on one side of 
the machine. The cars to be transferred are 
run upon the great car; steam is then turned 
on and the huge machine trots off with its bur- 
den with as much ease as a horse draws a bug- 
gy. The machine is supported on eight wheels, 
arranged on independent axles. There are in 
addition four driving wheels arranged upon one 
axle. 



Germination — Its Relation to Light. — The 
theory of the germination of plants, which has 
been heretofore admitted requires that the 
germinating seed be excluded from direct sun- 
light. Late experiments appear to establish the 
fact that, while exclusion from the luminous 
rays of the solar spectrum is necessary to the 
healthy germination of seeds, yet the chemical 
or actinic rays are indispensable to the process. 
These penetrate much deeper into the soil than 
do the luminous rays. The exclusion of the 
chemical rays, and not the absence of oxygen 
alone, is assumed to be the cause of seeds fail- 
ing to grow when buried too deeply in the 
earth. Will our agricultural colleges settle this 
question by careful experiments ? Let us have 
all that can be known of the mysteries of plant 
life. 



The Baltimore Tunnel. — Among the im- 
portant tunneling operations now in prog- 
ress, is the railroad tunnel now being con- 
structed under the city of Baltimore. The 
necessity of such a work must be apparent 
to every one who has had occasion to pass from 
one railroad terminus to the other on the op- 
posite side of that city, by the slow horse-car 
conveyance now in use there. This tunuel will 
be 1% miles in length and is being pushed for- 
ward as rapidly as the nature of the work will 
admit. The work of excavation is being carried 
on at the rate of about 100 feet per day, at 
eleven different points. 

The tunnel for the most part, passes under 
the streets. The excavation goes on from the 
surface; permanent side walls are constructed, 
the excavation arched over, and the road way 
or other earth area replaced. Over 1,800 feet 
had been completed and arched over, up to the 
middle of June. 



Advantage of Labor-Saving Machinery. — 
In no way has the beneficial effect of labor- 
saving machines in improving the condition of 
workmen been better exemplified than by the 
application of the sewing machine to the manu- 
facture of shoes. The workmen of Lynn, 
Massachusetts, who in 18G2 were earning 10 
dollars a week without the assistance of the 
leather sewing machine, are now, it is reported, 
earning 50 dollars a week with the aid of this 
useful apparatus. The inventor, who in 1862 
was threatened with mob violence, is now con- 
sidered by the workmen as their greatest bene- 
factor. Within the last ten years the town of 
Lynn has doubled in population and taxable 
property, and it is estimated that 44,000,000 
dollars have been saved to the whole country 
by the invention of the sewing-machine as ap- 
paratus as aplied to the manufacture of arti- 
cles of leather. 



Car Starter — William M. Stratton and Wil- 
liam E. Stratton, of West Troy, N. Y., have 
recently patented an improvement in ap- 
paratus for storing up, in a spring or 
springs, the power expended in arresting the 
motion of the car, to be used in setting it in 
motion again, and it consists in having the 
drum, which is employed to wind up the ten- 
sion cord of the spring, made with such de- 
vices and arranged in such a manner that it 
may be locked and held after being detached 
from the gearing conneced with the axle to 
wind it up, so that the car may be allow to run 
awhile before the power of the spring is ap- 
plied; thus making the apparatus capable of 
retaining the power stored up in the spring 
while the car is going down a descending grade 
and using it on an ascending grade, the car run- 
ning free between the grades. The invention 
also consists in certain novel devices, for thus 
detaching, holding, and locking the winding 
drum. 



A Pressure Gauge for Guns. — The principal 
suggested by Tresca's experiments on the flow 
of solids has been applied in practice for de- 
termining the pressure produced in the bore of 
large guns. A cylindrical hole, bored into the 
gun, is filled by a block of lead, supported be- 
hind by a steel block, through which is a small 
cylindrical hole. When pressure acts upon the 
lead, a portion of it is forced into the hole in 
the steel block. By estimating the volume of 
lead found in the cavity after a discharge, a 
means of measuring the pressure exerted within 
the gun is given. 



Appropriation for Astronomical Purposes. 
The General Appropriation Act passed at the 
last session of Congress sets aside $75,000 for 
the establishment of an astronomical base, and 
the continuance of military and geographical 
surveys and explorations west of the 100th me- 
ridian of longitude. These surveys and explo- 
rations are under the charge of Lieutenant 
George M. Wheeler, who headed the expedi- 
tion that explored a line last year from Elko to 
the Mexican Boundary. He was to start from 
Washington about a week ago to continue his 
work. Much is expected from his explorations, 
and many inquiries have been made for printed 
copies of his last report, but the Government 
printing office has not yet turned them out. 

Change of Habit. — Loranlhus macranthua of 
New Zealand, parasitic there upon trees of Ru- 
taca: and Violaav, is deserting these in favor of 
trees introduced by the European settlers, such 
as hawthorn, plum, peach, and especially 
laburnum, which was introduced as lately as 
1859. Its flowers are abundantly visited by the 
European honey-bee. — Garden. 



An Alloy to Unite Iron and Brass. — C. 
Mene communicates the fact that an alloy, com- 
posed of 3 parts of tin, 39.5 copper and 7.5 
parts of zinc, is very well adapted for joining 
brass or copper to iron and steel. The author 
suggests likewise the propriety of increasing 
the proportion of zinc in the mixture to 10 
parts, since the heat of the smelting operation 
volatilizes enough of it to bring it down to the 
amount named. 



Stretching of Chains. — Professor Trow- 
bridge, of Yale College, has stated that at the 
Novelty works, N. Y., he once made a chain a 
thousand feet long, to be used for pulling a load 
of ten tons up an incline five hundred feet long 
and one hundred feet high. In one year he 
took out, little by little, sixteen feet of slack 
caused by stretching. The chain got stretched 
out in time, though, and then did not alter. 



Petroleum in San Domingo. — Prof. Gabb 
finds a locality, the only one in the Dominican 
Republic, of bituminous products on the island 
of Santo Domingo. Thespof'reminds him strik- 
ingly of tho California petroleum springs, not 
less in tho existance of oil, pitch and gas, than 
in the usual broken-down steam engine and 
fragments of artesian well tools lying scattered 
about." 



Copper in Cocoa. — Careful chemical analy- 
ses show that cocoa and chocolate always con- 
tain a small percentage of copper. The husks 
of the cocoa have been found to contain as 
high as 0.025 per cent, of copper, while the 
kernel of the bean only contained 0.004. Sam- 
ples of chocolate contained 0.0125 of copper. 

Boston is likely to be the first city in the 
East to invest in a narrow-gauge railway. It 
proposes a line to run from the city to Revere 
and Lynn beaches. 



List of Pacific Coast Patent 

The following re-issue is the only pate, 
sued for Pacific Coast Inventors, for the week 
ending June 18, 1872: 
Chain-Elevator and Bucket. — John A. Ball, 

Grass Valley, Cal.— Patent No. 96, 866, dated 

November 16, 1869. 



Notices of Recent Patents. 

Among the patents recently obtained through 
Dewey & Co's. Mining and Scientific Press, 
American and Foreign Patent Agency, the fol- 
lowing are worthy of mention : 

Improved Grain Cleaner.— John H. De- 
Force, Healdsburg, Sonoma county, Cal. This 
grain cleaner is intended more particularly to be 
used in mills, for the purpose of thoroughly 
cleaninS wheat previous to its being ground 
into flour. It consists of a peculiarly con- 
structed pipe or spout, through which air is 
drawn by a fan. The grain is delivered into a 
vertical spout at the end of the spout or pipe 
opposite the fan, so that the chatf and lighter 
grains will be drawn by the suction produced 
by the fan, through the pipe, while the heavier 
and larger grains on account of their superior 
specific gravity, will fall upon a series of separa- 
ting plates or screens where the cheat and bar- 
ley are separated from the wheat. 

Machine for Painting Wire Cloth. — Samuel 
Graves, San Francisco, Cal. This machine is 
intended to be used for painting wire cloth, 
such as is manufactured in strips of considera- 
ble length and afterwards rolled in the manner 
of forming rolls of ordinary cloth. It can also 
be used for painting or coating any other fi- 
brous material, such as cloth, where such a pro- 
cess is required. The usual manner of apply- 
ing paint to wire cloth is by means of brushes, 
which renders the process very tedious, espe- 
cially so as it requires great care to prevent tho 
meshes of the cloth from becoming filled with 
the paint, where it will dry and not only injure 
its appearance but the utility of the cloth. In 
this machine the cloth is passed through a bath 
of paint or other mixture so that it will be cov- 
ered, and afterwards passed between elastic 
rollers which will press out all the superfluous 
paint which has lodged in the meshes, and leave 
the wires with a proper coating of paint to pro- 
tect them. The machine consists of a box in 
which the paint is kept; proper mechanism is 
provided for stirring the paint in order to pre- 
vent it from settling or becoming thick. India 
rubber or other elastic rollers are secured above 
this vessel so that the cloth can be carried up 
directly between them. Upon each side of 
these rollers are fixed hoppers or troughs which 
receive the superfluous paint which the rollers 
take from the cloth, and direct it back to the 
main vessel or tank. 



Encouraging the Manufacture op Beet 
Sugar.— The New Jersey Legislature, at 
its last session, passed the following act: 

1. Be it enacted by the Senate and Gen- 
eral Assembly of the State of New Jersey, 
That for the term of ten years next after the 
passage of this act, all the machinery, 
buildings, real estate, and all other proper- 
ty owned by any individual or individuals, 
corporaiion or corporations organized un- 
der any law of this State, and used exclu- 
sively in the business of manufacturing 
beet sugar, are hereby exempted from tax- 
ation for any purpose whatsoever, provid- 
ed that this exemption from taxation shall 
not apply to lands upon which beets are 
raised for the purpose of manufacture. 

2. And be it enacted, That the stock of 
any incorporated company engaged exclu- 
sively in the manufacture of beet sugar in 
this State, held and owned by any indi- 
vidual or individuals, shall be exempt from 
taxation for any purpose for the time spe- 
cified in the first section of this act. 

3. And be it enacted, That this act shall 
take effect immediately, and be in force 
from and after its passage. 

Bee Culture. — It has always surprised 
us that more attention was not paid to tho 
honey-bee. Considering the amount of 
capital thus invested, and labor expended, 
it is ten times more profitable than any 
other item on the farm. In this climato 
where flowers of all kinds are abundant 
and rich in honey for so many months in 
the year, a colony of bees will make its 
own costs and all expenses the first season. 
Honey and wax have been important items 
in all ages of the world. The little island 
of Corsica once paid Rome an annual 
tribute of 200,000 pounds of wax. In tho 
provinco of Attica in Greece, containing 
only forty-five square miles, 20,000 lives 
are kept. In 1857, the yield of honey and 
wax in Australia was estimated at seven 
million dollars. — Willamette Fanner. 

A good library is a precious catacomb, 
wherein are embalmed imperishably the 
groat minds of the dead who will never 
die. 



20 



jPjrtlSSS, 



[July 13, 1872. 



p^RJ«Er\S 1 14 Cod^CIL. 

Napa County Farmers' Club. 



Club met pursuant to adjournment. After 
calling to order, the President announced that 
the Constitution was open for signers, whereupon 
the following gentlemen added their names to 
the list already published: 11. 'Watson, Suscol; 
E. W. Robinson, Napa; W. S. Jacks, Napa; 
Kobt. Brownlee, Napa; Ts. Imrie, Napa; Wm. 
Gouvernenr Morris, Suscol; W. B. Woodward, 
Oak Knoll. 

The Secretary read a communication from 
W. H. Beotor, Esq., concerning the manufact- 
ure of grain bags, which was ordered on tile. 

On motion of Mr. Gridley the Secretary was 
ordered to correspond with the Club of Sauta 
Clara county witli reference to the subject of 
Mr. Rector's letter. 

The order of the day was taken up, but no 
one seemed to know exactly how to get at the 
subject. After some skirmishing, however, 
Mr. Fisher opened the way to a discussion. 
He thought that the first thing necessary to dis- 
pose of our crops to advantage was to prepare 
them properly for market. This involved the 
questions of what kinds of machinery should 
we use ? What kind of labor should we em- 
ploy, etc. ? He suggested that the question be 
divided, and that the discussion to-day be con- 
fined to cereals. 

Mr. Gridley spoke of the great improvements 
that had been made within his memory in the 
modes of harvesting. There have been none 
greater than in cutting. He thought when 
reapers came into use that improvement was at 
an end, but was glad that reapers had been su- 
perseded by headers. The latter saved much 
to the farmer, and yet farmers lost a great deal 
by cureless heading. Machinery to be of real 
advantage must be used carefully and skillfully. 
He was also satisfied that farmers usually cut 
their grain too late. After it was dead ripe it 
broke off and shelled out. His experience had 
been favorable to cutting from ten days to two 
weeks earlier than the average of farmers, and 
to allow the grain to stand in stack even three 
months. Grain sweats so much more thoroughly 
and would be threshed so much better under 
such treatment. By treating his grain in this 
way he had plumper grain; and by letting it 
stand he would secure cheaper threshing and 
cheaper sacks. He had seen the Vibrator Ma- 
chine work in the East, and thought it would 
supercede all others now in use. 

Sir. llobinson said that his experiences was 
limited. He had tried cutting early ; his grain 
was nice and plump, but it was not threshed so 
clean. He had probably saved in heading what 
he had lost in threshing. He was not so strong- 
ly for early cutting as Mr. Gridley. 

Mr. Wilson said that heading was doubtless 
the best method of cutting, and Haines' header 
the best in use, though some plan might be de- 
vised to save grain that was rattled out. He did 
not approve of cutting green ; had had grain 
mould in the stack. The Vibrator separator 
was a good machine, but it was too slow to take 
well in California. We want speed, even at the 
expense of other requisites — he thought we 
were too much in a hurry. Threshing must be 
done fast on account of the high price of labor. 
As long as we paid men by the day, the ma- 
chine that does the work in the fewest days will 
be reckoned the best machine. The Russell 
machine was good enough for him. It would 
thresh one-third more grain than the Vibrator 
and clean it weU. 

Mr. Sawyer said that he had had fifty years 
experience in harvesting grain. He used to cut 
it with a sickle, ind saved it all because it was 
hard to get. We cut more grain with modern 
machines, but nut at less cost than with a 
sickle. Heading costs from £1.60 to $2.00 per 
day, while cut with a sickle and nicely shocked, 
it only cost from $1.00 to $1.50. After the 
sickle came the cradle, and then the reaper and 
header. With each improvement making speed, 
more grain is wasted, but not much money is 
actually lost to the farmer. The man who runs 
the header is the man who makes the money. 
Small farmers could not afford to keep machine- 
ry; the capital invested lay idle too long. He 
finds that it pays better to hire machinery than 
to own it. He saw the first thresher that was 
built in the United States run, and had run 
them more or less ever since. Thought the 
Vibrator a good machine — its arrangement for 
saving grain was better than any in use. One 
machine (now running near Antioch) had been 
sold in this valley, aud warranted to thresh 
1,000 sacks per day. No machine in use could 
compete with them in point of saving grain ; 
they made up in this respect what they lacked 
in capacity. > 

.Mr. Gridley had heard from the machine re- 
ferred to, and knew that it was giving satisfac- 
tion. 

Mr. Brownlee was sorry that Mr. G. had 
mistaken so seriously in the policy of cutting 
grain green and allowing it to stand so long. 
He would not cut till it was dead ripe, and 
would, if possible, thresh the same day. It 
was economy every way to cnt aud thresh to- 
gether. He has a Russell separator that had run 
nine years, and had done as good work as any 
machine within his knowledge. 

.Mr. Youug said he had not run mtachinery, 
but had had a great deal of grain threshed. All 
machines wasted more or less, and if the Vibra- 
tor did not, it was the machine for him. An 
improvement that would save grain does seem 
within the range of possibility, and it is cer- 
tainly the great desideratum now. He agreed 
with Mr. Brownlee, that if possible he would 



cut and thresh together; but if he could not 
thresh immediately would allow grain to sweat 
thoroughly. 

Mr. Fisher said: Our object is economy. 
The farmer, in plowing or harvesting must take 
advantage of all improvements. He liked the 
header — it was a great strike in advance, yet the 
loss by heading was sometimes very great. 
Grain too ripe shells out and breaks off— he had 
lost fioni five to eight sacks per acre, by letting 
his grain stand too long. There are advantages 
and disadvantages either way; if grain is per- 
fectly ripe before cutting, the straw is better, 
and straw in this country is an object, but it 
requires a longer time to sweat than if cut 
green. He thought the best thresher was Rus- 
sell's latest improved, though the capacity of the 
Vibrator might be increased until it would be 
able to compete with others, provided it was 
not done at the expense of its cleaning. The 
great need at present is an improved shoe — a 
shoe that would clean all that could be thresh- 
ed. Our grain must be cleaned better. This 
was his principal objection to cutting green ; if 
there were weeds in the grain it could not be 
cleaned. He thought the best time to cut was 
when grain was barely ripe — ripe but not dry. 
The risk of having it shaken out by the north 
winds is too great to justify letting it stand long 
after it is ready to cut. Mr. Gridley, by way of 
explanation, said that calculating all the 
chances, weighing the advantages and disadvan- 
tages he had arrived at the conclusion that 
farmers usually let their grain get too ripe be- 
fore cutting. Then it was put into stacks, and 
threshed too soon; for perfectly ripe grain, be- 
ing dry, would not sweat as quickly nor as 
thoroughly as if it were a little green, and 
hence could not be threshed as clean. 

Mr. Sawyer, referring to the Vibrator Ma- 
chine again, said that its capacity for threshing 
was not as great as its capacity for cleaning; it 
would clean three times as much as a Russell 
would thresh. Its clearing apparatus, the wind 
and riddles, were of such dimensions and so 
arranged that it could not help cleaning grain 
perfectly. 

Mr. Brownlee stated that his greatest diffi- 
culty was with dog-fennel; his machine would 
not blow ovt r the weed without blowing over 
more wheat than he could afford to lose, hence 
it was necessary for a man to stand by the shoe 
to clear out the weed by hand. He asked if 
the Vibrator would do this. Mr. Sawyer 
thought it would. Mr. Brownlee said he would 
like to see one tried; if it would do what Mr. 
S. claimed for it, he would buy one. Mr. 
Fisher repeated that our grain must be cleaned, 
or we could not come in competition with grain 
from other parts of the world. It makes no 
difference what our excuse is; it only concerns 
buyers to know that grain is clean or dirty — 
they make no allowances for weeds in the 
field. 

The same question was continued until next 
meeting. 

On motion an order was drawn on the Treas- 
urer for $5 for the use of the Secretary. 

Club adjourned till next Saturday at 2 p. m. 
W. A. FisiiKB, Pres. 

G. W. Henning, Sec'y. 

Napa City, June 29, 1872. 



San Jose Farmers' Club and Protective 
Association. 

[Reported especially for the Pacific Ritual I'rkss.] 

Meeting of July 6th. 
The Club met in their new hall, at 1 r. m. 
President, Benj. Casey in the chair. 

A communication, containing the market re- 
ports, was received from Mr. Todd. The Sec- 
retary was instructed to acknowledge the favor- 
able reception of the same. 
■ The subject chosen for discussion at the next 
meeting is: "The Merits of the Different Breeds 
of Horses."' 

The Secretary read a communication from 
The Napa County Farmers' Club, on the ques- 
tion of Sacks. It contained a letter from Mr. 
W. H. Rector, on the establishment of another 
bag factory. 

The Liquor question was discussed by Mr. 
Jesse Hobson, who strongly favored local pro- 
hibition. Thought that our laws should be so 
changed as to give each school district the right 
to prohibit the sale of liquor within its bor- 
ders if the inhabitants desired. He said, liquor 
is the one gTeat tax that the country groans 
under, which is easily shown by referring to 
our criminal records. 

Grass and Grazing. 

These were next discussed. Mr. Hobson said, 
he did not know much about the subject, but 
he noticed that the parties who had charge of 
St. James' Square, were Belling the grass, and 
appeared to be doing well; they had cut it sev- 
eral times, and sold it at fifty cents per cart 
load. He had bought and fed several tons of 
it to his cows with satisfactory results. He be- 
lieved it was Italian Rye-grass. Mr. Bnrgland 
thought the Italian Rye-grass might do very 
well, and would like to see it thoroughly tested. 
He had fairly tested Hungarian grass. His 
stock would eat it aud keep eating, and 
nearly starve to death eating it. He wanted no 
more of that kind. He said, timothy is a fail- 
ure in our valleys. 

Alfalfa ruins the laud and cattle don't like it. 
It is a curse to any farm — worse than Canada 
Thistles. Mr. Caldwell wanted to know if the 
German Panic Grass had been tried in this 
country. It grows strong and quick, and did 



well in some parts of the East. Grass is the 
foundation of prosperity in any country, and 
should be studied by our farmers. Mr. Hobson 
thought grain ought to be substituted for grass; 
he felt confident that it is preferable and that 
wheat could be profitably substituted for grass 
in many of the older States. Wheat is the 
best; oats may do better along the Coast where 
there are heavy fogs. The common grasses 
may be raised with profit where there is plenty 
of moisture. 

Mr. Holloway, Jr., spoke of the nutritious 
qualities of the bunch grass in Arizona and 
Texas; stock do better on that than any other 
kind of grass. He thought it would be well for 
some one to experiment on cultivating it. Mr. 
Herring being called upon described the same 
grass, said it was hard and grew in isolated 
bunches; for hay they cut it with a hoe and fed 
roots and all. Stock eat it well, but perhaps it 
is because in that dry country they can get no 
better. It grows in jofnts and will take root at 
the joints like a strawberry vine. Mr. Burg- 
land knew the grass very well; he had not much 
faith in its good qualities, but would test a small 
patch of it next year; he thought it grew in our 
Coast mountains, if not, he could get the seed 
from San Diego. 

The Club received an invitation from Mr. 
Neuman to visit his cocoonery in Murphy's 
Block, which they accepted. Mr. Neuman ex- 
hibited the worm in all its stages, from the eggs 
being deposited by the moth, to the matured 
moth again; at present they seemed to be doing 
very well and the proprietor is enthusiastic, and 
seems to have great faith in the final success of 
his operations; lam told that his* annuals have 
nearly all died, but that the others are doing 
well. The members of the Club seemed 
pleased with their visit and heartily wished Mr. 
Neuman success in his efforts. 

Sacramento Farmers' Club. 

The club met on Saturday at the usual time 
and place, President Baker in the chair. 
Steam Plowing Apparatus. 
Order having been called, Alexander Camp- 
bell, by invitation, exhibited to the members of 
the club drawings of a steam engine and ap- 
paratus for plowing and ditching — an improve- 
ment of Mr. Campbell's on the English system 
of plowing by means of a stationary engine, 
ropes and pulleys. Mr. Campbell proposes to 
use two engines, and the following is a descrip- 
tion of them and what he claims they will ac- 
complish. 

These engines are capable of cultivating from 
thirty to sixty acres per day of ten hours, from 
seven to twelve inches in depth, or in cutting 
one mile of ditching per hour, three feet wide 
at top, one foot at the bottom, by two and a half 
feet in depth — or 3x1x2^ feet. 

They may be made available at a moment's 
notice for any ordinary work, such as thresh- 
ing, pumping, sawing, hoisting, or as a traction 
engine. 

They are fitted with Campbell's compound 
windlass expansion frames, telescopic hoisting 
crane, etc. This windlass has a clip drum, en- 
abling one engine to be used when wanted inde- 
pendently of any other, for plowing, eto. 

The expansion frames take all strains entire- 
ly off the boilers, thereby, greatly reducing the 
wear and tear. 

The cylinders are steamed-jaeketed, and all 
the gearing and working parts are made of oast- 
steel, insuring the greatest strength and lights 
ness. 

No other system of steam cultivation can 
compare with this for thoroughness of work, 
less wear and tear, and economy of expenses 
for work done. 

Mr. Campbell also submitted for the consid- 
eration of the members the following compari- 
son between direct traction and stationary en- 
gine cultivating: The best traction engine 
known to the public is that manufactured by 
Messrs. Aveling & Porter. Rochester, England. 
Their six-horse power has an indicated power 
of thirty-eight horses and weighs 11,704 pounds; 
eighty-three pounds is the tractive power of a 
horse" at four miles an hour. To pull a ton over 
soft sandy or gravelly ground requires a strain 
of 210 pounds. Consequently, to pull such an 
engine over such ground, requires" 2,000: 11,- 
704:: 2.53: 14.8 horses, leaving 38—14.8: 23.2 
horses for actual work. To plow a furrow eight 
inches deep by ten inches breadth it requires a 
strain of 393 pounds. This power would pull 
five (nearly) plows in a gang at four miles an 
hour. This, deducting say fifteen per Cent, for 
stoppages, will give 75,112.8 feet per hour, or 
1.7-24 acres per hour, or 17.23 acres per day of 
ten hours at a cost of 1,!>00 pounds of coal and 
two (skilled) men's wages. That is, assuming 
five pounds of coal per horse-power per hour. 
This shows a consumption of 1,160 pounds per 
actual work done and 740 pounds for propell- 
ing the engine. Supposing this engine to be 
fitted up with a clip drum the friction of the 
rope does not waste one-tenth of the engine 
power: thus we should have 34.2 horsepower 
for actual use instead of 23.2; 23.2: 34.2 5:8 
nearly in a gang 5: 8: 17.24: 27.594 acres pel 
day of tc n horns. This wiU require two men 
( skilled ) and two boys. Cost of direct traction: 
2,000 pounds of coal at $10; two men, $8; cost 
for seventeen and a quarter acres, $18. Cost 
of stationary traction : 2,000 pounds of coal at 
$10; two men, $8; twoboys$3; cost for twenty- 
seven and a half acres, $21. Thus direct trac- 
tion will cost $1.11-69 per acre, while rope trac- 
tion wil cost 7ti. 22-55 cents per acre. 

After examining the drawings and hearing 
them explained, and considering the claims and 



statements, the club passed the following pre- 
amble and resolution : 

Whereas, Mr. A. Campbell lias exhibited to 
this club drawings for a st< am plowing appa- 
ratus, an improvement of his on the English 
system of plowing by stationary engim 
explaiueel the advantages of engine power over 
direct traction; and whereas, w< are fully rati - 
tied that the productiveness of our soil can be 
greatly increased by deeper and more thorough 
cultivation, therefore 

Resolved, That we-rcgard Mr. Campbell's im- 
provement as a valuable one, and would be glad 
to see the plow introduced into our State 
ally— aud hope capitalists who are interested in 
the agricultural improvements of the State will 
not hesitate to furnish the nessaiy means to ac- 
complish the object. 



Santa Cruz Farmers' Club. 

The Club met at the Court House, Santa 
Cruz, on Saturday afternoon, July 0th. at 1 
o'clock p. m., the President, Mr. Mattison, in the 
chair. The committee on preliminary arrange- 
ments for the fair reported back to the Club to 
set the time aud place. After some discussion, 
it was decided to he>ld the fair at Santa Cruz, 
on the 10th, 11th and 12th of October next, 

The following executive committee was 
appointed to take charge of the arrangements 
B. Cahoon, F. Adams, D. M. Locke, John 
Wooels, H. B. Doane. 

On motion the officers of the Club wer 
added to the committee. 

Mr. Adams from the Committee on questions 
proposed by the Sacramento Fanners' Club, 
made the following report: 

To the President and members of the Farm- 
er's Club. Gents : — We, your committee ap- 
pointed to investigate and answer the Be* ml 
questions propounded by letter of the Seeretai J 
of the State Board of Agriculture would report, 
that we have performed the duty assigned to 
us and would report. 

Answer to first question. That the effect of 
the heavy rains on crops in this County lias 
been such as to materially effect the yield, 

First. — By draining low spots which were not 
drained and where the water stood on the sur- 
face. 

tiecoml. — By fouling the ground by growths of 
fine grasses, forming a soel, and injuring the 
growth of grain. 

lldrd. — By productions of foreign matters 
such as Cheat, Cockle, Smut and other foreign 
substances. 

Fourth. — By preventing farmers from getting 
in their late crops in time to ensure a full yield. 
Taking all these together, the yield at this 
year is not so good as last year. 

Answer to second question. That our apple 
crops are good, — in fact never better. This 
may be said of all kinds of fruit, except peaches, 
which are somewhat ittjun d by the late frosts. 
Answer to third qui >iion. Some line fi nit 
trees have been injured by the water standing 
around the roots, injuring them by causing de- 
cay of the smaller fibres. 

We are of the unanimous opinion that 
thorough drainage is the best and only preven- 
tative or guard against loss of fruit trees, or 
their injury against heavy rains, and long wet 
winters. On motion the report was adopti d. 
The club then adjourned for two weeks. 

San Joaquin Farmers' Club. 

The Club met July 6th, Dr. E. S. Hold 11. 
President, in the chair. On motion. Air. 
Phelps was appointed Secretary pro tern. Mr. 
Phelps, Chairman of the Committee on Labor 
Exchange, reported that he had accepted the 
resignation of B. F. Kohlberg, who has been 
acting as agent for the Exchange, aud that he 
(Mr. Phelps) had turned over the business of 
the Exchange to Ring k Denig. He recom- 
mended that the Labor Exchange be abolish, d, 
and the committee discharged, which, on motion 
of Capt. Ketehum, was agreed to. Mr. Fairchild, 
from the Committee on Thre-shing, reported 
that nothing bad been done regarding the test- 
ing of different machines, further than a good 
amount of blowing. He thought that if the gas 
expanded had any motive power in it and had 
been applied to the machines, it won] have run 
them both out of the State in opposite directions. 
He believed that the friends of the Vibrator and 
the Case machines were afraid of each other: 
said that they had been near each other for 
some time, and if they had been very 
anxious to engage in a contest they could have 
done so long ago. 

The President remarked that he thought tliere 
was something radically wrong — other far me' 
clubs had no trouble. Mr. Phelps, Chairman 
of the Sub-Committee on Threshing, said that 
heretofore all the blame had been laid on the 
manufacturers and agents of the different ma- 
chines in a contest at their own expense ; but 
now, Mr. Nichols, manufacturerof the Vibrator, 
and Mr. Erskinc, of the (as. machine, have- 
each agreed to bear all the expense ni 
to engage in a friendly contest to test the 
respective merits of their machin es ; and Mr. 
Hewlett, of the firm of Jones & Hewlett, baa 
also agreed to contribute largely for the same 

Surposo. Mr. Phelps said that Mr. FaiielnM, 
[r. Smyth and himself, h id left their harvest- 
ing and spent much valuable time in trying to 
bring on a trial but all their efforts had failed. 
Mr Fairchild moved that a committee of one 



July 13, 1872.] 



moiho 



21 



be appointed to wait on the owners of the dif- 
ferent machines and get a definite answer. 
Captain Ketchum thought they would be ready 
very soon. During the discussion, Mr. Sperry, 
agent of the Vibrator, entered the hall and 
stated that the reason the contemplated contest 
had not come off was that both parties owning 
the respective machines (himself and Mr. 
Graves) were very much behind with their 
work; that the weeds were getting the start of 
them; but as soon as they could get their grain 
stacked, the trial would certainly take place. 
On motion of Mr. Smyth, the subject was post- 
poned for one week. Mr. Learned called the 
attention of the Club to the fact that the Board 
of Equalization would meet on Monday, July 8. 

The President notified the Committee on 
Taxation that the farmers depended on the 
committee to be prompt in attending to their 
duty, as their action was of vital importance to 
the whole fanning community. He said that 
siuco the subject of unjust taxation had been 
started by this Club, it. had been taken up by 
all the different clubs in the State, some of 
whom are taking very decisive action in the 
matter and would not cease until some relief be 
had by the hard working farmer from the op- 
pressive yoke of unjust taxation. The discus- 
sion of the subject of fertilizing the soil was 
announced to be next in order, and the Presi- 
dent stated that he had written an essay on the 
subject, which, on motion, he read to the Club. 

[ We are obliged to defer the publication of 
the Essay, this week.— Ed.] 



^weJifde^L f!@T ES< 



CALIFORNIA. 

BUTTE. 

Enterprise, July 5: Fine Yield. — The 
Dan Bid well farm, near Chico, has in cul- 
tivation this year 600 acres of wheat, which 
will yield from 30 to 35 bushels per acre; 100 
acres of barley, producing 50 bushels per 
acre; 150 acres of hay affording two tons per 
acre. There are also upon the pi - emises 
5,000 fruit trees of all kinds, and 10,000 
grape vines. 

Seeking New Pastuke. — On one day of 
the present week Sandy Young and Andy 
Reavis drove from the Ranch of D. M. 
Reavis, his (Reavis') large head of cattle, 
destined for points in the mountains, 
where only Sanely Young himself can tell. 

Wheat. — Wheat has gone down in price 
very low, as is always is the case just at 
harvest. The distant crops as yet have 
not developed themselves, and no one can 
place an estimate of what the demand will 
be. We will know soon, when a better 
judgment may be arrived at as to when to 
sell. 

Alfalfa. — We would advise our farmers 
that all over the State the alfalfa clover is 
becoming a favorite, and that wherever 
sown it grows well. It needs no irriga- 
tion. 

Emigrants. — Quite a number of families 
are passing through this place, bound for 
Titt river. The mountain valleys are fast 
filling up and taking away many of our 
best citizens. 

Traveling. — Prom reliable sources we 
have learned that Gen. Bid well and lady 
will, within a few months, visit portions of 
South America, Spain and other European 
countries. Benefit to his wife's health, 
and an examination into the modes of cul- 
tivation of the vine and making raisins are 
tho objects of the visit. 

A Sad Accident. — Prom a visitor to 
Chico we have tho following relation of a 
terrible accident occuring at Nanna's ranch 
in Colusa county, on Wednesday, the 3d 
instant: The boiler of the steam thrasher 
belonging to Curtis & Nanna bursted, kill- 
ing a youth named C. Newton, and badly 
injuring six persons, among whom was Mr. 
Curtis. The machine was entirely con- 
sumed, costing $5,000, and three stacks of 
grain were burned. 

CONTRA COSTA. 

Gazette, July 6: Field Fire. — A fire broke 
out in a wheat field belonging to Fernando 
Pacheco, some two miles north of Concord 
about ten o'clock Friday forenoon. Large 
numbers of people from the harvest fields 
of the surrounding neighborhood were 
hurried to the spot by tho smoke signal, 
and succeeded in extinguishing tho fire 
after it had burned over twelve or fifteen 
acres. It is thought that tho fire must 
have been set intentionally or by the care- 
lessness of some straggling smoker, as it oc- 
curred in a part of the field distant from 
any road or path. It would not be well 
for the comfort of any person that he 
should be suspected of agency in such 
business, about this season of the year. 

Ordering From the East. — We hear 
that several farmers in the neighborhood 
of Clayton have united in ordering grain 
sacks to the number of ten thousand, from 
New York, which they expect will come to 



them at rates below those now ruling here. 
MERCED. 

Tribune, July 6: Crops. — The crops 
hereabouts are yielding far in excess of 
what the most sanguine of our farmers 
predicted. Capt. Morrison, who had esti- 
mated the yield of his ranch at twenty 
bushels to the acre, informs us that the 
first stack threshed yielded an average of 
thirty-four bushels to the acre, and his en- 
tire crop will average over thirty bushels 
to the acre. 

Not So. — A rumor prevails below here 
that the authors of the recent incendiary 
fires in this county were caught and sum- 
marily hanged. This we regret to say is 
not the case. Suspicion is directed against 
no one particularly, though it is incontro- 
vertible that the grain was purposely fired. 
Should the operator or operators be caught, 
however, we promise on behalf of the out- 
raged farmers that the rumor will be real- 
ized. 

Fruit. — The time of canning fruit has 
come and the voice of the preserving kettle 
will be shortly heard in the land — that is 
if " we'uns " can get fruit in plenty. Until 
it arrives more freely and is held at lower 
rates many will go without. What is the 
matter ? Let us hear from Santa Clara and 
Alameda. Fruit just now hints too strong- 
ly of greenbacks. 
NEVADA. 

Truckee Republican July 5: Snow on 
the Washok Range. — The warm weather 
for the last few days has sluiced the snow al- 
most all offthe western summit of the Washoe 
mountains. Ou the summit of the Sierra 
Nevada, however, it still glistens cold and 
deep, and apparently is undisturbed by 
the great heat prevailing in the valleys and 
foothills. It will take a month or more 
of warm weather to expose the bare sum- 
mits of the Sierras in sight from Truckee. 

Come to the Wrong Place. — Mr. Bas- 
tine, of Washoe City, was in town on 
Tuesday in search of thirty wood-chop- 
pers. He offered from $2 to $2.50 per 
cord, but failed to find either white man 
or " heathen Chinee" in want of employ- 
ment who could be seduced to leave 
Truckee. This is the last place in Cali- 
fornia a man should come to for the pur- 
pose of enticing away laboring men. 

PLACER. 

Herald, July G: Harvest Over. — Graiu 
cutting is about over in this county, and 
reapers and headers will be housed for the 
season, and the threshers will be brought 
out and set to work next week. Farmers 
from western Placer, the chief grain rais- 
ing portion of the county, inform us that 
the crops will prove a fair average. But 
for too much rain in the winter, and too 
little in the spring, it would have been an 
extra good crop. The grain raised here is, as 
usual, the finest produced in any portion 
of the State, and commands the highest 
price in the market, especially from 
millers. 
SACRAMENTO. 

Folsom Telegraph, July 6: Prosper- 
ing. — The heavy crops this year over the 
length and breadth of the State, will bring 
millions of dollars into the pockets of the 
farmers. They will need it, however, and 
will make use of it, as most of them have run 
behind for the past two years, owing to 
the drouth, buying land and improving 
their farms. The fruit growers will also 
do well. The vineyards are loaded with 
grapes, and a larger amount of wine and 
brandy will be made than ever before. 
Cotton promises well and will pay remark- 
ably well. Miners in the hills are as a 
general thing doing better than for many 
years. The few manufacturing establish- 
ments in the State are paying well, but for 
some reason or other, capitalists are loth 
to invest their money in this branch of 
industry. 

SAN DIEGO. 

Weekly Bulletin, June 29: Heavy Sale 
of Cattle. — Robert Kelley sold one thou- 
sand head of beef cattle to W. G. Hill, of 
Cajon. The are to be driven to Nevada. 

Big Load of Hay. — Yesterday, Capt. 
R. K. Porter, with a six horse team, 
, haul six tons of new, nicely baled hay from 
his ranch to this city, for which he found 
ready sale. 

Passion Flower.— Doubtless many of 
our readers have observed that the west 
side of the Fifth street brewery is thickly 
covered with green leaves of a large vine. 
We are informed that this is the well- 
known Passion Flower. The stem of this 
flower has a woody texture, becomes quite 
large, and its flexible branches attain to 
considerable length, are of rapid growth, 
and spread over considerable space. The 
blossom of the common variety is star- 
shaped and beautiful in appearance. This 
showy plant makes a handsome arbor cov- 
ering. 



SANTA CLARA. 

Mercury, July 6: Cherry Currants. — 
I. A. Wilcox, at his experimental gardens, 
two miles northwesterly from Santa Clara, 
is now supplying this market with from 
1.200, to 1,500 pounds a day of this superb 
fruit. He is also shipping about double 
this quantity to San Francisco daily — and 
this in the commencement of the fruitage. 
By next week his shipments will exceed 
6,000 pounds a day. His best bearing 
plants are two years old. The cherry cur- 
rant grows in immense clusters attached 
to the main stock, and commences fruiting 
close to the ground. To preserve its 
bright scarlet color it must ripou in the 
shade of its own foliage. It can only at- 
tain perfection by thorough cultivation of 
the soil and abundant irrigation. By this 
means Mr. Wilcox has brought his fruit to 
a state of perfection truly remarkable. In 
Alameda county the lack of irrigative fa- 
cilities is seriously felt; the plant makes 
less foliage, and the color of the fruit is 
more or less dimmed by the sun. Our 
flowing wells give us a marked advantage 
in this respect. 
SONOMA. 

Russian River Flag, July 4: Col. H. 
L. Preston, late of Idaho, has bought the 
Derrieux vineyard near Cloverdale. We 
have no idea that this will induce the Col. 
to settle down, as he is one of the most in- 
veterate travelers in the world. His 
brother will come down from Oregon and 
conduct the vineyard in connection with 
stock raising. 

Fruit. — J. H. Curtiss has the thanks of 
the Flag office for some blackberries — as 
fine ones as we ever saw. He also left us 
a few apples — some of the 1871 crop, and 
some of this year's crop. The yearlings 
were in a good state of preservation. 

Vallejo Independent, July 3: New 
Wheat. — There is a large quantity of new 
wheat by the Elevator on two very long 
trains, and a large pile is lying on the 
Company's wharf just this side of the ele- 
vator. 

Great Curiosity. — Quite a curiosity 
was shown on Mare Island, on Monday, 
in the way of seven well-formed ears of 
corn on a single stock. 
TUOLUMNE. 

Independent, July 6: Sheep. — We un- 
derstand that the mountains are filled 
with sheep. Sheep raising is a very profit- 
able business, and a business that must be 
understood to make it so. Mutton and 
wool are very necessary articles to man's 
prosperity and welfare, and from the ear- 
liest ages the sheep has been his friend. 
God has never put an animal on the earth 
that has been of more service. But not- 
withstanding all this, there are other 
branches in the stock business that hold 
claim to the public domain , and are will- 
ing to pay for range although less remu- 
nerative and not so damaging. We would 
like to see these sheep men pay something 
for value received. The Legislature of 
last winter made no provision in this di- 
rection — but we hope the next one will. 

YOLO. 

Democrat, June 29: New Wheat. — Sev- 
eral lots of new wheat have been brought 
in, and more would have been if the prices 
had kept up. The quality of the lots sold 
is excellent, and tho price realized from 
$1.50 to $1.60 per cental; $1.50 is now the 
top of the market for new wheat in Wood- 
land. 

Mail, July 6: Yolo Items — Coming In. 
New wheat is beginning to arrive pretty 
freely, and moie cars and engines are need- 
ed to bear it away. 

The artesian well is progressing favora- 
bly, and the auger has reached a depth of 
650 feet — no signs of water yet. 

Busy. — Our streets have not been so 
lively for the past few days as usual, which 
indicates that there is business in the har- 
vest fields for all who wish to labor and 
more too. The bulk of the wheat will be 
harvested within the next ten days or two 
weeks, and then the railroad will have bus- 
iness, which, at its present rate of steam 
and carriage, will not suffice for the de- 
mand. 

OREGON. 

Oregoniau, June 29: The Oregon State 
Agricultural Society owns 140 acres of land 
near Salem. The improvements on it are 
valued at $10,000. 

A farmer in Union county killed 2,000 
ground squirrels during May last. May 
wasn't a good month for ground squirrels 
either. 

Wm. Warren, of Yamhill county, has an 
ox which has been twice bitten by rattle- 
snakes this season. The ox is likely to die 
from the effect of the wounds. 

A band of sheep numbering two hundred 
head passed through Eugene on Tuesday^ 



morning. They are being taken to i 
Oregon over the O. C. M. Road. 

The late spring sown grain in Washing 
ton county is a failure. 

Wool in the Oregon City market has 
gone down to 35 cents per pound. 

Timber Burning. — Dense volumes of 
smoke were seen to issue Monday from the 
timbered region west of the city. From 
indications clearing is progressing lively 
in that direction. The bases of the wooded 
bights invironing the western limits of the 
city are being rapidly divested of their 
covering, and a few more seasons will bring 
a wonderful change. 

Hay harvest has begun on the sound. 
The " yeasty waves" of the Columbia still 
o'erspread the wild meadow lands at 
Kalama. 

A decision by Judge Prim, of the First 
Judicial District, is announced, which 
virtually settles the question, that where 
lands have been surveyed and returned as 
agricultural lands, mere possession by the 
miners give them no legal or equitable 
rights sufficient to resist a patent. 

MONTANA. 

Mountaineer, June 29: Huckleberries. — 
Although our mountains are covered 
with the small variety of the huckleberry 
bush, we know of but few places where the 
large bushes grow. On the Elk Creek 
and Maginnis Gulch Mountains plenty of 
them are found. Let some of our towns- 
people make arrangements to have a few 
of these bushes shipped up next spring in 
time for planting. The fruit is among 
the most delicious that grows, and will 
well repay the trouble and expense of 
transplanting. 

Mr. T. H. Harris of the Bitter Root, 
gave us a call this week, on his way to He- 
lena. He says that' one of his seedling 
apple trees, three years old, has fifty well 
developed apples growing on it, and that 
his plum trees are bearing this year. This 
evidence of the adaptability of our climate 
to the raising of fruit should be sufficient 
to induce all our farmers and town resi- 
dents to plant fruit trees— from the top of 
Mt. Powell down to the lowest level 
"where the pleasant valleys lie." 

Many new farms have been taken in 
Flint and willow Creek Valleys within the 
year, and crops are looking well, except 
where damaged by crickets, which in 
many places threaten to destroy every- 
thing. Some farmers have had to employ 
men for the purpose of fighting them, but 
most of the ranch-men think they will be 
able to save the bulk of their crops by the 
judicious use of water alone. 

Now is the time to catch kids. Any one 
living near the range of the Rocky Moun- 
tain or Montana Goat will make it pay to 
catch some of the lambs. There is a de- 
mand in California and other places, for 
rams, and if a few could be secured, they 
would bring a good round price. Messrs. 
Clark and Larabie, bankers, have been 
applied to, to secure several if possible. 

WASHING-TON. 

The Weather. — Walla Walla Union, 
June 29: During the week we have had 
weather that does not remind us quite so 
much of the place that the preachers tell 
us of, as did that of the week previous. 
During the fore part it was just reasonably 
warm, but toward the middle it com- 
menced trying to rain, and on yesterday 
afternoon it made it out and we had a nice 
shower — the first for some weeks. 

The Grain Crop. —Wo have "inter- 
viewed" numbers of farmers from all sec- 
tions of the country, and from their state- 
ments we gather that as a general thing Fall 
sown grain will be about an average crop, 
but that the spring sowing is almost uni- 
versally poor. In many places it will not 
be worth cutting as grain, and some fields 
will not pay to cut even for hay, because 
of tho smut. Our crop of wheat will bo 
light, and other grain will be very light. 

Cutting Hay. — Just now many of our 
farmers are busy cutting hay. We see that 
it has began to come to town. While the 
hay crop is not as a general thing good, 
there will be a large amount of it cut this 
year, as much grain will be mowed in- 
stead of being reaped. At the low prices 
of graiu and high prices of stock we do 
not know but that it will be almost as 
good for the country as if we had heavier 
crops of grain and consequently less hay. 

We hear complaints made by stock men 
that grass is getting very poor for this 
time of tho year. The early part of the 
season was so dry that it did not grow as 
tall as usual, and it has continued so dry 
that the grass is beginning to dry up. The 
consequence is that feed is short, and 
stock is not doing as well as it usually 
J nfly .at tJsit .fdAsoa of the year. 



m 



22 



&S*®1&IQ (EUmAIL 



[July 13, 1872. 



f-J0f*E \\iD f\R$. 



A Settled Policy on Farms. 

The whole secret of successful farming 
ofteu lies in his having a fixed plan of 
operations. Multitudes have no plan but 
to meet their immediate necessities and 
make money by the easiest and seemingly 
shortest methods. If wool brings high 
prices, thoy will gradually give up dairy- 
ing and work into sheep, with the expec- 
tations of making their fortunes. If wool 
and mutton raising for a time does not pay, 
they sell their flocks at a great sacrifice. 
If hops are sixty cents a pound, they in- 
vest in hop-poles and kilns for drying, and 
expect sudden wealth. If, when their 
yards come into full bearing, the prices 
fall off one-half or more, thoy are disgusted, 
and ready to plow up their yards, conclud- 
ing that the business will not pay. There are 
men who are always taking up a good thing 
a little too late to make money out of it. 
The farmer cannot afford this continual 
change. His business is less speculative 
than any other, and after providing forthe 
wants of his family and stock, he should 
give his attention steadily to the produc- 
tion of a few animals, crops and other pro- 
ducts, on which he can rely to raise money. 
Any branch of farm industry steadily fol- 
lowed, will bo found profitable. Dairying 
in a year of short grass might not pay very 
well. 

But years of drought are exceptions, and 
the man who makes first rate butter and 
cheese will find them a reliable source of 
income. "When a speciality is made of 
some one crop, it is particularly important 
he should follow it steadily. The raisins 
of hops or tobacco requiro fixtures that are 
useless in any other branch of farming, 
and the change of crops involves a consid- 
erable loss of capital. Besides we are al- 
ways learning in a good business to which we 
give habitual attention, and this knowledge 
is as much a part of our capital as the 
money invested in tools and outbuildings. 
If a man should make potatoes his leading 
crop, he would study to lessen the cost of 
production, and would resort to devices in 
the preparation of the seed and the soil, in 
the use of manures, and in cultivation, 
quite unknown to the farmer who pursues 
a careless style of husbandry, he could 
raise potatoes cheaper than his neighbor, 
by reason of his improved methods, and 
if. he sold at the samo price, make money. 
Whatever branch of farming you follow, 
stick to it if moderately profitable. Lay 
your plans ahead and be prepared for ex- 
ceptional years, when large profits come 
from high prices, or losses from unfavora- 
ble seasons. A mixed husbandry is always 
the safer, and is not inconsistent with the 
cultivation of commercial crops as tobacco, 
hops, fiax, onion seeds, or vegetable seed 
of any kind, garden vegetables, or market 
fruits, etc. The introduction of these re- 
quires close calculation, definite plans, and 
the thorough business management, if suc- 
cess be attained. — Netr York Dau Book. 



with a short, erect stem, not very large, 
and taking up very little space. One of 
its main characteristics is that it will keep 
sound late in the season. 



Soubcks of Fertility in Farms. — The 
sources of fertility to farms are the refuse 
of the crops which they bear, modified by 
the farm stock, and preserved and judi- 
ciously applied by the husbandman. There 
is not a vegetable matter grown upon the 
farm, be it considered never so useless or 
obnoxious, but will, after it has served or- 
dinary useful purposes, impart fertility to 
the soil, and contribute to the growth of a 
new generation of plants, if it is judicious- 
ly husbanded and applied. There is not 
an animal substance, be it soil, liquid or 
gaseous — be it bone, horn, urine, hair, 
wood or flesh, or the gases which are gen- 
erated by the decomposition of these mat- 
ters—but, with like care and like skill, 
may be converted into new vegetable, and 
afterward into new animal matters. To 
economize and apply all these fertilizing 
materials is the province and the duty of 
the husbandman. 



A New Potato in France— A new potato 
named the Marjo/iu a oeil Hose, or the 
Rose-eye Marjolin, has made its appear- 
anco in France, and which is claimed to bo 
very superior, not only for its fine quality, 
but as a long keeper. M. Carriere, the 
editor of the Revue Horticole, states that 
he has seen it and tried it, and that the 
praises lavished upon it are well deserved. 
He has eaten of it cooked in every way; 
therefore ho knows. Monsieur Leclerc 
says the tuber has eyes which are on the 
surface, not sunken, with a smooth skin, 
and somewhat elongated in shape. The 
flesh is somewhat yellow, very fine, 
and of a very delicate flavor. It grows 



What to do With our Surplus Fruits 
and Vegetables. 

At the Agricultural Convention at Sa- 
vannah, Georgia, according to the Ameri- 
can Arlizan Mr. B. H. True described a 
new system of preserving fruits and vege- 
tables, invented by Mr. 0. Alden, which is 
highly spoken of, and which will doubt- 
less be read with interest by many of the 
fruit growers of this State, who may be 
anxious as to the manner in which their sur- 
plus fruit may be utilized best. Mr. True 
gives the following description of the pro- 
cess: — It is well known that the starch and 
sugar of fruits are almost identical in their 
chemical constitution, and that starch de- 
velops into sugar by the aid of acid, both 
in natural ripening of plants and in such 
artificial processes as the conversion of 
potato starch into grape sugar by the aid 
(but not consumption) of sulphuric acid, 
which is prosecuted on a commercial 
scale in Germany. But to Mr. Alden be- 
longs the honor of the discovery that the 
process of super-maturation can be artifi- 
cially stimulated, so as to convert the mu- 
euous constituents of any organic product 
largely into saccharine matter, in a very 
few hours, with a result analogous to the 
"raisiuing" of the grape. In other words, 
this wonderfully enriching change which 
crude art can only effect in certain spe- 
cially adapted products, such as the grape, 
tig, and prune, and that under certain pro- 
CMe climatic conditions, is now found 
practicable by scientific but simple appa- 



The cost of this machinery complete is 
$2,500. The following is a detailed state- 
ment of what is claimed to be accomplished 
with one of these machines in a week's 
time, at work on peaches. One evapora- 
tor of 40 frames, carrying half bushels per 
framo, two frames entering and coming 
out every nine minutes, makes 100 frames, 
or 80 bushels in 12 hours. Total, say, 500 
bushels per week, with the following re- 
sult: — 

Five hundred bushels per week yield 
4,000 povinds fruit, averaging in New 

"\ ork 80 cents 91,900 

Seven hundred and fifty pounds skins, 
worth for jelly and marmalade 6 cents 
per pound 45 

Total $1,245 

COST. 

Five hundred bushels at 50 cents 

Total cost for fuel, engineer, girls to pare; 
peaches, etc 1 in;j 

Whi »le expenses $413 

Net profit per week 832 

Mention is made of the delicious syrup 
obtained from the hydrated sweet potato, 
at a trifling expense, by Mr. Alden's pat- 
ent exhausting process. The yield is over 
one gallon. The average product per acre 
is 500 bushels, yielding, at only one dol- 
lar per gallon, $">00 in syrup, and a resid- 
uum of five thousand pounds of flour, 
worth at least $150. The cost of manufac- 
factnro, without paring, need not exceed 
the value of the flour, leaving the syrup 
$500 as tho annual clear product of tillage 
per acre. 

1)iu:ssino Bl\ck Hoos. — A correspond- 
ent of the Michigan Fanner says: '•'The 
principal objection to tho Essex and Berk- 




THE FLYING FISH. 



ratus, with any organ'C product containing 
amylaceous matter, and in any part of the 
world. The apple, peach, or tomato, for 
instance, can bo as truly "raisined," ac- 
cording to its kiud, as tho grape; and it is 
not unreasonable to infer that, by the same 
scientific aid, tho "raisining" of the grape, 
fig, and prune, etc., may be dispatched 
with like celerity, and proportional im- 
provement of the product in point of both 
richness and freshness, especially the lat- 
ter. 

For it must be understood that the pe- 
culiarity of the Alden preserved fruits or 
vegetables is wholly or mainly in their en- 
hanced sweetness and refinement: This 
change, by itself considered, as illustrated 
by the dried grape or raisin, is but an in- 
cident to something far more important, 
novel, and startling. Dried fruit in its 
best estate may be described as the oppo- 
site of fresh. The Alden fruit, on the 
contrary, is fresh fruit (rendered imper- 
ishable) , and, therefore, must not be con- 
founded with dried fruit. 

The chief mechanical parts of the ap- 
paratus are the evaporating or pneumatic 
chamber, ordinarily five feet square and 
fifteen feet high; the revolving endless 
chains, one at each corner of tho chamber, 
running vertically and carrying brackets 
to support the fruit frames, nine inches 
apart, and each carrying half a bushel of 
fruit ; the steam coil at the bottom of the 
chamber containing about 3,000 feet of 
pipe connected with a boiler, for heating 
the air-blasts ; the boiler and engine for 
driving the blower. The fruit enters at 
the top of the chamber where the air blasts 
issue out in a tepid and slightly humid 
state from having passed through twenty 
to forty frames of fruit. The blasts here 
take off the surface moisture from the fruit 
quickly, but not so perfectly as to incrust 
it. At every nine minutes the carrying 
chains niovo the whole series of fruit 
frames downward on the chamber, by the 
depth of one interval or two, according to 
the moisture of the fruit, two frames at 
the bottom being taken out and two fresh- 
ly filled being put in at the top. As the 
fruit descends the blast becomes gradually 
warmer and freer from humidity, until its 
highest temperature is found at'the lowest 
interval, where it is from 1C0 J to 175" Fahr. 



shire breed of hogs I find to be their color. 
Now, as Vouatt justly observes, this is 
not even 'skin deep.' The coloring matter 
will be found to l>e secreted between the 
true skin and the epidermis or outer skin. 
If care be taken in scalding black hogs, 
they can be dressed as white as any white 
hogs. It is a well known principle that all 
black substances absorb heat. Hence in 
dressing black hogs the water should not 
be so hot as in scalding white ones. If 
this simple rule bo observed, there will be 
no difficulty in dressing black hogs. In- 
stead of this color being an objection, I 
regard it as an advantage, for the skin of 
a black hog will always be found to be 
smooth and glossy, free from cutaneous 
eruptions and always clean. 

Texas Cattle.— The West Side, an Ore- 
gon paper, tells us how they get Texas 
cattle into that part of the Great North 
West. Mr. H. H. Burton, who left here 
last winter for Texas to buy cattle, writes 
to his family at North Yamhill that he has 
succeeded in purchasing 1,400 head and is 
now on his way home with them. He will 
make two summers' drives of the trip, win- 
tering his drove on the head waters of the 
Missouri and getting through early next 
summer. The drove cost 88 each for cows 
with calves, $5 for steers, three years old 
and upward, and $3.50 for two-year-olds 
or dry cows. 

Ducks are said to be great insect exter- 
minators. The Grape Cidturisi advises the 
raising of them in vineyards as they will 
destroy bugs, thrips, flies, snails, etc. 
Ducks are quite as profitable for eggs as 
hens, and where feed is plenty and cheap, 
are always profitable to raise. Wo would 
advise feeding the poorer quality of ripe 
grapes to the fowls. They possess great 
fattening properties, are easy to raise, and 
it would be putting them to a good use. 

Lice on Cattle may be removed by 
pouring a small quantity of kerosene on 
the card with which thoy are carded. The 
application should bo frequent, though in 
but small quantity, till the lice all disap- 
pear. The lousiest herd I ever saw was 
completely relieved of them in ten days 
by this application alone. 



The Flying Fish. 

There are several varieties of the flying fish; 
all similar in appearance to the one herewith 
illustrated. They are all characterized by an 
excessive development of the pectorals, which 
assume tho form of wings, and are used as such. 
Their length and power is sufficient to enable 
the possessors to support themselves in the air 
for a moment only. Fishes of this family are 
found in all warm and temperate seas. They 
are all small, varying in length from four to 
about twelve inches. 



Australian Forest Trees. 

At the last meeting of the Academy of 
Bcii in-, s. It. K. C. Stearns read a very interest- 
ing paper entitled, "The Economic Value of 
Certain Australian Forest Trees, and their 
Cultivation in California.'' It treated par- 
ticularly of the varieties of the Eucalyptus 
which Mr. Stearns eulogized as particularly- 
adapted to California. We will give this paper 
in full in a future issue. The reading of the 
paper drew some of the members out in a dis- 
cussion concerning the merits of the tree and 
its proper cultivation, strength, value as tim- 
ber, medicinal virtues, etc. 

Professor Bolandor said that a familiar in- 
stance of the applicability of trees in temper- 
ing climate might be noticed when coming from 
the Eastern side of the valley towards Sacra- 
mento and Stockton. Whilo in tho valley the 
wind was hot and uncomfortable; on neariug 
Sacramento or Stockton tho traveler became 
conscious of a refreshing coolness, caused by 
the existence of trees at those places. He had 
put a thermometer in the open air on a warm 
day, and then placed it on the green leaves of a 
tree, and it showed a difference of eighteen or 
twenty degrees. If our grain fields were sur- 
rounded by trees they would be greatly bene- 
fitted. 

Professor Davidson said that this fact was 
recognized in Iowa, where they set aside one 
day in the year to plant trees for that purpose, 
generally the 1st of May, and that on that day 
last year it was estimated that upwards of 
one million trees had already been set out. 

Dr. Stout testified to the hardihood of tho 
Eucalyptus. He also said that parasites did 
not attack it, on account of the odor. As to 
the medicinal qualities of the tree, he had 
taken a quantity of the leaves and made ciga- 
rettes of them, and had constructed also a 
respirator so that the fumes from the leaves 
might be inhaled, and had fouad it of great 
assistance iu cases of sore throat and chronic 
asthma. For the latter particularly it was 
very effective and will afford ready relief in 
case of an acute attack. He had strewn the 
dried leaves in the basement of houses whin 
there were bad odors, and had found it almost 
as useful as carbolic acid. 

Professor Bolandcr said that the idea was 
erroneous that the Eucalyptus was fragile and 
would not stand. The plant should be bought 
young for transplanting. These trees should 
be planted at least during the first year of 
growth, and they will take root and not be- 
easily overthrown. When kept in pots too long, 
the roots become deformed; this is the reason 
why some people think they will not grow. 
The easiest and best way to cultivate these trees 
is to take a box filled with sandy soil nearly to 
the top and the remainder covered with saw- 
dust; wet the sawdust slightly, throw the seed 
over it and gently rap the box with tho hand. 
Keep this under a pioce of paper or iu the shade 
and when the seeds sprout they can bo taken 
out like a small cabbage plant and set out at 
leisure. 

Dr. Stout said they should not be supported 
by a rod or stick placed to close to the trunk 
since it prevented the branches from growing 
on the side where tho support was. 

Mr. Stearns said that when the plants n 
placed in a pot the tap roots assumed a rotary 
direction, and when taken out and planted the 
trees were easily overthrown. 

Professor Bolander said the trees should be 
allowed to grow natural ly and the lower branches 
should never be cut off. At Gen. Naglee's place 
in San Jose where he has raised about <JU acres 
of trees of all kinds the pruning knife is never 

Used. 

Paddle V.m it Own Canoe.— The man 
who can make his own fire, black his own 
boots, carry his own wood, hoe his own 
garden, pays his own debts, and live with- 
out wine and tobacco, need ask no favor of 
him who rides in a coach-and-four. 



July 13, 1872.] 



23 



UsEfik [pifo^^jioti. 



Paradoxes. 

Water thrown into a red-hot metallic vessel 
does not boil, as we should expect, but quietly 
gathers itself together, forming a more or less 
perfect sphere, and in that condition floats 
about gracefully on the hot surface as it slowly 
evaporates away. If at the same time a very 
evaproizable substance, as liquid sulphurous 
acid is thrown in, the water may actually be 
frozen in the red-hot vessel. 

Water boiled in a glass ilask until the upper 
part of the vessel is entirely filled with steam, 
and then dexterously corked before air can gain 
admission and placed in cold water, recom- 
mences to boil. The boiling is produced by 
cold instead of heat, and the experiment is 
known as the culinary paradox. 

If steam from water boiling at 212° is passed 
into a solution of a salt in water, the tempera- 
ture of the salt solution steadily rises, passing 
212°, reaches the boiling point of the solution, 
and finally the latter also boils at a temperature 
as high and even higher than 250°, according to 
its nature. There we have the extraordinary re- 
sult of obtaining a higher temperature, say 250°, 
from a lower one, viz., 212 . 

If there is anything in nature that posssses a 
positive character it is light. Yet the physicist 
may so reflect the light from a given source as 
to cause it to destroy itself and produce dark- 
ness. In like manner two sounds may be made 
to interfere with each other and either produce 
silence or increased intensity of sound, at the 
will of the operator. 

How Pencil Leads are Made. — Graphite, 
clay and water are the materials used. The 
finest graphite, after being finely ground, is 
mixed with a peculiar blue clay, found only in 
Bavaria, and the whole kneaded with water to 
the consistency of putty. This mess is placed 
iu a strong cylindrical iron vessel, in the bot- 
tom of which is a hole of the diameter of the 
lead desired. A plunger forces the mixture out 
through this small opening, which is received 
on metallic sheets, which, when filled, are 
placed in an oven for baking. The softness 
or hardness of the pencil depends upon the 
degree of hardness to which the baking 
is carried. The leads are afterwards broken 
up into the sizes required. Nine differ- 
ent sizes of leads are made, and numbered 
from 1 to 9. The trade is mostly supplied from 
manufactories in Philadelphia. 



Durable Soap Bubbles. — To obtain soap- 
bubbles that will show the changing colors of 
the rainbow, the directions are as follows: 
Take half a pint of water that has been boiled 
and become cold, and put iuto it a quarter of an 
ounce of Castile soap, cut up fine. Put this 
into a pint bottle, and set it in hot water in a 
saucepan, on the fire; there let it remain an 
hour or so, now and then give it a good shaking 
till the soap is dissolved. Let the fluid stand 
quiet for the impurities and coloring matter of 
the soap to settle; then pour off the fluid and 
add to it three or four ounces of glycerine and 
your soap-bubble solution is ready. In an or- 
dinary way you may blow the bubbles easy with 
a tobacco pipe, but if you wish to attain scien- 
tific perfection, you had better employ a glass 
pipe. By adding a larger quantity of glycerine 
you may make these bubbles so strong that you 
can play battledore with them. 



A Pretty Experiment. — It is well known 
that a light ball, as of cork, may be sustained 
for some time near the summit of a vertical jet 
of water, when such jet is steadily maintained. 
The expel iment becomes more striking when a 
vertical blast of air, issuing from a large bellows 
is substituted for the water; as in this case 
there is no apparent support for the ball, which 
comports itself in a very amusing manner in 
mid air. 

When a strong blast cannot be obtained, if a 
slender wire, about four times the length of the 
diameter of the ball, be passed through its 
center so as to have one-fourth its length pro- 
jecting from one end, and one-half from the 
other, the balancing is more readily obtained, 
as any considerable change in the relative posi- 
tions of the center of gi'avity and the point of 
support is prevented by the movement of the 
rod. 



To Make Mucilage. — An excellent quality 
of mucilage can be mad 1 of gum Arabic and 
water. No other ingredients are necessary. It 
will be thick and sticky or thin and watery, ac- 
cording to the proportions of gum and water. 
If not thick enough, add more gum; if too 
thick for convenient use, add more water. The 
second quality of gum (usually five cents per 
ounce) answers as well as the first quality, 
although it is not quite as clear. The difficulty 
with the purchased article of mucilage is that 
there is a deficiency of gum — water being more 
profitable to sell than gum. 

The rattle of the ratthsnake is for the pur- 
pose of imitating the sound of the Cicala and 
other insects that form the food of many birds, 
and so attract the latter within the reach of the 
serpent; so says Professor Shaler. 

Coal vs. Man Power. — The combustion of 
300 pounds of coal under a steam boiler will 
produce a powor equal to the mechanical force 
exerted by a man for an entire year. 



Paint foe Metallic Roofs. -^-In selecting a 
paint that is to be applied to metallic roofs, we 
should have regard not only to the preservative 
qualities of the paint, but to its relations to 
heat and light. Those who have had experi- 
ence in the matter, know that the lead paints 
(white lead, red lead, etc.) do not form a good 
covering for metals. Indeed, in many cases 
they have been found to promote the corrosion 
of the metal to which they have been applied. 
This probably arises from the fact that when 
ordinary lead paints are mixed with oil, the oil 
forms a chemical compound with the oxide of 
lead, and the carbonic acid of the carbonate of 
lead is set free. We should expect, therefore, 
that the nascent carbonic acid would act upon 
such metals as iron, zinc, etc., and we must re- 
member that ordinary tin plate consists chiefly 
of iron. 

Lead paints are therefore to be avoided as 
being corrosive, and so are some greens and 
blues, as they contain copper in a form which 
readily yields its acid to iron or zinc. Our 
only safety, therefore, lies in the use of earthy 
or ochreous paints, and of these we should se- 
lect those that are of a rather light color. Pure 
white or even very light colors are objectionable 
from the fact that a white roof has a very disa- 
greeable appearance; while' on the other hand 
a black roof will become so hot that the paint 
will blister and peel off. 

Neutral grays are not only least obtrusive, 
but least powerfully acted on by the sun's rays, 
and should therefore be selected. 



Cement for an Aquarium. — One of the cor- 
respondents of the Rural Neic- Yorker inquired 
recently concerning a cement for an aquarium, 
and is advised to use red lead putty. There is, 
however, a cement known as "aquarium ce- 
ment," which adheres so firmly to glass and 
iron that there is no possibility of breaking it 
off. It forms a perfectly water-tight joint, and it 
does not taint the water as many lead cements are 
apt to do. To prepare it take equal measures 
of fine sharp sand, plaster of Paris and litharge; 
mix them well together and make them into a 
stiff putty with boiled linseed oil. Apply in 
the same manner you as would any other 
putty, and allow two or three days to dry. As re- 
gards the materials, any clean, fine and sharp 
sand will answer. 

Cement prepared as above is exceedingly 
useful for more purposes than making aquaria. 
For stopping leaks around chimneys, and for 
many other uses that will readily suggest them- 
selves, it is invaluable. 



Q©@D ^E^L-flf. 



How to Fasten Rubber to Wood and Metal. 
— As rubber plates and rings are now-a-days 
used almost exclusively for making connections 
between steam and other pipes and apparatus, 
much annoyance is often experienced by the im- 
possibility or imperfection of an air-tight con- 
nection. This is obviated entirely by employ- 
ing a cement which fastens alike well to the 
rubber and to the metal or wood. Such cement 
is prepared by a solution of shellac in ammonia. 
This is best made by soaking pulverized gum 
shellac in ten times its weight of strong ammo- 
nia, when a slimy mass is obtained, which in 
three to four weeks will become liquid without 
the use_of hot water. This softens the rubber, 
and becomes, after volatilization 01 the ammo- 
nia, hard and impermeable to gases and fluids. 
American Arlizau. 



The Watery Depth. — Water hasbeen proved 
to be more compressible than some solids. Its 
density increasing, therefore, as the depth in 
creases, there is a theoretical depth a which 
water would become as dense as, say, iron, and 
at which, therefore, iron would cease to sink. 
Practically, however, it is probable that there is 
no depth in the ocean to which any known solid 
that sinks at the surface will not descend. 



One of the most marked of organic differ- 
ences between the sexes is that of muscular ac- 
tion. No one who carefully watches the mus- 
cular acts of women will fail to perceive a ten- 
dency to do them with a sort of rush, with a 
superabundance and sudden exertion of force, 
rather than by the gradual application of the 
precise amount by which the end in view can 
be secured. 



Softening Old Putty. — In removing old 
broken panes from a window, it is generally 
very difficult to get off the dry, hard putty, that 
sticks around the glass, and its frame. To ob- 
viate this, dip a small brush in nitric or muri- 
atic acid, and go over the putty with it. Let it 
rest a while, and it will soon become so soft 
that you can remove it with ease. 

To Pbotect Walks from Weeds. — Take one 
gallon of gas-tar and about half a pound of air- 
slacked lime, boil and incorporate them well to- 
gether, then apply the mixture with a common 
long-handled whitewash brush. This will dry 
in a few hours if put on boiling hot, and will kill 
off all the young weeds and prevent their 
growth. 

The Microscope reveals to us the fact that the 
surface of our bodies is covered wieh scales like a 
fish; a single grain of sand would cover 150 of 
these scales, and yet a scale covers 500 pores. 
Through these narrow openings the sweat forces 
itself like water through a sieve. 

Hint for Mechanics. — Ed. Skinner Middle- 
ton, New York, says by rubbing ohalk on a 
square the lines and figures are filled up, and 
can be much more plainly read. This is es- 
pecially useful for near-sighted persons. 



Apples Very Wholesome. 

Many persons do not value apples sufficiently 
as an important article of diet. Besides con- 
taining a large amount of sugar, mucilage, and 
other nutritive matter, this fruit contains vege- 
table acids, aromatic qualities, etc., which act 
powerfully iu the capacity of refrigerants, tonics, 
and antiseptics, and when freely used at the 
season of mellow ripeness prevent debility, in- 
digestion, and avert, without doubt, many of 
the "ills which flesh is heir to." The operators 
of Cornwall, England, consider ripe apples 
nearly as nourishing as bread, and far more so 
than potatoes. In they year 1810 — which was 
a year of much scarcity — apples, instead of be- 
ing converted into cider, were sold to the poor, 
and the laborers asserted that they ' ' could stand 
their work " on baked apples without meat; 
whereas a potato diet required either meat or 
some other substantial nutriment. The French 
and Germans use apples extensively, as do the 
inhabitants of all European nations. The 
laborers depend upon them as an article of food, 
and frequently make a dinner of sliced apples 
and bread. There is no fruit cooked in as many 
difierent ways in our country as apples, nor is 
there any fruit whose value, as an article of 
nutriment, is so great. 

An old gentleman recently stated to us that 
every fall he used to have a severe sickness, 
but since he bought, during the season, a barrel 
of good apples, for himself alone, and ate the 
whole barrel in two or three months, he had 
every year saved himself from this sickness 
without wanting a doctor. 

Liebig on Apples. 

Justus Liebig, the great chemist, thinks that 
the importance of apples as food has not been 
sufficiently estimated or understood. He says: 

"Besides contributing a large proportion 
of sugar, mucilage and other nutritious com- 
pounds in the form of food, they contain 
such a fine combination of vegetable acids, ex- 
tractive substances and aromatic principles as 
to act powerfully in the capacity of refrigerants, 
tonics and antiseptics', and when freely used at 
the S' ason of ripeness, by rural laborers and 
others, probably maintain and strengthen the 
power of productive labor." 



Take Cabe of Your Health. — Few people 
realize what health is worth until they lose it. 
It is easier to prevent disease than to cure it. 
The character of our farming is undergoing 
changes. We are using more machinery, keep- 
ing better stock, raising choicer varieties of 
fruit, grains, potatoes, roots and grasses; are 
buying more or making better manure. Now, 
all this requires brains. We are aware that 
there is a great deal of nonsense written on 
this subject. But it is undoubtedly a fact that 
a man cannot long use his brains as an intelli- 
gent, enterprising American farmer is now 
compelled to do, and work and worry at the 
same time, without abundance of nutritious 
food. If he undertakes to do it on fat pork, 
potatoes, bread, and cake, his health will cer- 
tainly give way. The American farmer of to- 
day needs and must have more fresh meat. 
Better patronize the butcher than the doctor; 
better sell fewer eggs and buy less medicine. 
We have heard a farmer say: "Food that is 
good enough for my men is good enough for 
me." He may have been right. But the 
farmer who thinks and works too, needs better 
food and cooking than he who merely works 
with his hands. — American Agriculturist. 

Use of Fruit. — Instead of standing iu fear 
of a generous consumption of ripe fruit, one 
should regard it as decidedly conducive to 
health. The very disease commonly assumed 
to have their origin in the free use of all kinds 
of berries, apples, peaches, cherries, pears and 
melons, have been quite as prevalent, if not 
equally destructive, in seasons of scarcity. 
There are so many erroneous notions enter- 
tained of the bad effect of fruit, that it is quite 
time a counteracting impression should be pro- 
mulgated, having its foundation in comon sense, 
and based on the common observation of the 
intelligent. No one ever lived longer, or freer 
from the attacks of disease, by discarding the 
delicious fruits of our country. On the con- 
trary, they are very essential to the preserva- 
tion of health, and are therefore given to us at 
the time when the condition of the body, oper- 
ated upon by deteriorating causes not always 
comprehended, acquires their grateful, renovate 
ing influences. Unripe fruit may cause illness, 
but fresh, ripe fruit is always healthful. — COUM. 
try Gentleman. 

Embalming Among the Egyptians. — Dr. 
Benjamin W. Richardson, in a lecture upon tho 
science and art of embalming the dead, remarks 
that three diffe»ont methods were practiced 
among the Egyptians. First, embalming prop- 
er, by the introduction into the body of certain 
odorous essences or antiseptics, aided by after- 
immersion in saline solutions; second preser- 
vation by simple extraction of water from the 
tissues; third, by the injection of preservative 
solutions into the blood-vessels. He remarks 
that the first of these methods includes the 
true Egyptian and Greco-Egyptian process of 
preservation, as detailed at full length by Herod- 
otus, and consisted essentially in eviscerating 
the body and employing aromatic preservatives, 
and in exposure to a solution of common salt, 
possibly with the addition of some soda. 



Friction. — One of the most gentle 
ful kinds of exercise, is friction of tl 
either by the naked hand, a piece of 
or what is still better, a flesh brush. Thi ^ .»s 
in great esteem among the ancients, and is at 
present among the East Indies. The whole 
body may be subjected to this mild operation, 
but chiefly the belly, the spine, or backbone, 
and the arms and legs. Friction clears the 
skin, resolves stagnating humors, promotes 
perspiration, strengthens the fibers, and in- 
creases the warmth and energy of the whole 
body. In rheumatism, gout, palsy, and green 
sickness, it is an excellent remedy. To the 
sedentary, the hypochondriac, and persons 
troubled with indigestion, who have not leisure 
to take sufficient exercise, daily friction cannot 
be too strongly recommended as a substitute for 
other means, in order to dissolve the thick 
humors which may be forming by stagnation, 
and to strengthen the vessels. But, in rub- 
bing the bowels the operation ought to be per- 
formed in a circular direction, as being most 
favorable to the course of the intestines, and 
their natural action. It should bo performed 
in the morning, on an empty stomach, or, 
rather, in bed, before getting up, and continued 
at least, for some minutes at a time. 

Warm Bath in Insanity and in Burns. — Dr. 
Wilkins in his report to the California Legislature, 
ou Insanity, refers to the warm bath as a favor- 
ite treatment in Italy and in some parts of Holland 
and France. He often saw a dozen patients iu 
one bath-room with their heads alone in sight, 
the bathing tub being covered except a hole for 
the head. There they usually remain from one 
to three hours, in some instances from six to 
eight hours, and occasionally for days at a time. 
Dr. Gudden, of Zurich, kept a man thus im- 
mersed for five clays, on account of excitement 
connected with bed-sores. The patient is re- 
ported to have slept well during a portion of 
the time, and to have been cured of the sores. 
No exhaustion or ill consequence followed. A 
case is related of a man scalded by steam, 
and not insane, who was placed by Hebra in a 
tepid bath and kept there for three weeks, until 
a new cuticle had formed over the entire sur- 
face. This patient recovered without inconve- 
nience. The water was kept at a temperature 
most agreeable to the patient. Thus employed 
it is said to relieve effectually the extreme pain 
from the burns. 



Xylol in Small-Pox. — A good deal of inter- 
est has been excited by the published success 
of xylol dimethylbenzol, one of the many prod- 
ucts of the distillation of coal-tar as a remedy 
for the small-pox, for which it has been ap- 
plied for a considerable time in Berlin by Dr. 
Zeulzer. The experiments are stated to have 
proved very satisfactory, and its use in one of 
the principal hospitals of Berlin is becoming 
very extended. The dose of this substance 
for an adult is from ten to fifteen drops, and 
from three to five for children, every few hours. 
No injurious effect has hitherto been noted, 
even when given in considerably greater quan- 
tity. It is applied from the earliest period of the 
disease till the complete drying up of the pus- 
tules. The best method of administering the 
xylol is in capsules, which are now furnished, 
containing three, eight, and twelve drops, al- 
though it can be given drop by drop in wine or 
water. Toluol appears to have no effect. 

Eat Fruit — Fruit vs. Liquor. — The late 
David Thomas often made the remark that with- 
in the circle of all his acquaintances, he did 
not know a person who was decidedly fond of 
eood fruit, who became an intemperate man. 
He considered the two tastes as distinct and an- 
tagonistic. There is undoubtedly much truth 
in this remark. It appears that there is a nat- 
ural demand in the system for fruit, and this 
demand not being always met, many are 
tempted to fill this vacancy by drinking alco- 
holic licpiors. One of the best things we can 
do, therefore, while we urge the positive influ- 
ence of temperance principles, and the preven- 
tion of an intemperate appetite by abstaining en- 
tirely from the sipping of liquor, we may en- 
deavor, by the extended culture of fruit in all its 
kinds— so as to extend the circle of supply 
throughout the year- -to assist this benevolent 
exertion by lessening or decreasing the tempta- 
tion to supply its lack above stated. 

A Novel Small-Pox Theory.— A German 
physician has lately started the theory that tho 
fearful disease known as small-pox originates 
from an excess of albuminous matter in the 
blood, and that this is to be prevented by the 
administration of common salt. The habits of 
children in indulging too freely in sweetmeats 
he considers one great cause of this undue de- 
velopment of albumen, and coffee and tea, if 
highly sugared, tend also to excite it in adults. 
An organic acid such as lemon juice ; he consid- 
ers the best means of freeing tho blood, when 
clogged with too much albumen, and he alleges 
that by taking these simple remedies in the way 
of precaution, he has for upwards of twolye 
years past, frecjuented or taken up his abodo in 
the most pestilential small-pox hospitals of 
Europe and South America with entire impu- 
nity. 

Poison Oak. — Somebody recommends as an 
antidote for poison oak a salve made of equal 
parts of butter, salt, and saleratus; and that 
a person who expects to be exposed to the poi- 
son oak, should take a small box cf this salve 
with him, and slightly anoint the hands and 
face. This will oftentimes prevent the poison 
taking effect; but if it has taken effect the salve 
is a sure and speedy cure. 



_ 



24 



VA0XMQ JUJHAX spa^sss. 



[July 13. 1872. 




PUBLISHED BY 

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SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, July 13, 1872. 



Table of Contents. 



ILLUSTRATIONS.— Double Hollyhock. 17. Firing 
Fish, 22. Catching the Whale; Combined I'm- 
ril Sharpener. Holder, and Twine Cutter. 25. 

EDITORIALS.— Alfalfa — Its Relative Value; Wine 
Stamp Dnty; Soils— How Exhausted, Wheat Prospects, 
17. Australian Forest Trees, 22. Editorial Motet 
Among the Farmers; Alcohol in Wines; Silk Now 
for Information. 24. Pasturage in the M uutuini- 
Bee-Keeping; Cherries -Their Value. 25. 

MECHANICAL AND SCIENTIFIC. -Roc-online. Musi 
cal Notes; Star Depths: Future Eclipses of the Bun; 
Determination of Bight of Auroras; Improved Iron 
Processes. Mechanical Progress; Mammoth Car: As 
propriation for Astronoiineul Purposes; The Balti- 
more Tunnel; Advantage of Labor-Saving Machinery: 
Car Starter; A Pressure Gauge tor Guns. 19. 

CORRESPONDENCE.— Meteorology of San Joaquin 
Valley; Colfax Correspondence; Alkali Soils: Boab Is 
Sheep; A Root in the Wrong Place; Abuse of Anaesthet- 
ics, 18. 

FARMERS IN COl'NCIL —Napa County Farmers' Club; 
San Jose Farmers' Club and Protective Association: 
Sacramento Farmers' Club; Santa Cruz Farmers' 
Club, 20. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from various counties in 
California, Oregon, Montana and Wushingtou Terri- 
tory. 21. 

HOME AND l-'.XKM A Settled Policy on Farms: What 
to do with our Surplus Fruits and Vegetables; Aus- 
tralian Forest Trees; Sources of Fertility in Farms: 
A New Potato in France; Texas Cattle. 22. 

USEFUL INFORMATION —Paradoxes; How Pencil 
Leads are Made; Durable Soap Bubbles; A Pretty Ex- 
periment; To Make Mucilage; Paint for Metallic 
Roofs; Cement for an Aquarium; How to Fasten 
Rubber to Wood and Metal; Softening Old Putty. 23 

GOOD HEALTH.— Apphs' Very Wholesome; Take Care 
of Your Health; Use of Fruit; Embalming among th. 
Egyptians; Friction; Warm Bath in Insanity; Xylol 
in Small-Pox; Eat Fruit— Fruit vs. Liquor; A Novel 
Small-Pox Theory; Poison Oak, 23. 

HOME CIRCLE— .Make Home Happy; Women as Hor- 
ticulturists; The Influence of Example; Scottish 
Songs and their Writers; The Working- Women's Pro- 
tective Union of New York; We Fade; What She 
Oonld Do; Don't Fret, 26. 

YOUNG FOLK'S COLUMN.— Johnny's Opinion of 
Grandmothers; Roll-Call in Heaven; Care for Spar- 
rows; Story of Prince Arthur, 26. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY. -Are Tin Fruit Cans Injuri- 
ous; Put Up Your Jam While Hot; Cooking Eggs; 
OkraorGombo; Fresh Vegetables and Sweet Salads: 
Use White Cheese; The Poetry of the Table; Selected 
Reeeii ts, 27. 

MISCELLANEOUS. — Patents and Inventions, 19. 
Stamp Duties Abolished; Powder River Valley; A 
Sensible Suggestion; Women's Wit, 27. __ 



Commencement Day. — The Commencement 
exercises of the University at Oakland, will 
take place on Wednesday next, the 17th inst. 

The re-union of the Associated Alumni of 
the Pacific Coast will follow immediately after 
the commencement exercises. This gathering 
will be represented as usual, by the talent, 
learning and refinement of the coast, and the 
proceedings will have an interest unsurpassed 
by that of any other re-union held in this State. 

The University oration will be pronounced 
by Win. A. Scott, D. D., and the poem by E. 
E. Still, M. A. 

The Alumni oration and poem will be deliv- 
ered at 3:30 p. m. The orator of the occasion 
is Colonel W. H. L. Barnes, A. M.jthe poet, 
Thomas Newconib, Esq. These exercises will 
be followed by a business meeting of the Associ- 
ation. 

The usual evening festivities will begin at 
5:30 P. M., at the hall on Sixth street. The 
Alumni and their wives, with invited guests, 
are entitled to seats at the table. 



We have received the premium list of the 
Bay District Horticultural Society of California, 
for its second annual exhibition. The lists can 
be had at this office or of F. A. Miller, Secre- 
tary, 622 Clay street. 

Canteleups. — Fine, ripe canteleups, were on 
sale at several of the more prominent fruit 
stands on Market street as early as the 1th, re- 
tailing at - r )0 cents each. 



Editorial Notes Among the Farmers. 

[Continued from last issue.] 

Captain 0. Allen. 
Having been introduced to Capt. Allen, we 
will in turn introduce our readers. You see be- 
fore you a hale, hearty, old gentleman of about 
sixty-five years — a countenance that beams with 
kindness, benevolence and intelligence — a man- 
ner that at once grasps you by the hand, and 
steals your heart, and makes you feel at home and 
at ease. Every inch, apractical man and thorough 
mechanic. System is written in every line of 
his face, and in every action. Nor is ho un- 
known to fame, being the inventor and patentee 
of many useful and labor-saving tools and 
machines. Among these we may mention the 
whale gun and bomb-harpoon, now universally 
used by whalers the world over, and wHch added 
five percent, to the value of the whales that fill 
the briny deep. He came to California in 1819, 
in the bark May Flower, which brought out the 
stern-wheel steamer Lawrence — one of the first 
steamers that plied on the Sacramento and San 
Joaquin rivers. He put this steamer together, 
and launched her at the place known as the 
New York of the Pacific. From those circum- 
stances tin- title "Captain" attached to him, 
and as he says he has never been able to "shake 
it off." He has seen and passed the ups and 
downs of California life, and seventeen years 
ago, after having originated, located, built, and 
set to work the Pioneer Paper Mill of tin Pacific 
•oast, on Paper Mill creek, in Marin county, 
in consequence of placing too much confidence 
in hisfellowtnen, he found himself penniless with 
a wife and two small sous to support. Sight 
here and then ho started the dairy business, 
and from that day to the present he has followed 
it up, with at least, tolerable success. He now 
owns 2,01-1 acres of land in one body where he 
lives, valued at 1 10 per acre. Has it stocked 
with six hundred head of cattle, and is milking 
935 dairy cows, and turns out from 38,000 to 
10,000 lbs. of butter a year. Has at times milked 
as high as 350 cows, and made 75,000 lbs. of 
butter a year. Has sold no butter this year less 
than thirty cents a pound— when he cannot get 
thai price he proposes to pack it. With '.this 
introduction and comments on business we will 
accompany the son Charles Allen into the dairy 
house and talk of the 

Practical Workings of the Dairy. 
The accompanying cuts which aro prepared 
in a rough manner from memory, will serve to 
_;ivo the reader a birds-eye view of the immedi- 
ate dairy establishment. Let us premise by 
saying that every building about the place and 
every cow yard and pig pen is abundantly sup- 
plied with cold spring water, conducted through 
lead pipe from a living spring over six hundred 
perpendicular feet above the highest building 
on the place, and nearly a mile away on the 
side of a hill or mountain. The center of the 
milking yards is located on the apex of a grad- 
ually sloping hill, a fence dividing the yards so 
as to have a less number of cows in each. The 
floor of the yards being a natural granite rock, 
can never be muddy, and sloping either way is 
always dry and clean. In the small house on a 
line with the division fence is a milk receiver 
into which the milkers from either yard pour 
their milk as fast as their buckets are filled. As 
the milk is poured into this receiver it all 
passes through a strainer and then through a 
conducting pipe into the milk house, and into 
another receiver, from which it is drawn 
through a faucet into a bucket, which is pro- 
vided with another strainer. From this bucket 
it is poured into the pans which have already 
been arranged on the racks around the outer 
edge of the milk room. By this arrangement 
it will be seen that there is no occasion for the 
milkers to go into the milk house with their 
dirty feet— and every room in it is kept as clean 
as a parlor. In the centre of the milk room is 
the milk skimming table in the center of which 
is a funnel to receive the sour milk, and from 
the bottom of this funnel is a lead pipe bent in 
the form of the letter c/> and leading some hun- 
dred feet down the hill to the sour milk vats, 
and from these it is drawn out into the pig 
troughs as occasion requires. The milk always 
resting iu the lower bond of the letter c/> pre- 
vents the smell from the sour milk vats coming 
into the milk room. The cream is removed 
and turned into the churn, which is simply a 
square box suspended and revolving upon an 
axle fastened to the heads but not passing 
through the churn. This churn is run by a 
horse upon an endless chain horse power in 



the basement. Upon the partition near the 
churn may be seen three thumb springs, one 
connected by a wire with a bell below, and is 
pulled to ring the bell to start or stop the horse. 
One is connected by a cord with an upright 
cylinder on the' horse power on which is in- 
geniously fastened a raw-hide riding-whip so 
situated that by pulling the thumb-spring the 
whip will hit the horse in case he does not start 
at the ringing of the bell. The other thumb- 
spring connects with a brake to stop the horse 
power and churn in case the horse does not 
heed the stopping bell, and to prevent his 
starting when taking up the butter. So that 
the labor and time of a driver is saved, and the 
butter maker in the churn room has entire con- 
trol of the power and churn machinery. 

The churning completed the butter is removed 
to the butter room and placed upon the butter 
worker. This is an invention of Captain Allen's 
and consists, as may be seen in the cut of a 
round table with one leg, the table leaf inclin- 
ing at a moderate angle with the leg and con- 
taining a groove around the edge on the upper 
surface, so as to lead any fluid to the discharg- 
ing spout. Above this stationary table, about 
two or three inches, is another table leaf of a 
little less diameter, resting upon an upright 
axle or leg so as at all times to keep the same 
incline as the lower one, and so supported that 
it may bo made to turn upon its axis or up- 
right support. To complete the machine a 
lever is suspended with a universal joint in 
such a position that it may be brought in con- 
tact with the upper surfaco of the revolving 
table at every point. The center of this lever 
is flat shaped like a two-edged knife. 

The butter to be worked is placed on the re- 
volving table and cut and pressed and worked, 
being kept in any desired position ouster the 
lever by turning the table and being made to 
assume any desired form by the motion of the 
lever itself. The buttermilk"_in the meantime 
falls from the upper table to the lower and is 
conducted into a vessle standing under the dis- 
charging spout. 

When the buttermilk is sufficiently worked 
out and salt thoroughly mixed in, the butter is 
cut into rolls of a proper size for moulding into 
two-pound hexagon-shaped rolls. This is done 
by a butter moulder also, the- invention of Cap- 
tain Alien. It consists of a pair of crooked 
tongs something in the shape of the tongs used 
to handle ice with, the moulds being divided 
into halves, and one-half being attached to 
each prong of the tongs, in such a manner that 
the buttor may be clasped and firmly pressed 
in shape. This being done the tongs are opened 
and the moulded roll is deposited iu another 
half mould of equally the same size and form 
which has been laid on tho cooling table, 
covered with a wet cloth cut in proper shape 
and size to wrap the roll of butter in. The 
cloth is then brought over the butter in proper 
shape and the other half mould is placed on to 
keep the roll in proper shape until hardened by 
cooling. These rolls are then set upon end 
and stamped with the letter A, tho trade mark 
by which the butter is known and by which it 
is sold. Butter with this brand brings tho 
highest prico and always finds eager customers. 
General Remarks. 
There arc many little things connected with 
this establishment which go to make up a per- 
fect whole, but which in mere notes we could 
not mention. We recommend all those who are 
in the dairy business to visit and profit by it, 
and those who contemplate embarking in the 
business cannot spend their time and money 
better than to visit Capt. Allen's dairy, if they 
had to travel a thousand miles and spend a 
month's time. We also visited a number of 
other dairies, and among them is that of L. W. 
Walker, who also has a fine establishment, but 
we have no space to describe them. 
Improving Dairy Stock. 
We are glad to be able to state that all the 
beet dairymen recognize the importance of im- 
proving their dairy cattle by tho uso of thorough 
bred bulls. As a general thing wo rind they 
have used the short-horned Durham breed, and 
mostly give it the preference for size, disposi- 
tion and milking properties. Those few who 
have used the Ayreshires are vere partial to this 
breed, and have no desire to change. Others 
who have had the Devons, consider them well 
adapt' (I to the hilly country, and among the 
best of milkers. Our notes among thevin 
era of {Sonoma valley will appear next week. 

Sevkrai, enterprising citizens of Baltimore 
have erected an establishment in one of the 
West India Islands for the purpose of canning 
tho tropical fruits of that region, and are re- 
ceiving every encouragement from the Govern- 
ment authorities. 



Alcohol in Wines. 

Our article on California Wines, in the Press 
of June 1st, has attracted considerable attention 
and called out some candid criticism. We are glad 
it has. The wine industry of California, iu our 
opinion, is destined to become at no distant 
day, one of the most, if not the most important 
and valuable industries of the State. It is there- 
fore of the highest importance that everything 
connected with this industry should be fully 
and candidly discussed and correct conclusions 
arrived at, principles established and practices 
settled. To this end we invite candid discus- 
sion and reliable facts. 

A practical wine maker of Sonoma County 
prompted by the article referred to and the dis- 
cussion that has followed, has undertaken to 
test, with reliable instruments, the wines of all 
the principal manufacturers of Sonoma and 
Napa Counties. We will therefore be able soon 
to lay before our readers the figures showing 
the per cent, of alcohol these wines contain. 

We hope the Vine Growers and Wine anil 
Brandy Manufacturers' Association will take 
steps to have the wines in all the districts of 
the State similarly tested. Such information 
will be very valuable aba guide in wine making 
in the future. 

For the information of such of our readers a.^ 
may not have the data at hand, we appends table 
from B ramie's Chemistry, showing the percent- 
age of alcohol in the various kinds of wine from 
different countries. This table will enable those 
who wish to form an opinion as to what amount 
of alcohol California wines for table purposes, 
and for a popular beverage ought to contain. 

It will be seen lhat the cheap and popular 
French and German wines — the different clarets 
and the Rhenish wines as we have stated in the 
article referred to. only contain from 7 to 10 
pi i sent, of alcohol. The heavy wines which 
are not used by those people, either en the table, 
or as a common beverage, contain more. 

FOBTCOt ESE WINE. 

Port contain 11.37 I at. of alcohol 

liuecellu contains 18.411 " " 

SPANISH. 

Sherry contains 13.98 to 38.86 per cant, of aleohel. 

Malaga contains IT.J6 to 18.94 " " 

MU'IIIU AND CANAKY ISLAND. 

Madeira contains 14 09 to 2-i.*:i per cent, of alcohol. 
Malmsey •' 12.BU to 16.40 " 

FRENCH. 

Claret contains 12.91 toi7.il per rent, of alcohol, 

Claret Chateau Latour 7.75 '• •' 

ctiiret Vin Urdinair.... B.99 •• " •' 

Champagne contains. .11. 30tol:i.8u " " " 

Burgundy contain! 13.16 to 16(0 " " 

Hermitage contains... rl.S2 to 17.49 " " •' 

Ssuterile contains 14.2:2 •' " '• 

Froutiynuu contains.. 12 ~J " •• •' 

GERMAN. 

Hocheimer contains 8.88 to 14.;7 perttant. of alcohol. 

Jobannisberger contains. s.7i " " ■' 

Rudeshelmer contains.. 6.90 to 19.93 •■ '• " 

ltlieiii.-li contains 7.00 to 7.58 " " ■< 

Silk- Now for Information. 

The people of the State have been for two or 
more years looking to the silk growers for infor- 
mation as to the nature of the industry of raising 
silk. And the silk growers havo been looking 
tt) tho Calfornia Silk Manufacturing Company 
to encourage their business, and to fix a paying 
price for their cocoons. The Silk Manufactur- 
ing Company have now been in operation for 
over a year, antl have manufacl tired a large 
quantity of foreign andhome-grown silk. Now 
we want some reliable information as to the 
value e>f the business for purposes of invest- 
ment. This company will have its annual 
election meeting on the 5th of August next. 
Lets have some more light about the business. 
We want to know, not what this, that or the 
other one thinks can be made by feeding silk- 
worms and producing cocoons; but what has 
this year or any other year been made in Cali- 
fornia at the business. Anel if there has not 
been a dollar made over cost of proeluetion, let 
us "hear the truth of the matt) t. 

And if the Silk Manufacturing Company can 
say just what they can pay for good California 
grow n cocoons, let us know what it is. 

Ajoiv "Worm. — We understand that tho 
army worm have mode their appearance in 
full force in several of the vineyards in 
this vicinity, anel in one instance, have de- 
stroyed six acres of bearing vines. The 
proprietors of the vineyards attacked havo 
succeetled, however, in heading off these 
destructive creatures by the application of 
running water through the vineyards. 
These worms have also matlc saiel havoc 
with some of the alfalfa lots near town. — 
Yolo Mail. 



July 13, 1872.J 



25 



Combined Pencil Sharpener, Holder and 
Twine-Cutter. 

This little invention, though simple in ap- 
pearance and construction serves as a very con- 
venient and almost indispensable instrument 
to clerks and other persons who, by the nature 
of their occupation, are compelled to frequently 
use a pencil. The pencil sharpener, shown on 
the front side of the cut, is made in the ordi- 
nary manner, and to one side of it is screwed a 
clasp which is properly curved to receive the 
pencil. Between the clasp and sharpener is a 
blade or knife, which extends from one end to 
the other of the sharpener. In the present in- 
stance the edge of the blade is represented as 
rounded from end to end, which is a very con- 
venient form, although other forms, as a hook, 
could be used as well. 

Between the clasp and sharpener, on the op- 
posite side, is a pin fastening by means of 
which the instrument can be fastened to the 
clothing. For using the knife the device will 
be most convenient when attached to the vest 
near the right vest pocket. The use of the 
sharpener and clasp will be evident to any one, 
and they are rendered much more useful and 
convenient by being connected together in the 
manner described, and attaching them by means 
of a pin to the clothing. The knife serves the 
purpose of a knife or a pair of shears, to cut 
twine when the wearer is tying up bundles or 
desires to cut a string. The simplicity of this 
little instrument and its evident utility will do 



much towards introducing it into general use, 
and clerks, dry goods dealers, etc., will readily 
appreciate its value. The device has recently 
been patented through the Scientific Press 
Patent Agency, by Evan A. Edwards, of San 
Buenaventura, Santa Barbara Co., Cal. 



The Whale— Its Agricultural Value. 

Had we not given the above heading to our 
article, there might be some ready to question 
the propriety of illustrating a whaling scene in 
an agricultural journal; but we think we can 
clearly show how whales are to become one o 1 
the props to a successful Pacific coast agricui" 
ture. 

Our grain fields are every year diminishing 
in their yield of the cereals; lands that ten 
years ago readily yielded from 30 to 40 bushels 
per acre, are already, by a system of continued 
cropping, with no return of the fertilizers to 
make good the waste of those properties that 
constitute the material of the straw and grain 
so reduced that their annual produciion hardly 
averages 15 bushels to the acre; and still less- 
ening every year. 

Chemical analysis clearly shows the important 
constituent of the soils so necessary to the pro- 
duction of the cereals, to be the phosphate of 
lime. Repeated cropping rapidly exhausts the 
soil of this property, and it is this that has ren- 
dered so large a part of New England and other 
Eastern States, unproductive of wheat, without 
the direct application of phosphates. 

With these phosphates however, many of the 
more intelligent class of farmers are bringing 
their lands back to a degree of production that 
is surprising even to themselves. England 
once suffered the same kind of deterioration, 
but the application of phosphates renewed the 
fertility of their soils to that degree that 



Bee Keeping. 

We always like to see a few hives of bees 
around every farm house, and to us they seem 
as much a part of the farm stock as do the 
turkeys or chickens. In fact, they are a far 
more reliable stock, because the young of bees 
do not require the least attention at our hands 
as do silkworms, young turkeys and chickens. 
Only give the old bees a home, and they will 
not only provide themselves with food, but will 
feed and rear their young without any assistance 
from us; and will lay up such ample stores as 
to leave a large surplus of honey beyond sup- 
plying their own wants. 

Besides doing all this, their annual increase 
is from one to three hundred per cent., or from 
one good strong swarm as many as one always, 
and not unfrequently three new swarms are 
thrown off or artificially made every season. 
Of course this enormous increase soon stocks 
the country to its utmost capacity to furnish 
food, but this is no argument against their be- 
ing everywhere kept; for like other stock which 
a man may have beyond his ability to feed 
profitably, he always knows what to do with it. 

There never was a time in the history of bee 
culture, that a good swarm of bees would not 
bring more than it really cost, for it is difficult 
to say that their cost is anything more than the 
hive they are given to work in, so that a profit 
could always be derived from their sale, even 
at very low rates. We believe very many who 
neves yet kept a bee, would find it greatly to 




CATCHING THE WHALE. 



Pasturage in the Mountains. 

We learn from parties who have taken large 
herds of animals from the lower plains and 
valleys, to the valleys and plateaus of the Sier- 
ras, that the prospect of a splendid feeding sea- 
son was never better. "Bunch grass," which 
generally occupies the slopes and tops of the 
great ridges, where but little timber prevails, 
is this year unusually abundant and seems not 
to have been materially injured from last year's 
severe grazing. 

Many had supposed this grass to be an annu- 
al, at best a biennial, but now it is know to be 
perennial; and the grazing of the same during 
the season when it would naturally perfect its 
seeds, instead of destroying the grass utterly, is 
found to cause a thickening up and consequent- 
ly producing more feed than before. 

It is not improbable that the summer's graz- 
ing is less exhaustive to the roots of this grass, 
than would be the annual growth and ripening 
of its seeds. Upon the more level lands of the 
valleys of the mountains, there are several va- 
rieties of indigenous grasses and clovers, that 
this year seem to be unusually fine; these are 
admirably adapted to the feeding of cattle or 
the larger animals of the herd, whilst the 
sheep and goats climb to the highest peaks 
and pinnacles of the ranges for their favorite 
"bunch grass," and other Alpine herbage. 
More than ever before, those valuable pasture 
grounds are being occupied this year, with the 
view of permanently holding them till a title is 
secured from government. 

Ripe Grapes, or if not fully ripe, so near it 
as to be very palatable and marketable, are be- 
ginning to appear at a few of the city fruit 
stands. 



thirty bushels is a common average yield. 
In some instances, as in parts of France, 
vast quantities of mineral phosphates are applied 
to advantage; but in England and the Eastern 
States their chief reliance is upon ground 
bones, usually the refuse of the different facto- 
ries where bones are converted into knife 
handles, buttons, etc. The trade in bone 
phosphates has assumed immenso importance, 
and is every year increasing. Every scrap of 
bone to the size of your finger is now every- 
where carefully saved and should be as care- 
fully returned to the soil. 

On the coast of California from the Bay of 
Monterey southward to Cape St. Lucas of 
Lower California, the shore and beach of the 
ocean is literally lined with the bones of the 
whale ; thousands on thousands of tons could be 
gathered up, taken to the bone mill and con- 
verted into bone dust, that would feitilize 
thousands of acres, bringing the same back, 
from a condition of comparatively unproduc- 
tiveness to one of unequalled fertility. 

This vast bank of bones can be had for the 
mere gathering; and we learn that a company 
is already organized to test the feasibility of 
putting them to a practical use. Our cut is 
simply a spirited illustration of the capturing 
and cutting-in of (he whale, as conducted from 
the ship; whilst all along our coast the capturing 
is done in boats from the shore; the whale 
killed, is towed to, and tried out upon the 
shore; the carcass allowed out to drift seaward, 
the flesh is consumed by sharks, anel the bones 
are drifted upon the beach. 

We elon't believe a word about Jonah having 
interviewed the whale on purpose to see what use 
he could make of t he interior after the blubber had 
been removeel' from his outside, for history 
does not affirm that he was cither agricul- 
turist, knife-hanelle or button-maker. 



their gratification to keep a few hives, learn 
their habits anel how to take care of them, and 
thus secure to themselves an abundance of honey 
for their own tables, and have a considerable 
surplus to elispose of. 

Just see the difference; a box is required for 
every bushels of fruit you senel away, and only 
a little better than a fiuit box as a hive, will last 
a swarm of bees for many years. Your fruit 
may bring you four or five cents a pound, your 
honey 20 or 25 cents. 



Cherries — Their Value. 

Those who are able to pay the very high price 
of 20 or 25 cents a pounel for the best cherries 
are in exstacies over the superior epialityof this 
fruit the present season, and itisreally superb. 
There are of course cheaper cherries, some that 
can be had at ten cents a pound, but who wants 
them except for cooking purposes, if able to buy 
the better ones ? And why raise these inferior 
cherries at all, when it is just as easy to grow a 
tree bearing the best variety as one bearing the 
poorest. 

We have not yet half cherries enough, and 
there never will be till they are so plentiful that 
the best can be sold in our market at ten cents 
a pound; and then even.it will be difficult to 
say how many more will be required to supply 
the demand along tberailroad lines within good 
keeping distance from the trees. We hear of 
two or more parties who are going quite exten- 
sively into the growing of cherries, anel we be- 
lieve they will find it a gooel business, as they 
are alreaely engaged in their culture to some i\- 
tent and have studied locality, climate and soil 

While cherries are yet plentiful though high 
priced, in all our markets, we would again re- 
ininel those who are desirous of raising cherry 
stocks, that they can be grown easily in moist 
soil by cracking the pits and planting them at 
once; and that with proper care, a growth of 
ten or fifteen inches can be maelo before the 
autumn frosts. 



A Fitting Tribute. 

We take from the Sacramento Urnm t"l- 

lowing extract of the proceedings of the Cali- 
fornia Pioneers of Sacramento at their banquet 
on the 4th of July: 

The toast was given, "Our pioneer agricul- 
turists, the true originators of our State's pros- 
perity." 

Response of I. N. Koag. 
Mr. President and Gentlemen: The toast 
just read, and to which, through the partiality 
of your committee, I have, perhaps very inap- 
propriately, been called upon to respond, is 
now generally accepted as an unelisputed and 
almost unqualified truth. Indeed it is so plain 
now that "our pioneer agriculturists are the 
true originators of our State's prosperity " that 
it seems almost preposterous forme to detain 
you on this historic day by any extended com- 
ment. So much has been said on the subject 
of agriculture, so much has been written upon 
it by the poets, philosophers and statesmen 
both of ancient and modern times, that one 
needs the' advantages of inspiration to please, 
interest, and instruct. I do not mean that in- 
spiration that comes from pure California 
wine, which to some extent we all feel here to- 
day, but that inspiration which comes from su- 
perior knowledge, from long tarrying and deep 
drinking at the fountains of Natflre; that inspi- 
ration which Homer felt when he sang of agri- 
culture to the ancient Greeks; that inspiration 
which moved and sustained Virgil when he in- 
dited that most perfect of all agricultural po- 
ems, the Georgics, to divert the minds of his 
countrymen from the evil practices and idle 
habits contracted through years of civil war, 
and instil them with a love of rural life and in- 
dustrious pastoral pursuits; that inspiration, 
indeed, that fired the soul and quickened the 
mind of one of our most distinguished coun- 
trymen when he wrote that immortal book 
" What I Know About Farming." Mr. Presi- 
dent, this was originally a mining State, aud 
we are all miners. In the early days of the 
history of this country we heard of the discov- 
ery of gold in California. The news spread on 
the wings of the wind. The world was electri- 
fied. The bravest, the most enterprising and 
intelligent of all climes and all nations rushed 
for the Sierra Nevadas of the Pacific Coast. 
Then came the days of red shirts, heavy boots 
and slouched hats. Then we drove bull teams, 
packed mules, and went prospecting. Then we 
became skilled in the domestic arts. Then we 
boiled beans, turned flap-jacks and fried bacon. 
Then we penetrated the mines, sunk our shafts 
and rocked the cradle. Yet, strange to say, 
there were then no women or cKilelren in the 
country! I We were successful in our efforts. 
We found and dug the gold; and for years we 
expoited from fifty to sixty millions of dollars 
worth of bullion annually, and imported all the 
tools we used, all the food we ate and all the 
clothes we wore. We revolutionize el the mon- 
etary systems and commerce of the world, and 
yet as a people, as a commonwealth, we were 
poor. Our municipal corporations, our towns 
and cities, our county and State Govern- 
ments were all in debt, and annually increasing 
their indebtedness! Our whole people lived 
from "hanel to mouth." We had no agricul- 
ture. We thought our State not adapted to its 
success. We sent abroad our gold to quicken 
and maintain the industries of other States, and 
to support and enrich other people. Such was 
our mining life and experience — but a repetition 
of the experience of all other States anel com- 
munities that have undertaken to live without 
agriculture. Such a state of things coulel not 
last. And, just in time to save us, during the 
years 1852 and 1853 there appeared upon the 
stage of action a few men of superior foresight 
and practical wisdom. They were not men of 
worels but of deeds. They, too, had been min- 
ers anel generally successful, but they believed 
that there was gold in the valleys, as well as in 
the mountains, anil they straightway set them- 
selves to work to prove it. Did. time permit, 
we would be happy to give a brief statement of 
facts connected with some of the first agricul- 
tural enterprises in different parts of the State. 
We will content ourselves, however, by nam- 
ing some of the men who inaugurateel them, 
anel the localities in which they commenced : 
Geo. C. Yount, J. W. Osborne and S. and W. 
N. Thompson of Napa; Rev. A. H. Myers, E. 
L. Beard, John Levelling, Wilson Flint anel 
Dr. Haile of Alameda; William Wolf skill, the 
Sainsevain Brothers and B. D. Wilson of Los 
Angeles; Wm. McPherson Hill and General 
Vallejo of Sonoma; S. C. Davis of Yolo; John 
Wolfskill of Solano; Dr. E. S. Holden and J. 
G. Overhiser of San Joaquin; J. R. Nickeson 
and Dr. J. R. Crandall of Placer; General John 
Bidwell of Butte; General Sutter of Sutter 
county; G. G. Briggs and Beach k Shepard of 
Yuba; Oary, Peebles, William Daniels and 
Louis Prevost of Santa Clara. Anel if we come 
nearer homo we see before us here to-day some 
whose names rank among the first of our pio- 
neer agriculturists. We may name A. P. Smith, 
E. F. Aiken and T.K.Stewart. let us do 
honor to these men as Pioneers. They opened 
the road to our State's prosperity. They in- 
augurated industries that are changing the- cur- 
rents of commerce and bringing our own gold 
hack to our shores. From importers we have 
come t" lie exporters of all the great leading 
agricultural products. In wheat, wool and 
Wine We -are taking first rank among the best 
agricultural States of the world. The value of 
our agricultural products last year aggregated 
uvcr sixty millions, and this year it will near 
u hundred millions. Therefore we' indorse 
the sentiment: " Our pioneer agriculturists — 
the true originators of our State' ^prosperity ." 



26 



FAGIffIG 



[July 13, 1872. 




Make Home Happy. 

I was passing a few days in a lovely vil- 
lage. Coming in from B walk I said to a 
friend, "How many fine residences you 
have! " 

"Yes! but many of them are haunted." 

"Indeed! what form does the spirits 
take?" 

" The worst of forms. Those of dissolute, 
reckless, ruined, or at best, 'fast' sons. 
There have been a sot here that have acted 
and reacted on each other, and every step 
seems to have been downward." 

"But my boys." said the aged father, 
"have turned out finely. Would you like 
to know the* secret?" 

" I should, very much." 

"Come, then," he said, rising, and lean- 
ing on the caue, which four score years 
had made his necessary and inseparable 
companion, he toiled slowly up the stairs. 
The good mother, who had passed her three 
score and ten years, followed after. 

" I trust, madam, you are not coming up 
from courtesy to me! " 

"No, oh no, we love to come up here." 

" And what do you expect to see? " asked 
the father. 

" Perhaps a bundle of sticks, on the 
' spare tho rod and spoil the child' prin- 
ciple." 

Both laughed outright, that chuckling, 
crackling laugh, which tells that "Old 
Time " has broken the voice, but not the 
heart. 

I followed up the stairs to the very end 
of the long house. Before a plain door 
the old gentleman turned .around: 

" You were so good at guessing before, 
suppose you try again." 

" That looks like a closet door, and this 
must be tbe end of the house. Did you 
shut them up to meditate on the dark 
deeds they had committed, and the -darker 
prospect before them, if they didn't re- 
form?" 

Again that cheery, chuckling, warm- 
hearted, crackling laugh! 

The door opened on a long, roof-lighted, 
plainly finished room, with a stove at one 
end, and a swing hanging from the rafters, 
and a ten-pin alley at one side. Scattered 
around were: a rocking horse, minus a 
head — a rag baby, minus head and arms — 
a little doll with cracked face, and a dress 
as torn as if she had been raspberrying-a 
wheelbarrow all but the wheel— an ele- 
phant who had lost his trunk, a la modern 
travelers — cotton flannel rabbits, some with 
one ear, some with one leg, and some with 
none— a doll's cradle with unmade bed — 
fighting cocks, who had lost all the feathers 
they ever had, and whoso frames marvel- 
ously resembled pumpking seeds — apple 
seeds, yclept mice, but who in all the years 
had never reached their bag of "meal " — 
and raisin turtles, whose clove claws did 
not seem to move them the least along 
"life's pathway" — broken tea sets — a bow 
all unstrung. What matter ? since no arrow 
was left rankling in the parents heart! 

"Just as tho children loft them," said 
the mother, " we often come up hero but 
never touch anything ! " 

" No," said the father, " I like it a-i they 
left it," sitting down in an old-fashioned 
arm chair iuside the door. " This was my 
chair where I used to come sometimes and 
sit and see them enjoy themselves. My 
wife couldn't have the children making a 
noise, and running over and littering up 
the house, so I took this back woodshed 
chamber, and finished it off, and gave it to 
the children. There were to be no play- 
things too nice to play with or to break — 
no punishment for the natural, joyous out- 
burst of exuberant child-life. Their little 
friends might come up the back stair-way 
and play with them. For children must 
have companionship and uoise is necessary 
to their happiness, and I love to hcu- it. 
No quarrelling, or cheating or faloshood 
was allowed here. Banishment for a speci- 
fied time being the punishment." 

" Yes," said the mother, "and if you 
are a naughty child you cannot go to the 
play-room to-day," was often the onl/ 
threat necessary. This room stood the 
childreu instead of uwnv a whipping, was 
a great happiness to them, and a great relief 
to me." 

"And last year when the Judge " — "My 
little curly haired Willie, only such a little 



while "ago" broke in the mother with a 
touch of gentle sadness in her voice. 

"But now a strong, noble man!" ex- 
claimed the father with an exultant pride 
in his voice, "but nosmarter than Edward 
and Charles and Frank. But what was I 

saying Oh! last year when be was home, 

ho came up here and said, ' I believe this 
room kept us out of bad company, and 
made us what we are. Look at A. and B. 
and C. , they were kept so strict at home 
they had to run off, and then were scolded 
and whipped, and shut up for having 
sought amusement and enjoyment, until 
they hated home and their parents. Who 
is to blame, if as soon as they could, they 
found their pleasure and spent their time 
away from home and home influences. Had 
my parents been like their parents, I, too, 
should have been lost in this world and the 
next.' " 

" A noble tribute to his parents! " 

"but I don't think our boys were natu 
rally inclined to be vicious." 

" Well 1 don't know, wife, what might 
have been, but I do know it never did them 
any harm to have their horn"- (he pleasantest 
place in all the world to ilium. — Excelsior 
Magazine. 

Women as Horticulturists. 

Agitation does good, as thunder storms 
clear the air. One good from all this fuss 
about women's rights is to show women 
that they can earn their bread in other 
ways than by tho needle or by teaching 
school. Many have turned their attention 
to gardening and farming in a small way 
with excellent success. Many more have, 
I dare say, tried and failed, but usually 
from a waut of resolution and pcrsevereuce 
in the face of difficulties. 

A lady in Hartford earned by day's work 
enough to buy a half acre of land. < >n 
this she has set out and cultivates with her 
own hands twenty apple trees, sixteen 
cherry trees, eleven pear trees, over a hun- 
dred grape vines, besides a variety of small 
fruit, as strawberries, currants, raspber- 
ries, etc. That this lady has lost nothing 
in refinement of feeling by her outdoor 
work, we might judge from a note sent by 
her to an editor, accompanying a gift of 
beautiful fruit. She mentions the great 
enjoyment she has felt in her work, and 
siys: "The fruits and flowers, like angel 
voices, have cheered me on. In their 
presence I have cultivated a love for the 
beautiful in all things, and have been hap- 
pier in loftier, holier thoughts, witli clear- 
er views of the brighter world above. I 
would recommend to all ladies that they 
give time and attention to horticulture, as 
it improves both mind and body." 

Who will say that such a life is not bet- 
ter than drudging over her needle for a 
bare pittance, wearing out soul and body 
both in the struggle to keep off famine? 

The Influence of Example.— Men's 
lives are pages of history. Those who 
read them are stimulated to good deeds 
thereby, or taught to avoid the mistakes 
such lives record. There cannot be too 
much said, or written, to encourage men 
of wealth to devote their leisure and money 
toward developing the beautiful in nature, 
recovering and regenerating waste places, 
and affording men with less means good 
opportunity for the study of rural art. 
The influence of an example of good taste 
in the adornment of a single place in a 
neighborhood or town, reaches far into 
future, and molds, more than most men 
think, the external features of that neigh- 
borhood or town, and affects more ulti- 
mately the lives of thoso whom it influ- 
ences. If one man plants a tree, his neigh- 
bor wants one. If one housewife has a 
flower parterre, another is not insensible to 
the enthusiasm with which the first exhibits 
and praises her floral pets. If one man 
sees his neighbor clearing out an old 
swamp, a ravine, or a rough plaoe of any 
sort, and converting its rude angularities 
into symmetrical lines of beauty, he ever 
after looks upon the rough places of his 
own domain with the possibilities of what 
it may become in his mind's eye, aud re- 
alizes, sooner or later, the ideal beauty 
which the realizations of his neighbors 
have established. 

It is an exquisite and beautiful thing in 
our nature, that when the heart is touched 
and softened by some tranquil happiness 
or affectionate feeling, the memory of the 
dead comes over it most powerfully and ir- 
resistibly. It would almost seem as if 
our better thoughts aud sympathies were 
charms by virtue of which tho soul is en- 
abled to hold some vague and mysterious 
intercourse with the spirits of those we 
have dearly saved in life. 



Scottish Songs and their Writers. 

Persons are apt to take it for granted 
that all of our best-known Scottish songs are 
the productions of Scottish writers. But 
this is far from being a fact. The famous 
Scotch ballad, "Roy's Wife," was written 
by Mrs. Grant, an Irish lady of Carron. 
Everybody is familiar with its perfect 
rhythm and its peculiar musical accent: 
" Hoy's wife of Aldivalloch, 
Boy's wife of Aldivalloch, 
Wot ye, how she cheated me, 
As I came o'er the braes of Balloch? 

" Oh! she was a canty quean, 
% And weel could dance the Hielaud Walloon . 
Mow happy I, had she been mine, 
Or I been lloy of Aldivalloch!" 

Miss Blnmire, who wrote, " An' Ye Shall 
Walk in Silk Attire," was a Cumberland 
girl; Mrs. Hamilton, who wrote, "My Ain 
Fireside," was a native of Ireland, and 
Mrs. John Hunter, the author of " My 
Mother Bids Me," was a Yorkshire woman. 

" There's Nae Luck about the House" is 
often ascribed to Burns; but it was writ- 
ten by Meikle, the translator of Camoens. 
Burns says of it: " This is one of the most 
beautiful songs in the Scots or any other 
language." 

Tue Working -Women's Protkctivb 
Union of New Yokk has become well es- 
tablished; the good service which it has 
rendered tothestrugglinghasdeveloped its 
own strength, and commanded the respect 
and support of the benevolent. Au im- 
portant feature in its operations is the 
interest taken in protecting the needy from 
the cruelty of unscrupulous employers. 
In one of its recent circulars, the signifi- 
cant statement is made that "the Union 
has prosecuted to final judgment in tho 
courts fifteen hundred c&seaoi fraud against 
working-women, and by these legal meas- 
ures compelled the payment of wages due 
and withheld, to the amount of six thou- 
sand dollars. The Union enlists our 
hearty sympathy, for we can have little or 
no patience with men who withold the 
earnings of exhausting toil. The opera- 
tions of this Society are administered by 
able hands, and we trust that the compara- 
tively small amount required to endow it 
permanently —less than $50,000— may be 
secured. 



We Fade. — As the trials of life thicken, 
and the dreams of other days fade one by 
one in tho deep vista of disappointed 
hope, the heart grows weary of the strug- 
gle, and we begin to realize our insignifi- 
cance. Those who have climbed to the 
pinnacle of fame, or revel in luxury and 
wealth, go to the grave at last with the 
poor mendicant who begs by the wayside, 
and like him are soon forgotten. Genera- 
tion after generation, says an eloquent 
writer, have felt as we feel, and their fel- 
lows were as active in life as ours are now. 
They passed away as a vapor, while Nature 
wore the same aspect of beauty as when 
the Creator commanded her to be. And so 
shall it be when waare gone. The heav- 
ens will be as bright over our graves as 
they are now around our paths; the world 
will have tho same attraction for offsprings 
yet unborn that it had once for ourselves, 
and that it has now for our children. 



What She Could Do. — The editor of 
the Portland Trunscrqit, having asked a 
lady correspondent, who applied for a sit- 
uation, "What could she do ?" received 
the following comprehensive reply: " I 
can keep house or a secret; drive a horse 
or a bargain; tend a post office, a store, or 
a baby; make a loaf of bread or shirt; 
sew on buttons, etc., or so forth; mend 
stockings, milk a cow, wash, iron, bake, or 
brew — is that enough for a woman to do ? 
Then I'll decipher tho copy that puzzles 
you, re-write the manuscript plain and 
true, or even if fortune but play me fair, 
and my sphere points the way of my duty 
there, take the editor's scissors, his office 
and chair. Satisfactory guarantee any day 
that I can do and have all that I say (and 
more to)." 

Don't Fret. — "The horse that frets is 
the horse that sweats," is an old saying of 
horsemen, and it is just as true of men as 
of horses. The man who allows himself 
to get irritated at every little thing that 
goes amiss in his business, or in the ordi- 
nary affairs of life, is a man that, as a rule, 
will accomplish little and wear out early. 
He is a man for whom bile and dyspepsia 
have a particular fondness, and for whom 
children have a particular aversion. Be is 
a man with a perpetual thorn in his flesh, 
which pricks and wounds at the slightest 
movement, a man for whom life has little 
pleasure and the future small hope. 



Y©J[<q Folks' ^° L 



Johnny's Opinion of Grandmothers. 

Grandmothors are very nice folks; 
, Thej beat all the aunts in creation, 

Tin _v let ■ chap do us he 

Ami don't worry about education. 

I'm rare I cant Bee It at all. 

What a I"' 1 could do 

For apples, and pennies, and eakes, 

Witbout a grandmother or two, 

QrandmotliOH speak, softly to "ma's" 

To Let a boy have a good time; 
Sometimes they will whisper, 'tis true, 

T'olhcr way, when a ls>y wants to climb. 

Grandmothers have muffins f'>r tea, 
And pies, a whole row, m tin cellar, 

there're apt (if they know It In time) 
To mi plea for ■ feller." 

And if he is 1 >:»i 1 . now and then, 

And makes :i great rack' I 

The] ""!> look ov< r then 
And say, "Ah those boys will bo boys. 

"LffeiBonl] sn short al tue best; 

II the children I™ happ) to-day." 
Tin n tin y look for a while at the sky, 

And the bills that are far, far away . 

Quite often, as twilight comes on, 
Grandmothers sing hyms »erj low, 

To tliiiiiselycs, as they rock by the lire. 
About heaven, and when they shall go. 

And then, a boy stopping to think, 

Will lind a hot tear in his eye ^ 

To know what will Boms at the last; 

I'm re all have to die. 

I M ish tin y COUU stay here and pray; 

Pot a boy needs tleir prayers every ui^ht; 
BoflM bojS tririre titan ottleTB, I s'pose; 
Such as 1 need a wonderful sight. 

Roll-Call in Heaven. 

An incident is related by a chaplain w ho 
was in the army during one of our hard- 
fought battles. The hospital tents had been 
tilling up as fast as the wounded men had 
been brought to the rear. Among the num- 
ber was a young man mortally wouuded, 
and unable to speak.- It was near mid- 
night, any many a loved one from our 
homes lay sleeping on the battlefield, that 
sleep that knows no waking until Jesus 
shall call for them. 

The surgeons had been their rounds of 
duty, and for a moment all was quiet. Sud- 
denly this young man before speechless, 
calls in a clear, distinct voice, "Here!" 
The surgeon hastened to his side, and asked 
what he wished. "Nothing," said he, "they 
are calling tho roll in heaven, and I was an- 
swering to my name." He turned his head 
and was gone— gone to join the great army 
whose uniform is washed white in the blood 
of the Lamb. Header, in the great roll-call 
of eternity, your name will be heard. < .111 
you answer, "Here!" Are you one of the 
soldiers of Christ, the great Captain of 
salvation? — Chris/inn at Work, 



Care for Sparrows. 

A little gir 1, seeing the servant throw 
the crumbs into the fire, said, " Dont you 
know that -God takes care of the spar- 
rows ?" 

" If God takes care of them," was the 
careless reply, " we need not trouble our- 
selves about them." 

" But," said the little girl, " I had 
rather be like God, and help him take care 
of the little birds, than scatter or waste the 
food that He gives us." 

So she carefully collected what was left 
of the crumbs, and threw them out of the 
window. In a short time several little 
birds flew eagerly to the spot, and picked 
up the crumbs she had scattered. After 
this, she every day collected in a little 
basket the crumbs and bits of bread that 
had fallen around the table, and threw 
them under the window for the little 
birds; and during all tho winter these lit- 
tle creatures came regularly after each 
meal to partake of the food thus provided 
for their support. How beautiful it was 
to see this little ejirl trying " tohelpGod," 
as she said, and thus early learning to be 
kind to the helpless of God's creatures. 

Story; of Prince Arthur. -Prince Arthur 
is a sensible, earnest lad, and now we havo 
new proof of it. For the first time in the 
history of the dynasty a Prince of theblood 
opened a railroad, the other day, and it 
was Prince Arthur. After the address, 
prayers, etc., an ornamental spade was 
handed the youth, and he was requested to 
turn the first sod into a silver wheelbar- 
row, all in a figurative and symbolic way, 
you know. He pitched in, however, like a 
gardener, and broke the ornamental spade 
handle at the first stroke. Nothing doun- 
ted, he put his gloved hands into the turf 
and soon landed a good-sized clod into the 
barrow. 



July 13, 1872.J 



27 



lOMESTIC 



lCONOMY. 



Are Tin Fruit Cans Injurious. 

Much has been said of late with regard to the 
danger of metallic poisoning from eating fruit 
(especially very acid fruit) which has been put 
up in tin cans. A cotemporary says that tin 
has long been justly regarded as one of the 
metals from the ordinary uses of which man- 
kind have nothing to fear. But the present age 
is characterized by its factitious imitations. 
That which goes by the name of tin foil, is 
mostly an alloy of tin and lead, and it is 
charged that many of the caps used for fruit 
jars, are made of zinc instead of tin. It is well 
known, also, that lead is used in soldering 
cans, and that this metal is attacked by certain 
organic acids which are contained in fruits. 
The tin of commerce is also by no means pure, 
and housekeepers will vouch that the tin cans 
are often attacked by these acids, and eaten 
through so as to leak their fluid contents. In 
the case of impurities in the tin used to coat 
the iron of the tin plates of commerce — when 
the cans are thus attacked, it may well be 
doubted whether the cumulated effects of me- 
tallic poisoning do not sometimes result from 
this cause. 

So far as the evidence of the senses goes, 
housekeepers know that cooking tomatoes in 
tin "ruins the basins" as one good woman said; 
and another admitted that she commonly used 
up at least one basin in a season for this pur- 
pose. How much injury the partaker receives, 
we do not know, but so much has been said of 
the sad effects of metallic poisoning, even in 
small though long cjntinued doses, that we 
would like to be assured of safetv. Professor 
Youmans thinks it a small matter, but many 
medical authorities disagree with him. One of 
the latter says: "It ought to be known to house- 
keepers that acid, fatty, saline and even albumi- 
nous substances, may occasion colic, vomiting, 
etc., after having remained some time in tin 
vessels." 

We see that the inner surface of the tin can 
is discolored after having been used for fruit, 
and we find that the flavors of the more deli- 
cate fruits are injured when they have been 
kept in tin cans. Zinc is more readily oxidized 
than tin, and yet the caps of some of our glass 
cans are made of that metal . 

If the amount of tin that may enter the sys- 
tem, as a result of its domestic use, is not likely 
to prove injurous, the questions are narrowed 
down to the purity of the article used, and the 
actual results of using the various cans pre- 
pared for our market. 

Professor Edwards of the Woman's Medical 
College of the N. Y. Infirmary, said that the 
tin cans, as prepared, are very unsafe, that the 
acids dissolve the lead solder and sometimes 
eat through the entire plate, making the cans 
leak, and also that serious cases of poisoning 
had occurred from using their contents. If 
facts like these could be called out from scien- 
tific men, they would arrest public attention, 
and they might suggest to manufacturers of 
glass cans the desirability of protecting the in- 
ner surfaces of their metallic caps in some way. 
Those with metallic caps work so much more 
easily than others, that they will long be more 
or less in demand. Some people line their caps 
with stiff white paper— a small protection of 
course. 

This subject is of considerable importance in 
domestic economy of the household, and one 
which should be more freely and fully dis- 
coursed by scienitfic men. Canned fruit has 
become a matter of almost daily use in many 
families, and if our families are eating a slow, 
metallic poison, the public ought to know it, 
and have the information conveyed b^authority 
competent to judge and advise correctly. 

Put Up Your Jam while Hot. — It is said 
that ordinary jam — fruit and sugar which have 
been boiled together for some time — keeps bet- 
ter if the pots into which it is poured are tied 
up while hot. If the paper can act as a strain- 
er, in the same way as cotton wool, it must be as 
people suppose, if one pot of Jam be allowed 
to cool before it is tied down, little germs will 
fall upon it from the air, and they will retain 
their vitality, because they fall upon a cool sub- 
stance; they will be shut in by the paper, and 
will soon fall to work decomposing the fruit. 
If another pot, perfectly similar, be filled with 
a boiling hot mixture, and immediately covered 
over, though, of course, some of the outside 
air must be shut in, any germs which are float- 
ing in it will be scalded, and in all probability 
destroyed, so that no decomposition can take 
place. 

Cooking Eggs. — Eggs broken in water are the 
" poached eggs" of the cook book, and a deli- 
cate way of preparing for table. Skill is how- 
ever requisite to bring them unbroken on the 
platter. Butter your saucepan; then pour in 
boiling water two inches in depth; add a little 
salt; break the eggs carefully into a saucer, one 
at a time, and slip into the water ; do not crowd 
them; five or six at a time are sufficient for 
an ordinary pan. Keep the water just at boil- 
ing point. When the whites are nicely set, and 
thr yolks with a light covering that just reveal 
their richness, remove with a spoon to a plat- 
ter, on which a few pieces of butter are laid. 
When all are taken up, a dash of pepper on 
each, and they are ready for the table. 



Okra or Gombo. 

Did you ever eat okra or gombo — generally 
incorrectly spelled ochra or gambo? It is a 
West Indian plant, but almost universally 
used throughout the Southern States — and to 
some extent in the Middle States and in Cali 
fornia. 

This plant belongs to the order of mahacea;, 
the characteristic qualitiy of which is mucilag- 
inous. It is eaten green, like string-beans, the 
pod and seed together. The pod is about six 
inches long, opening into five longitudinal cells, 
filled with a great number of seeds, which are 
sometimes roasted whenripe and used for coffee. 
Its somewhat peculiar taste and excessively mu- 
cilaginous nature renders it rather distasteful 
at first; but anappetite for it is readily acquired. 
This vegetable is really more valuable for the 
table then generally supposed ; but it must not 
be spoiled in the cooking. 

Its nutritive qualities are quite remarkable, as 
it contains gum or gluten in large quantities, 
which if properly administered to invalids and 
particularly that class suffering from consump- 
tion in any of its varied forms, is almost a "sheet 
anchor of hope," giving strength to the body, 
light to the eye, and color to the cheeks; which 
is principally accomplished by its easy diges- 
tion and assimilation. 

In the South and throughout France, it is 
grown and used in large quantities, which 
would, if apart from other excesses, cause them 
to grow fat. In New Orleans and its vicinity 
as well as in that of Charleston, S. C, and 
wherever the French element has become mixed 
or blended with our native population it is 
sought for with an avidity truly astonishing. 

The Northern people have "huckleberry 
feasts," catfish suppers, " "clam bakes," etc., 
but they of the South have their okra or "gom- 
bo parties," where gombo forms a part and par- 
cel of all the prepared dishes, beside those of 
it exclusively. Among the rest it is cut fine 
and cooked with stewed chicken which adds 
zest to the dish, to be relished by all the par- 
takers. It is used freely when cut fine in vege- 
table soup, boiled and used with drawn butter, 
which latter dressing is improved by the addi- 
tion of a small quantity of sherry or claret 
wine. 

When used separately,*by boiling, it is gener- 
ally eaten whole or cut in two or three pieces; 
having been boiled from thirty minutes to an 
hour. When an appetite has been once ac- 
quired for it it becomes really a delicious dish. 
It is much used in vegetable soup with toma- 
toes, which may have added to it cabbage, po- 
tatoes, corn and barley with a sprinkle of pars- 
ley, summer savory, and a carrot or two, al- 
ways using a piece of beef, which is preferred 
to a knuckle of veal as recommended by some. 

It may also be boiled and dressed with but- 
tgr, pepper and salt, with or without vinegar, 
or with drawn butter; or cut fine and cooked 
with stewed chicken, or in fact, any way or 
method which suggests itself. 



tious article of food," and we are glad to learn, 
as we do from Mr. X. A. Willard, dairy editor 
of the Rural New Yorker, that the demand for 
white or uncolored cheese seems to be steadily 
increasing. Our authority states that some of 
the Herkimer "fancy factories" have been 
making this kind all the season; that the sales 
have been at the highest rates, and he expresses 
the opinion that if it were not for the London 
trade and the requirements of certain English 
markets, there would be no difficulty in ban- 
ishing all coloring material from the vats. So 
far as home consumption of chesse is con- 
cerned, our people would soon learn to prefer 
the uncolored article, and the facts above de- 
veloped in regard to annatto may help to 
hasten this desirable consummation. 



The Poetry of the Table. 

In the first place, a starched and smoothly- 
ironed table-cloth — which, if neatly folded after 
every meal, will look well for several days. 
Then flowers and ferns in flat dishes, baskets, 
or small vases, — or else a tiny nosegay laid up- 
on every napkin. 

The salt must be pure and smooth. The 
butter should be moulded into criss-crossed 
diamond, shells, or globes, with the paddles 
made for this purpose. 

A few pretty dishes will make the plainest 
table glow; — a small bright-colored platter for 
pickles, horse-radish, or jelly; and butter-plates 
representing green leaves are also attractive. 

A few pennies' worth of parsley or cress, 
mingled with small scraps of white paper daint- 
ly clipped, will cause a plain dish to assume 
the air of a Frence entree. A platter of hash 
may be ornamented with an edging of toasted 
or fried bred cut into points; and a dish of mut- 
ton chops is much more impressive with the 
bones stacked as soldiers stack their guns, 
forming a pyramid in the center — each bone 
adorned with a frill of cut paper. A few slices 
of lemon, mingled with sprigs of parsley and 
slices of hard-boiled eggs, form a pretty garnish 
to many dishes; and nothing could be more ap- 
petizing than beef, veal, mutton, or lamb made 
into mince-meat, and pressed into form in a 
wine-glass, then hied in pork fat, with a sprig 
of green placed in the top of each little cone. 
The basket of fruit — peaches, pears, grapes or 
apples, oranges and grapes — should be taste- 
fully arranged and trimmed with leaves and 
flowers. The bowl of salid should be orna- 
mented with the scarlet and orange flowers of 
the trorja>olum, — their piquant flavor adding 
zest to the lettuce, with which they can be 
eaten. 



ISCELL/\jJEQd$. 



Fresh Vegetables and Sweet Salads. 

Those who value fresh vegetables and sweet 
salads will have none washed in the garden. 
Neither the one nor the other should be washed 
until they are just about to be cooked or eaten. 
Even potatoes lose flavor quickly after being 
washed; so do carrots and turnips; while water 
will speedily become tainted in summer in con- 
tact with cauliflowers and cabbages, and thus 
destroy their freshness and flavor. The case is 
still worse with salads. If washed at all, it 
should be only before they are dressed, and 
they should be dried and dressed immediately. 
Nothing ruins the flavor of vegetables, and ren- 
ders good salading uneatable, sooner than water 
hanging about them. If lettuces are quite 
clean, they make the best salad unwashed; but 
if washed the operation should be done quickly, 
and the water instantly shaken out, and the 
leaves dried with a clean cloth. But, alas! how 
often are they cut and washed in the garden in 
the morning, and pitched into water into the 
scullery sink until wanted. What French 
artiste would be mad enough to rinse out his 
salad juice, and then recharge his lettuces and 
his endives with semi-putrid water? 

The best practice is simply to remove all 
superfluous earth by scraping or rubbing, and 
all rough tops or leaves by cutting. Enough 
tender leaves may still be left on cauliflowers 
and brocoli to overlap the flowers. Salad 
should be sent in from the garden with most of 
the outside leaves and main root on. The ten- 
der leaves are easily tainted and injured by ex- 
posure, and if the chief root is cut off sharp 
much of the juice oozes out at the wound. 
Where vegetables and salading have to be 
bought from a town greengrocer, the conditions 
are altogether different. Not only washing but 
soaking often becomes requisite to restore 
something like pristine erispness. 

Use White Cheese. — The fact has been de- 
veloped by a chemist at Cornell University, 
that every specimen of the so-called "best bas- 
ket annatto," collected from some of the finest 
cheese factories in Herkimer county, and sub- 
mitted for analysis by the Little Falls 4 Farmers' 
Club, contained a large percentage of mineral 
or inorganic matter. Nearly every sample con- 
tained copper; and traces of arsenic, it was 
thought, were discovered in at least one. The 
presence of these poisons is certainly not calcu- 
lated to render cheese ' ' a healthy and nutri- 



Selected Receipts. 

Boiled Indian Pudding. — Take sweet milk 
of sufficient quantity for the pudding desired; 
salt to the taste, and stir in Indian meal till a 
little milk will rise on the top by standing. If 
too thick it will be hard. Fill a pudding crock, 
and tie a cloth tightly over it. Put into boiling 
water sufficient to keep it covered, and boil 
steadily for three hours. Fruit may be added 
if desired. Serve with sweetened cream. This 
is an old-fashioned Connecticut pudding. 

Coenmeal Pudding. — Two quarts of sweet 
milk, one pint of cornmeal, one-half pint of beef 
suet or fat pork, chopped fine, three eggs, and a 
little nutmeg andsalt; sweeten toyour taste with 
sugar. Heat the milk, and while not, stir in the 
meal; after this, set it where it will cool, and 
then add the eggs. Bake from three to four 
hours in a slow oven. 

Indian Meal Pudding. — Into one quart of 
boiling milk stir one quart of sifted fine meal; 
then add one quart of cold milk, two well beat- 
en eggs, one-half cup of sugar, one cup of 
flour, and a little salt and spice. Stir it well 
and pour it into a buttered dish. Bake two 
hours, and serve with butter. 

Kice Waffles. — One cup of boiled rice, one 
of flour, one quart of milk, one teaspoonful of 
butter, four eggs, a teaspoon half full of salt. 
Beat the white of the eggs to a stiff froth, and 
mix the whole very evenly. Bake in waffle- 
irons and butter before gaten. 

Potato Cakes. — Take one dozen large pota- 
toes, fresh boiled and mashed very fine, % lb. 
butter, three eggs beaten, and % lb. of flour, 
mix together with a fork (do not handle it), 
roll into thin cakes, and bake quickly in a hot 
oven. 

Lemon Pie With Three Crusts. — A layer of 
crust, a layer of lemon, sliced fine, a little 
sugar, a layer of crust again, and sugar and 
lemon again, then the upper crust, makes a 
good lemon pie. 

Another Way. — One cup of sugar, one cup 
of sweet milk, one egg, one and a half lemon, 
the grated peel and juice, one tablespoonful of 
flour; then, after baking, the white of an egg 
beaten, sweetened and put on the top, then put 
in the oven and browned. 

To Color Slate Color. — Boil yellow oak 
bark in an iron kettle till the strength is ex- 
tracted. Takeout the bark, then add a \'iy 
little copperas, and you have a pretty color with 
no expense. 

To Extract Ink from Floors. — Ink spots on 
floors can be removed by scouring them with 
sand wet in oil of vitriol and water mixed. 
Rinse them, when the ink is extracted, with 
strong pearl-ash water. 

Brandy in Boiling Meat. — Tf as Soon as 
moat is skimmed and thoroughly boiling, two 
spoonfuls of brandy is added to every three 
pounds of meat, the meat will become tender, 
though it may have been very tough, and will 
not retain any taste of the brandy. 



Powder River Valley. 



The Baker City Democrat gives the fol- 
lowing description of Powder River val- 
ley, Baker county, Oregon: 

The valley is some thirty-five or forty 
miles in length, from north to south, and 
ranges from five to twenty-five miles in 
width, from east to west. Beautiful 
mountain streams meander through the 
whole length and breadth of the valley, 
from which irrigating ditches can be 
taken with but little trouble or expense. 
In the summer of 1862 the valley and 
mountain sides was one vast sea of as fine 
bunch grass as ever grew. At that time 
a large portion of the valley was swamp 
and overflowed lands, and the travel passed 
at or near the foothills. Tho settlements 
made by the emigrants of 1862 was the 
starting point of the present prosperity of 
the Powder River valley. The settlers 
were poor and toil-worn — -now they are 
wealthy and comfortable. 

A view of the Powder River valley now, 
presents to the eyo a home and civilized 
appearance, with towns, villages, farms 
and farm-houses interspersed over its 
whole extent. The swamp and overflowed 
lands have, to a great extent, been re- 
claimed and made to yield bountiful har- 
vests to repay the hardy and industrious 
pioneer husbandman. 

Churches and school-houses now occupy 
the places where, but a short time since, 
the war-whoop of the savage was the only 
indication that a human being had an 
abiding place in this beautiful valley. 
We can now stand in our office door and 
view vast herds of cattle and sheep, 
feeding upon the rich and luxuriant 
grasses of the valley and the surrounding 
foothills — a better range than which, can- 
not be found on the Pacific Slope, which 
embraces the best and most extensive 
grazing lands in the world. The valley is 
surrounded by mountains, in which are 
found rich deposits of gold, silver and 
copper, which is being taken out by hardy 
and enterprising miners. The mining 
camps surrounding the valley supply a 
home market for the surplus produce of 
our farmers. 



A Sensible Suggestion. — The St. Louis 
Journal of Education says: "Every teacher 
should understand how to plant trees and 
the art of grafting, and should be able to 
teach children these things. The play 
grounds of our school-houses should be 
filled with shade trees, both in the city and 
country. Every holiday at school should 
be celebrated by the planting of trees. The 
highways should be lined with trees, thus 
planted by the youth of the country. The 
ravages which the foolish greed of the last 
and present generations has made in our 
forests could thus, in time, be repaired. A 
million hands in this State could be set at 
this work. It would become a habit of 
family life to commemorate the events of 
home, the birth of a child, a wedding, or 
the anniversary of either or even a death, 
by these living monuments." 

Woman's Wit.— Dr. Abernethy rarely 
met his match, but on one occasion he fair- 
ly owned he had. He was sent for by an 
inn keeper who had quarreled with his 
wife, who had scarred his face with her 
nails, so that the poor man was bleeding 
and much disfigured. Abernethy thought 
this an opportunity not to be lost for ad- 
monishing the offender, and said: -"Mad- 
am, are you not ashamed of yourself to 
treat your husband thus — the husband who 
is the head of all — your head, madam, in 
fact?" " Well, doctor," fiercely returned 
the virago, " may I not scratch my own 
head?" 



Forests are guarded with especial care 
in Russia. The use of wood fuel on 
railways is interdicted. At the rate of de- 
struction now going on, California will be 
destitute of timber in twenty years; and if 
the predictions of meteorologists be of any 
account, it will effect a terrible revolution 
in our climate, that will rcduco our farm 
lands to a low valuation. 



A celebrated writer says: " No woman 
can bo a lady who can wound or mortify 
another. No matter how beautiful, refined, 
or cultivated she may be, if she is in real- 
ity coarse, the innate vulgarity of her na- 
ture manifests itself here. Uniformly kind, 
courteous and polite treatment of all, per- 
sonifies one mark of a true woman." 



Coleridge, on being asked what was the use 
of a certain scientific discovery, replied, "What 
is the use of a new-born child ?" 



28 



Jr Ja* U/ X jj j< u/ Jr(» yj **rC A cO Jtr JrC «it> o o « 



[July 13, 1872. 



California Wines Endorsed. 

At (lie banquet of the California Pioneers of 
Sacramento, on the 4th of July, I. N. Hoag 
introduced the following resolutiou, which was 
unanimously adopted: 

"Whereas, The Committee of Arrange- 
ments have furnished for use on this occasion 
pure California wiues, to the exclusion of all 
wines of a foreign brand or manufacture; and 
whereas, we have tried them and find them not 
only good but very good, therefore, 

Uesolved, That we, the California Pioneers of 
Sacramento and their friends present, unani- 
mously indorse the action of the committee in 
this respect, and hope that hereafter all foreign 
wines will be excluded from the banquet tables 
of the California Pioneers throughout the 
Stat. . 



Farming Club Lecture and Essay. 

At the meeting of the Oakland Farming, 
Horticultural and Industrial Club on Friday 
evening, July 12th, ^the President, Prof. E. S. 
< 'air, will give a short lecture on the process 
of bread-making, with experiments, in the 
chemical lecture room of the State University. 
Vice-President, J. V. Webster, of Fruit Vale, 
will deliver an essay on "California — Its Past 
and Present;" with special reference to farming 
mattes. 



A Tkkatisk on- Railway. Curves and Loca- 
tions. Bj E. W. Beans, C. E. Ilenry Cary Baird, 
Industrial Publisher, 406 Walnut street, Philadelphia. 

The abovo is the title of a small edition of a 
work very useful to Railway Engineers, and 
one which appears to contain considerable mat- 
ter entirely new, and which will greatly assist 
the locating engineer, and facilitate his labors. 
The work is illustrated with numerous dia- 
grams, and contains demonstrations and tables, 
showing how engineers may save themselves 
many laborious calculations and much expense 
for their employers. The last chapter or propo- 
sition, is devoted to grading hills and unequal 
surfaccsfor turnpikes, plank roads, etc. Price, 
$1.50, sent by mail, free of postage, to any part 
of the United States. 



Be Careful. 

You cannot be too careful about your 
farming machinery. Already we have 
heard of two accidents by which men have 
lost limbs in threshing machines, and we 
sound the alarm in time to save others. 
Table tenders will see that their tables are 
securely put up; they will not step across 
the mouth of the cylinder, nor on the cap 
of an old machine. Pitchers will always 
leave their forks sticking upright in the 
stack, or stacked on the ground. The 
feeder will see that his cylinder teeth are 
all right, and will not get his hands too far 
in. The engineer will guard against fire, 
and always look at his safety valve before 
starting up. The machine tender will 
watch his boxes closely that they do not 
heat, and keep his fingers and clothes out 
of cog-wheels. But accidents will happen. 
If you have a fork run into you, put on 
turpentine; if you havo a mash or cut, put 
it in cold water. If an artery is cut, tie a 
cord between the wound and the heart as 
tight as man can make it, and send for a 
doctor. Keep plenty of water and turpen- 
tine always on hand. Be careful. Napa 
Register, 

ClJY JACKET R^EJ»QEVr. 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE AT WHOLESALE. 

IThe prices given below are those for entire consignments 
from first hands, unless otherwise specified..! 

San Fbancisco, Thurs.,A. m., July 11. 

FLOUR — Market is quiet. We quote prices 
as follows: 

Superfine, $4.25@4.50; extra, in sacks, of 
Y.W, ihs. $6.12%@6.26; Oregon brands, 83.30 
DO in sacks of l'Jti lbs. 

WHEAT — The market has been dull at de- 
clining rates since our last review. The 
range for new is $1.55(5:1.00, and old, 81.- 11 " 
1.80 per 100 lbs. 

The latest Liverpool market quotations come 
through at l'Js. 2d.@12s.6d. per cental. 

BARLEY — Market dull. The range at close 
is new feed $1.20@1.25; old feed $1.50@1.65; 
old brewing sl.5(Xrt 1.05. 

OATS — Market has improved. Sales ortli- 
narv coast to choice bay, at $l.Co@1.80 per 100 
Ims. which is the extreme at close. 

CORN— Is quotable at $1.65@1.80 "0 lOOftm. 

CORNMEAL— Ifl quotable at $2.00@$2.75 
f> 100 lbs. from the mill. 

BUCKWHEAT— Is quiet at $1.75 per 100 lbs. 

KYE— Is quiet at $1.75@1.80 per 100 lbs. 

STRAW— Quotable at 50@t>0c per bale. 

BRAN- -Is selling at $17 per ton from the 
mill. 

MIDDLINGS— For feed, are $27.50 per ton 
from mills. 

OIL CAKE MEAL— Is selling at $30 per ton 
from the mill. 



HAY— Light sales at a range of $8@$16.25 
per ton. 

HONEY— New is selling at 12%@36 in the 
comb, and 12(2(16c strained; old incomb8@15; 
do strained 8@12%c per ft>. 

POTATOES— The supply of Mission and 
Half-moon Bay is not very heavy, and prices 
are fair. Sales of Red at $1.85@1.90 per 100 
lbs.; Peach Blow $2.00(<"82.10. 

WOOL. — The market is still very quiet and 
prices are nominal. 

TALLOW— Good quality of Cal. 8c. 

SEEDS— Flax 3c; Canary, B@6o. 

PROVISIONS— California Bacon ll@12%e 
per lb.; Oregon, ViyjdAi.- Eastern do. 10(0)12 
for clear ami U;a.io for sugar-cured Break- 
fast; Cal. Hams 12@ 13; Eastern do, HVs@15c; 
California Smoked Beef, 13%@llc. per lb. 

BEANS — The following are jobbing rates: 
Pea $3.75(«>4.00; small White $3.75@4,00 ; 
Small Butter S3.25@.3.50; large $3.37 J 
Bavo, 1.00(7,81.25; Pink and Red, \ 

NUTS— California Almonds, 8@10c. for 
hard and 18(a;25 for soft shell; Peanuts, 5(rt) 
8c; Pecan, 25c "$ lb.; Hickory, 12c; Brazil, 
15c; Chili Walnuts, 15c; Italian Chestnuts 25o. ; 
Eastern Chestnuts, 15(2)20c; French Almonds, 
25 @ 30c; Princess Almonds, 35@-10c; Los 
Angeles Walnuts, 18c; Cocoa-nuts, $10.00 per 
100. 

FRESH MEAT— We quote slaughterer's rates 
as follows: — 

BEEF— American, 1st quality, 7@8 $ lb. 
do. 2d quality GfnJ"^ ft>.; do. 3d do. 3@5c 

VEAL— Quotable at 7@10c. 

MUTTON— 6@6%c. $ ft). 

LAMB— Easier at 8@8%c. 

PORK — Undressed grain-fed is quotable at 
6(3 6 4 c dressed, grain-fed, 8}{@9}{c. per lb. 

POULTRY— Live Turkeys, 25®27c. f. lb.; 
dressed, 27@30 per lb.; Hens $8.50@9.50; 
Roosters, $8.50@9.50 per dozen ; Spring 
Chickens, $3.00(ajG.OO ; Ducks, tame, $G.00@ 
$7.00 perdoz.; Gee8e,$15<SU8 ^ dozen. 

DAIRY PRODUCTS— Fresh California But- 
ter, common to good in rolls, may still be 
quoted at 22%@27%c, with a few choice lots 
at 30; New firkin is quotable at 25(2)27] £0. 

C'HEE8K-New California, 10@llc; Eastern 
is jobbing at I4@15c. ^ ft). 

Egos — California fresh, "are 37%@10c. ,$ 
doz.;Eastem 15@20. Oregon, 25@26. 

LARD-California 12%@14; Oregon, none 
in market. Eastern in cases 14@14%c; do 
in tcs. 11^j(«j12c. per lb. 



Tah. Oranges, M. 

CalMornia do . . 

,' M 

Atl-tluI.clllons.M 
In. doftM 
Sicily, do, t>x.. 

BjtcaiiHs.ftbancli 

Currents 

Apple*, bx 

Pineapples ft o/.. 



FRIIT. 
i". XXg>«> 00 Strawberries. 

— @ — Blackberries . 

00 Raspberries.., 

— — Gooseberries . 

— @ — 1 'hemes. 

11 in it, ihi Apricots .... 

»i Pears, lix 

4 u i Kins 

1 25 "- VI Peaches 



10 S> 15 

- @ - 

I" §Z7« 

8 aliSi 
I. jO(u 2.00 

5 (g/12'i 

li Ml S 



...15|<i) 18 

..-la) - 

.. vi r, 

. — O Sc 
. - - 10c 
. — fe, iOc 



I'll! II 

OKI ED FRUIT 

Apples, ft lb y . .i nie Pitted, do ft ft.... 

tears, ft ft H (ujlll »ii>ln<,VH 

Peachos.ftft 10 (3)11 Black Ki b -s, ft ft... 

Apricots, ft * — — While, do 

I'lunis, ft ft 5 @I0 

Vr-i.ETARLRS. 

Cabbage, ft lb %® Ii4 (Cucumbers ft doz. 

eiarlie, ft ctl — l.'j Summer SqSb, lb . . 

Rhubarb ft lb 2 (5)3 Asparagus, ft Ik... 

Green Peas 'liitgt 3 TomatoeB ft Ik 

Sweet Peas — — S'rlns B. ans 

Green Corn ft doz.. 8 @.8 Egg Plant 

Marrowiat S<|uash Pappers 

per Ion $10@ 15,'okia 

GENERAL MERCHANDISE. 

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS— Stocks 
are in good supply and prices unchanged. 

BAGS AND BAGGING— Prices are as foi- 
lows: Burlap sacks 18c; Flour sacks 9}/,@10c 
for qrs. and 1$%@15%'C. for hlfs. Standard 
Gunnies are jobbing at20@31c. ; Wool75@80c; 
Hessians 40 inch goods 1 1c. \>et yard. 

BOOTS AND SHOES— Demand continues 
active for goods under this head and assort- 
ments are complete. 

BUILDING AND FENCING MATERIALS— 
The demand for lumber in the interior 
is light; city trade fair. Export trade is light on 
account of scarcity ol vessels and high freights. 
Dealers pay for cargoes of Oregon as follows : 
Rough *HV'S17; do surfaced at §2S; Spruce 
$17@18; Redwood rough'fl6; refuse do. $12; 
dressed do. $30; refuse , do. $20. Kusti 
refuse do. $21'.;. Wholesale rates for various 
descriptions are as follows: Laths at $2.50 
@2.75; Shingles $2. 50(« 2.75. Sugar Pine $35 
®45 ; Cedar $27^@37^. Pickets: Rough, 
$11 ; pointed, $16 ; dressed, $25. The follow- 
ing list of retail prices is continued by the 
Lumber Dealers' Exchange. 

Puget Sound Pine— 

Rough , ft M $22 50 

Fencing and Stepping, ft M S5 00 

Fencing, second o,a&Ut}, ft At 25 00 

Laths, ft M 3 00 

Fencing, fl lineal foot t 3{c 

Ked wood- 
Rough, ft At 22 50 

Rough refuse , ft Al 17 00 

Rough Pickets, ft M SB 01 

Rough Pickets, pointed, ft H JO 00 

Fancy Pickets ft M 30 00 

Siding, ft AI 25 00 

Tongued and Grooved, surfaced, ft AI 37 50 

Do do refuse ft AI 25 00 

Half-inch surfaced, ft AI 35 00 

Rustic ft AI 10 00 

Batten ft lineal foot Jic 

Shingles ft AI 3 00 

Sugar Pine is jobbing at $55 for clear and $15 for 

second quality. 

COFFEE— Costa Rica 20^ ,c; Guatemala 18c. 
Java 26c; Manilla, VJli; Rio 19J,,@20; 
Ground Coffee in cases 30c; Chiccory, \'V/ % . 

SPICES— Allspice 14«< IV. Cloves H^/ 17c 
Oaasia36@36c. Nntrnag8$l.Q0@fl.l0. Whole 
Pepper 20c GrouudSjiices- — Allspice $1.00^ 
doz.; Cassia $1.50; Cloves $1.12%; Mustard 
$1.50; Ginger and Pepper, each $1.00(S>1.12 ^ 
doz.; Mace $1.50 % lb.; Ginger 15c ^ ft). 

FISH— We quote Pacific Dry Cod in bun- 
dles at 4%c.@5J, 8 , Salmon inbbls. $0.00@7.00, 



hf do, $3.50@4.50; Case Salmon, $2(S(3 "^ doz 
for l@2-ft> cans respectively; Pickled Cod, 
$4.50 in hf bbls and $8 in bbls; Puget Sound 
Smoked Herring, 0O(ai85c per box; Mackerel, 
No. 1 hf bbls, $8.00@9.00; extra, $9.50(» 10.00; 
in kits No. 1 $1.75(T(,2.15; do No. 2,$1.50@ 
1.62%. Smoked Salmon, 7@7%c per ft). 

NAILS— Quotable at $6 25@9.00 for assorted 
sizes. 

PAPER — California Straw Wrapping, sells at 
i 1.60, Eastern $1.60@1.80 % ream. 

PAINTS— White Lead 8@12%c; Wbitening, 
2%c; Chalk 2c; Paris White 3c ; Ochre and 
Venetian Red each 3%; Red lead and Litharge 
each 10%@llc. ^ ft). 

RICE— Sales of China No. 1 at7@7Vic.and 
No. 2 at 6%@6%c'$ ft); Siam, quotable at 5 4 (« 
6%c in mats; Carolina Table, 10@11; Hawai- 
ian, 9@10c per ft). 

SUGAR— We quote Cal. Cube at i:t' 4 e; Cir- 
cle A Crushed, Pic, and Granulated 12%c; 
Golden C. lie; Hawaiian 8@10%o. as ex- 
tremes "$ ft). 

SYRUP — Prices may bo given as follows: 
57%c in bbls, 60 in hf bbls, and 65c in 1 

SALT— California Bay sells at $6@fl4; 
Carmen Island, in bulk, $14(«"15; Fine Liver- 
pool, $2X50 Y' »nn ; coarse, $I8(g 19. 

SOAP — The prices f i >r local brands are 5@, 
ad Castile, 13(ga3%c"f 

TEA — S.iles as below, less duty, which was 
taken ott'..n the 1st inst. We quote Young Hy- 
son at 70o@$1.15; Gunpowder, 85®$ 1.45; Im- 
perial, - >; Oolong in bulk40c0/?l.oo, 
in y x ft), papers 37%C@$1,10; English Break- 
fast [Souchong 15c $1.00; Enghsh Breakfast 
; Basket 50@65c. per ft). 



San Francisco Retail Market Rates. 



a 



Thcusday Noon, July II, 1S72. 
IflSI BLLANZOCS. 

i - i « 35 Flour sks.qr.... 10!4@ 11 

do Hlf 16 

Potato (i'yUags. W (4 '.'1 

Si'eond-hnddo 12 c, Is 

Deer Skins, f m. II 

Sheep »ks, \vl on 50 (* 7* 

Sheep ^k«, plain. 12V* 25 

.ins.each. 25 1% 50 

1>i\ Oal. Hides.. 18'j<* IS 

Baited do - W 9, 

Drv .Mei. Hides. \l'i<9 
Salted do 



Butter, VaX fr lb 

do Oregon, lb. . 

Honey, ft lb 25 & 

Cheese, ft lb ... . 20 9 
Eggs, perdoa... 1*» fl 

Ijird.fllb in 8 

Sugar, cr., 7 Ib.l 00 

Brown, do.ft lb 9 

Beet, do 

.Sugar, Afap. lb. 
Plants, dried, lb. 
Peache*. dried,* 
Wool Sucks, new 

Second-hnddo 82'i'* S5 I.iveOa 
WoMt-ska, tU'ii 18 a 




Tallow 8>,(* HI 



i 'nillish, dry, lb 
kVt'ood 



PRODUCE. ETC. 



noar,ex,¥bbl.6 imi ■■■>; n 

Supttlirt..-. do-fi 00 <4 

Com M.'al.ioo lb. 3 ihi B» '*i 
Wheat, »> loo taj V 

Oats, ft loo lbs... I 00 (ail 75 



Barley, cwt 1 50 <*1 65 

Beans, cwt 4 00 «5 00 

Dry Lima Bcanx f lb 8 

Hay, » ton., ..11 in, <va M 
eaftctl 75c 



IKIITS. VEGETABLES, ETC. 
Celery, ft doz.... 

I 'llCUIllhTH.'. . . 

ToMial ->,•-•., || Hi.. 

doz hun 



Apricots, lb 10 @ IS 

Pine Apple-. * .-. INI «'l 'HI 
Bananas, ft bnch ."hi ia,l On 



- 
WJ 20 



I illttrl' 1 

NVatenn.'lons . 
Cal. >Valmits. lb. 
Cranherrifs. f* « 
Strawberries .■ 
Raapbecries, lb. . 
Cranberries. O.l 

: ri.-i," 

Cherrit s, p Iti.. . 

Oranges. "p I0O0..2O IHI (a50 00 

Lemons. V loo. ■ ■* '"- 1 1*10 00 
l.imes. per UNJ.. .J 00 

Figs, fresh, f lb. 12 $ 

Asparagus, wh.* 12 to; 

Aruohokea, doz. 50 m 

Brussels sprts, » 10 

Beets, ft dor @ 25 

PoUtocs.NewftB) 2 @ 3 

Potatoes, sweet," @ 

Broccoli, ft doz..l 50 Ml On 

Caulilli.wer, t .. (ail 50 

Cahhago,ftdo7...1 00 fa/1 .50 

Carrots, fl doz. . . 15 (<u 25 



rL"«20 



Dried Herbs, b% 25 

Carlics i 

Green Peas, ft lb .*. 

I, I.. i) i urn. do/.. 2'» 

Lettuce, ft doz.. 12 
Bloshroom 
Horseradish, p 1 lb 

■ lb 50 

Pumpkins, ft lb. 3 

Parsnips, t hnchs 20 

I'arsl.-v 

Pickles, fl gal... 50 

Rhubarb, p lb.. 5 

Radishes, t buns 111 

sjummer Squash 5 

Marrowfat, do. 

Hubbard, do. . 

Dry Lima, shl... 6 
Spinage, F b&l.t 

f> bunch 12 @ 

Turnips, ft doz.. 15 (gl 20 



© 50 



POULTRY. CAME, FISH. MEATS. ETC. 
I lioice D'rheld 
Whiitaker's .. 
Johnsou's Or 



( Ibiekena, apiece 50 @l 00 

Turkey ft ft. ■ fa> 30 

Ducks, wild, ft p @ 

Tame, do 1 50 g2 50 

Teal, ft doz ... 

Geese, wild, pair @ 

Tame, ft pair. .2 50 ($3 00 

Hens, each 75 (gil 00 

Snipe, ft doz ... ® 

English. do.... @ 

Quails, ft doz ... (» 

Pigeons, doiu. do3 00 @3 50 

Wild, d„ I Oil g| 

Mares, each ... « l« g 
Rabbits, tAme>. 75 

Wild.do.fl dz.1 75 
Beef, tend, ft lb. 



1. ft ft.. 

Smoked, ft ft . 
Pork. rib. etc„ lb 

t :hnps, do, V ft 
Veal, ft ft 

i luUet, do 

Mutton chops,* 



Leg, » lb. 

I.amb. ft ft 

Tongues, Ijeef, ea 
Tongues, pig, ea 
Bacon, Cal., ft ft 

Oregon, do .. 
Hams, Cal. * ft. 
Hams, Cross' s o 




flounder, ft lb. .. 
Salmon, ft ft 

Smoked, new,* 

Pickled, ft ft.. 

Rock Cod, fl ft.. 

- water, ft 

Fresh water, ft 

Lake Big. Trout* 

aigefllb 

Small do 

n"'ltS. . . 

Soles, ft lb 

Herring, fresh.. 

Sin kd. per 100 
Tome o,l. ft ft.... 
Terrapin, ft dp/..6 00 <o 
Uaekerel, p'k.ea 

Fresh. do — fa) — 

Sea Bass, ft ft... — M — 

Halibut — 

Sturgeon, ft ft.. 4 m 5 
Oysters, ft 100. .. I 00 «l 25 

Chesp. ft do/...l ?■*' »2 ini 

Turbot 3" 

Crabs ft doz....l 00 w 




Soft Shell.. 
Shrimps .. 
Prawns . . . 
Sardines. 



.-in 



10 

8 a — 



Per lb. t Per dozen. *i Per gallon. 

Leather Market Report. 

[Corrected weekly by Dolllver * Bro., No. 109 Post Bt.] 
San Fbancibco, Thursday. July 1 1 IR72. 
Scile LiAT!ll-:n.— The Eastern market is higher/and some 
tanners have advanced their prices here. We quote as 

City'T.nned Leather Jl ^ft M®2» 

Santa Cruz Leather, * ft 26Cq)29 

Country Leather, * ft. 

Stockton Leal her. t> Tb ■ • ■ ■ ■■■■■■■ ... .2*829 

French skins , onlmue hrm. All California skins are 
scarce and bun- full prices. 

Jodot.8Kil. perdoz ** »0@ 

Jodot. 11 to 19 Kil,. per doz. .. ■ ■ ■ • -^ ■ • • • ■ ■' m,» 98 00 

Jodot, second choice 11 to 15 Kd. ft doz. HI W.» .6 00 

Lomoine. IMo 1" Kil ft doz ^5 0m i, .50 

Letto, 12 and 13 Kd.,"per doz «8 00fa) .0 00 

Cornellian, IB Kil perdoz <0 00® 

Cornellian, 12 to Hlvil., perdoz 60 0JJ-S 68 00 

OgerauCalf, f« doz 54 Wgl 

Simon, IN Kil..>tdoz « W 

Simon, 20 Kil. «t doz 63 00 

Simon. 24 Kil. jt doz... >1 0U 

Robert Calf, 7 and 8 Kil. ^ ?Sf ■ SX 

French Kips, ft ft u,iSf n m m 

California Kip, ft doz **!°" l o80 00 

Fr, nch Shi el. all colors ft doz '{ " .„ 

Eastern! alt for Backs, ft ft I 15® | » 

Sheep Roans for Topping all colors, ft doz. ... »?»©»•» 

Sheep Roans for Linings, ft doz ? S2 '! 2 

I 'ahfornia Russett Sheep Linings 1 i5fa) 5 50 

Best Jodot Cai f Boot Legs, ft pair 5 25 

Good French Calf Boot Legs, ft pair 4 50® 5 00 

French Calf Boot Legs. ft pair 4 00 

Harness Leather, ft §. *® J-S 

Fair Bridle Leather, ft doz « JOta 7200 

Skirting Leather, ft ft 3 »"» f ^ 

Welt Leather, » doa » «°J » J? 

Bnff leather, * foot ,18® 21 

Wax Side Leather, Tf foot **m 



Ban Francisco Metal Market. 



minis roa iwukm 

Jobbing prut* rut* from ten to ji/t'en per etni. higher than thn 
foHovtinjt quotation*. 

Tm itsDAT, July II, 1872. 

InoN — 

Scotch Pig Iron, ft ton (80 00 @ 85 00 

White Pig, ft ton 70 00 gl 75 (10 

ReHned Bar, badassortment.fi ft — 04'j 

Refined Bar, good assortment, ft ft — 05 

Boiler. No. 1 to 4 - 0»X<S 

Plate, No. 5 to 9 — 06 

Sheet. No. 10 to 13 — 08 

Sheet, No. 14 to 20 - 08 

Sheet, No. 24 to 27 — 01) 

Horse Shoes 7 50 

Nail Rod 10 

Norway Iron 8 

Rolled Iron 5 

Other Irons for Blacksmiths, Miners, etc. 5 6 
u.— 

Sheathing, It lb — 40 fa) — 45 

Sheathing, Yellow ■••• - 30 | 

Sheathing. Old Yellow — 12 ® — rllcj 

Composition Nails — 9t — 30 

i ionrpoeition Bolts — 28 — 30 

Tin I'Lvxns.— 

Plates, Charcoal. IX ft boi 19 00 19 .50 

Plates, ICCharooal IT ihi 17 M 

Rooting Plates 16 00 Is M 

Banca Tin. Slabs, ft ft —50 - 55 

STEEI..-Kngli»h Cast, ft ft - 15 - IS 

Drill 15 IS 

llatBar 17 Is 

Plough Points 3 7.i 

Russia (for mould boards) QtcJ 

2ric lisll.VKii.--ft ft - 55 

KAD.-Pig.ftlb --om; -06 

Sheet — in 

Pipe — » -I" 

Bar 06;» -07 

ZlNC.-Slieets, ft ft — 11 - UJi 

Borax.— Refined :. — 27 - 30 

Borax, crude — 5 



Clubbing Papers. — To induce further patronage for 

ac-Ticultural papers cm this coast, we will lie lvafter fur- 
nish to new snbscriliers the Califobnia Aubk i ltcbist 
(a 11.50 uiouthly), with the Pa&TIO IIiiial Puesb, for 
it- year for *t>4.50. I'rcsciit BtxtMcrltMn to the Rural 
can also receive the AoBIcci-n'RisT for one year l,y 
Ni-uiling us "Sets, additional to their regular iktUilptliun 
to our paper. 

Send us Communications.— They will bo re 
Bpected. If you have not time or the experience to 
write finished' articles, aend us facts brief and plain. 
We will take care of them. Bcnicinhcr that writers im- 
prove themselves with others by use of the pen. Ofh. 
cers of societies, clubs and meetings, please report. 



Thursday Noon our last forms go to press. Crrr- 
niiinications should be received a week in advance aid 
advertisements as early in the week as possible. 



A Delicious Perfume. 

It is unquestionable that HrBBAYck Lamman'sFlobipa 
Wateb is th, richest, jet the most delicate of all floral 
waters. Its Wft| sweet perfume floating around the 
person, indicates a refined and cultivated mind that 
cannot brook the ordinary perfumes of the day. Fir 
sale by druggists everywhere. BCO 

A Scre Thing.— CABLE SCREW WIRE Boots and 

Sli , s will not rip, leak or come apart, and are the 
I ever worn. Try then. 
All bear the Patent Stamp. 






Treadwell&Co, 



IRON AXLE 



PBICES: 

Thimble Skein, 3 inch. $100; 3!» inch, $105; 3* 
inch. $110; -i\ inch, $115; 4 inch. $125 Includ- 
ing in each case wagon gearing complete, with whif- 
lletrees, nock yoke and stay chains. 

Beds. Brakes, Seats, eto., $40 to $50, complete, 

according to style. 

We invite the attention of buyers to the superior work- 
manship and finish of the justly celebrated Wagons. 
They are known throughout the West, and have long 
taken the lead of all others: and although hut recently 
iiitri.iluec cl to the California farmer, have given (he 
mi. st compute satisfaction. There is no factory in tho 
i mteil States where gn attr can. is given to the selection 
of material used than that of Winchester \- Partridge, 
the builiMrs of these Wagons, in Wisconsin. The timber 
Isof I be choicest selection, and the iron used, the best 
that can 1m. obtained. The manufacturers flny: "A 
thorough system of Inspection is strictly adhere: d to, so 
that we are prepared to warranteach |*rt to be perfoct; 
if defective, it wiil be replaotel without charge." We 
claim by actual test a savino ok >i*tken peb aura*, in 
i.kakt over any other Wag-on offered for sale. 
This ease of draft has been accomplished after years of 
close study, and on strictly scientific principles, and is a 
secret known only to ourselves. 

Knowing that a wagon to be popular in California, 
must be a good one, and desiring to bring out for our 
trade not only the best Farm Wagon in the country, 
but one also that could be sold at a popular price, we 
sought among the largest manufactories of the West, 
ajid finally selected " The Whitewater" as the Wagon 
before aP others for the California trade. The manu- 
facture rs ccf those Wagons are among the oldest and 
largest in the United States, having been established in 
1847, and their Wagons rosy be found in all parte of the 
country. 

We are prepared to furnish Wagon Beds, Brakes and 
Seats, in any style to suit customers and the trade. Our 
California Hack Bed is far superior to any in the mar- 
ket. The side pieces are. made of 2xi5 oak; the liecl is 11 
fret long, and the rprino beat 4 feet from liox giving 
ample room to load sacks, wood, etc.. without interfer- 
ing with the driver. Our California Roller Brake can 
Is; use el with or without box, These beds, as well as 
the "Whitewater" running-gears, sre made expressly 
for our own trade, and are peculiarly adapted to Cali- 
fornia use. The brakes have hardwood bars, and 
the seats hardwood standards; the beds ar- 
proportioned, well framed and bolted together, painted 
inside and outside, neatly striped and ornamented, and 
welt varnished. The wheels of the "Whitewater" are 
extra heavy, with slope-shouldered or wedge shaped 
spokes, in large hubs and deep felloes, wide and heavy 
tires riveted on through every joint. The axles to our 
Thiiuble-Skcin Wagons are made large and strong, 

and Of IIIiuleifOHLY SEASONEP HHKciHY. 

If you want a Wagon, and want a oood ONE, at a low 
price, give the "Whitewater" a trial. 

TREAD WELL & CO., 

San Francisco, 

2v4tf General Agents for the Pacific si 



July 13, 1872.J 



29 



Our Agents. 

Oub Fbieitds can do much in aid of our paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their 
influence and encouraging favors. We intend to send 
none but worthy men. 

Wm. F. Spenceb— California. 

C. H. Dwinelle— Special Corresponding Agent. 

I . N. Hoag— Sacramento, General Agent. 

F. M. Shaw— San Diego. 

L. P. MoCartt — California. 

Samuel Cushmak — Colorado Territory. 

A. 0. Knox, City Soliciting and Collecting Agent. 

H. Bablen k Beo., formerly of Havilah, Kern county, 
will please communicate with this office. 



Philadelphia Agenct. — W. II. Damn, formerly of 
San Francisco, is our correspondent and business agent, 
Frankfort], Philadelphia, Pa. 



Our London Agent. — Frederick Brash, 21 South Grove 
Fast, Mildmay Park, N. London, England, will act as 
agent for the Press and receive subscriptions and adver- 
tisements at our lowest rates. 



Our Printed Mail List. 

Subscribers will notice that the figures found on the 
right of the pasted slips, represent the date to which 
they have paid. For instance, 21sp70 shows that >ur 
patron haa paid his subscription np to the 21st of Sep- 
tember, 1870; 4jy72, that he has paid to the 4th of 
January, 1872; 4J173, to the 4th of July, 1873. The in- 
verted letters (i? j i | , etc.,) occasionally used are marks of 
reference, simply for the convenience of the publishers. 

If errors in the names or accounts of subscribers oc- 
cur at any time an early notice will secure their imme- 
diate correction. Please notify us if you are not prop- 
erly credited within two weeks after paying. 

■S?" Postmasters, please send corrections also. 



Thresher's Guide and Farm- 
er's Friend — Just 
Published. 

Written by D. Hollihan, a practical thresher for over 
fifteen years. 

It contains facts and hints of great value to both 
threshers and farmers. A small book worth many times 
its cost to those specially interested, who thresh or em- 
ploy thrashers. 

CONTENTS. 
Beater, care of; Belt Protector, Hnllihan's (Illus- 
trated); Belts, Management of ; Cracking of Grain; Cyl- 
inder, How to balance; Cylinder, Movement of; Cylin- 
der, Motion of; Engineer's Duty; Geared or Belt Ma- 
chines; Gears, Management of; General Management; 
Horse Powers; Horse Power, Moving a; Introductory 
Remarks; Machines; Machines, Management of; Ma- 
chines, Moving them; Management, General; Bake, 
Speed of; Shoe, the; Shoe, Improved; Shoe, What it 
is; Sieve, New Jointed (Illustrated) ; Stacking Wheat; 
Steam Powers. 

Published and for sale, wholesale and retail, by 
DEWEY & CO., at this office. Single copies, in flexible 
cloth, $1. In extra binding, $1.60. Post free. 



Agricultural and Industrial 
b o o rc ss . 

For Sale at this Office. 

American Manures, and Fanners' and Planters' 
Guide — comprising a description of the elements and 
composition of plants and soils — the theory and prac- 
tice of composting — the value of stable manure and 
waste products, etc, etc.; also chemical analysis of 
the principal manufactured fertilizers— their assumed 
and real value — and a full expose of the frauds prac- 
tised upon purchasers. By Wm. H. Bruckner, Ph. D., 
and J. B. Chynoweth. Price $2, post paid. Address 
Dewey & Co., this office. 

The Fruits and Fruit Trees of America, or 

the Culture, Propagation, and Management, in the Gar- 
den and Orchard, of Fruit Trees generally, with descrip- 
tions of all the finest varieties of Fruit, Native and 
Foreign, cultivated in this country. By A. J Downing. 
Illustrated; 10MB pages; 1869. The best authority, and 
only complete work. Price, in cloth and gilt, $5, post 
paid, by Dewey it Co., this office 
New American Farm Book — originally by It. L. 
Allen; revised by Lewis F. Allen, 1871. Embracing in- 
formation on all general subjects pertaining to Farming 
and all branches of Husbandry— a wide range, yet very 
fully and ably treated. 5'2« pages. Price S3, postpaid. 
Address Dewey & Co., this office. 
Harris (Joseph) on the Pig. Breeding, Rear- 
ing, Management and Improvement. Illus., 'i-W pages. 
1H70. Interesting to all readers; instructive and lull of 
hints to raisers. Price $2, post paid from this office. 
Cranberry Culture, by a Practical Grower in 
N. J., Joseph J. White. A special treatise of 12G pages, 
Post paid from this office, $1.75. 

Farm Implements and Farm Machinery, and 

the principles of their construction and use. With simple 
and practical explanations of the Laws of Motion and 
Force as applied on the Farm; by John J Thomas: 2H7 
illustrations and 302 pages. Sold by Dewey & Co., post- 
paid, for $1.75. 

Tun Acres Enough: A practical experience, 

showing how a very- small farm may he made to keep a 
very large family, with extensive and profitable experi- 
ence in the cultivation of the smaller iruits. Tentli 
edition, 1871. Price, post free, $1.50, at this office. 

Cotton Culture; by J. B. Symon; with an ad- 
ditional chapter on Cotton Seed and its uses. 100 "pages, 
1K68. Price, post tree, $1.75, at this office. 

How Crops Grow: by Johnson; A treatise on 

the chemical composition, structure and life of the plant, 
for all ntudents of agriculture; with illustration and 
analysis. 3t)l)iageB; IRIW. Post free from this office, $'.!.50. 

American Grape Growers' Guide; by Wm. 
Chorlton (N. Y.) 204 pages, W52. Post free. $1, from this 
office. 

American Fish Culture, embracing all the de- 
tails of artificial breeding and rearing of 'I rout, and the 
culture of other fishes; byTliad. Xinria. Illustrated, 301 
pages, 18tiH. Post free from this office, $2.50. 

How Crops Feed ; Johnson, 1870. On the At- 
mosphere and the Soil as related to the nutrition of agri- 
cultural plants. Illustrated. 375 pages. Post free from 
this office, $2 50. 

Randall's Sheep Husbandry, illustrated, with a 
treatise on the Diseases of Sheep. Prevention and (Jure 

Post free from thia office, cloth edition, $2. 

State University.— The next term of the Prcpara 
tory Department will begin April 20th, 1872. 

The course of study embraces the Ancient and the 
Modern Languages and the higher Mathematics, and is 
specially adapted to the University curriculum. 

Terms, $12 a term. GEORGE TAIT, Oakland. 

13v3bp-U 

Brown's Bronchial Troches, for Pulmonary 
and Asthmatic Disorders, have proved their efficacy by 
a test of many years, and have received testimonials 
from eminent men who have used them. 



Trees, Bulbs, Hedge Plants, Seeds. Fruit 

and Flower Plates. Catalogues, 2Uc. F. K. PHtKNIX, 
Bloomington Nursery, 111. 2v4-llit 



KNOWLES' PATENT STEAM PUMP. 

Extract from Official Itcport of Mechanics' Institute Fair of «un 

Francisco, lfSTX. 

" In the foregoing trials it appears that the most efficient Pump on exhibition is the KNOWLES. The work- 
manship on this Pump is also very good. We would therefore recommend that this Pump receive a Silver Medal 
(Diploma awarded). Signed by the Committee : 



X'113-awbp 



G. W. DICKIE, 
CHAS. R. STE1GER, 



W. EPPELSHF.IMER, 



H. B. ANGFLL 
MELVILLE ATWOOD.' 




It Las no Cranks or Fly-Wheel, and has no dead points where it will stop, consequently it 
is always ready to start without using a starting-bar, and does not require hand-work to get it 
past the center. Will always start when the steam cylinder is rilled with cold water of con- 
densation. 

The trial of Steam Pumps at the Eighth Industrial Fair in San Francisco, by a Committee 
of Five of the most thoroughly practical mechanics on this coast, showed the Knowles Pump 
to lose but 11%. per cent., while others lost as high as 40 per cent., showing great difference in 
economy. 



WE BUILD AND HAVE CONSTANTLY ON HAND 

THE LARGEST STOCK OF PUMPS IN THE WORLD, 

And for Every Conceivable Purpose. 

A. L. FISH, Agent. 

IVo O First Street, San Pranclsoo, f al. 
P. S.— All kinds of new and second-hand Machines on hand. 3v24-eo\v-bp. 



BLAKE'S PATENT STE 

From the Report of the Committee on Steam Pumps, at the Seventh Industrial Exhibition of the Mechanics' 
Institute, San Francisco 

BLAKE'S STEAM PUMP.— This Pump yielded the best results as to the quantity of water discharged as 
compared with its measured capacity. J ho valves are of brass, and well arranged. The steam valves are well 
arranged for operating the pumps, either fast or slow. 

We recommend that a Medal be awarded to it, as THE BEST STEAM PUMP. [Awarded a Silver Medal. 
the first premium.] (Signed) JAS. SPIERS, 

WM. H. BIRCH. 

From the Report of the Committee on Steam Pumps, at the Eighth (or last) Industrial Exhibition of the 
Mechanics' Institute, San Francisco : 

BLAKE'S MINING PUMP.— This is an excellent Pump, well made, and gives a high per cent, of duty. Wc 
recommend a Diploma for this Pump. (Signed by the Committee.) 

G. W. DICKIE, H. B. ANGEL, CHAS. R. STEIGER, 

W. EPPELSHEIMER, MELVILLE ATWOOD. 

[No other Steam Pump received other than a Diploma or honorable mention at the LAST Mechanics' Exhi- 
bition, all other assertions to tlie contrary notwithstanding. Hooker's Hand Pump was the only Pump of any kind 
whatsoever, that received a MEDAL and FIRST PREMIUM (highest award to pumps) at the last Exhibition, for 
which wc are also selling agents. — See ojjicial Report of the above Committee.] 



The trial of Steam Pumps at the Eighth Industrial Fair in San Francisco, by a committee of five of the most 
thoroughly practical mechanics on this coast (as above named) , showed that the Blake Pump gave 86 per cent, o; 
utilized power, while others gave but GO per cent., showing great difference in economy. 

The Blake Pump is the ONLY ~Ste7im Pump that EVER RECEIVEb 
A SILVER MEDAL at arty Exhibition of the Mechanics' Institute ever held 
in San Francisco or California. 

ffi?~ A complete s'ock of all sizes constantly on hand at the Machinery Warehouse of the Agents, 

TKEAI>WELL. «& CO., 

Market Street, corner of Fremont, San Francisco. 



THE TRUTH! 

A. L. FISH, A;/cvl Knmoles 1 Steam Pump — Dear Sir: hi answer to your inquiries, 
we state that the lilghest award for Steam Pumps at the Eighth or last Mechanics' 
Fair in San Francisco, was a First Premium and Diploma, awarded to the Knowles 
Patent Steam Pump, as published in the Official List September 23d, 1871. 

A. S. HALLIDIE, President Board of Managers. 

W. H. Williams, Sec'y Board of Managers Eighth Industrial Exhibition, M. 1 



IMPORTANT. 



'in arrive in San Francisco about the first 
. I ii y k of August, proximo, 350 Full Blood 
SPANISH MERINO BUCKS AND 
EWES, Belected from the folds of the moBt 
noted sheep. breeders of six counties in Vermont— all 
fully pedigreed. Send orders to MOODY at PARISH, 
CHRISTY k WISE, MILLER k CO., or to us, care of 
Morton House*. 

SAXE & JEWETT. 

N. B.— Pure Blood Kentucky Cotswold Bnrks and 
Ewes, now OJJ hand in the city. jultVit-lDp 



LANDRUM & RODGERS, 

Importers and Dealers in 

Cotswold Sheep and An- 
gora Goats. 

A large lot *.t Angora Goats and Cotswold Sheep foi 
sale. Also 100 Southdown and Cotswold graded ltams. 
and Angora gradud Bucks up to 31-32. 

All of tho above will be sold on reasonable terms and 
delivered on the cars at Watsonville free of charge 

We arc expecting a large lot of Goats from the East. 

Address LANDRUM k RODGERS, 

2v4-3m Wotsonville, Santa Cruz Co., Cnl. 



A Good Binder for $1.50. 

Subscribers for this journal can obtain our 
Elastic Newspaper File Holder and Binder for . 
containing gilt title of the paper on the cover. It pre- 
serves the papers completely and in such shape that 
they may be quickly fastened and retained in book form 
at the end of the volume, and the binder (which is very 
durable) used continuously for subsequent volumes. 
Post paid, 25 cts. extra. It can be used for Harper's 
Weekly and other papers of similar size. If not entirely 
pleased, purchasers may return them within 30 days. 
Just the thing for libraries and reading rooms, and all 
who wish to file the Peess. lambp 



CASHMERE GOATS FOR SALE. 

l'.O Head Half Breeds. 
50 Head Five-Eighths Breeds. 
150 Head Three-Quarter Breeds. 
150 Head Seven-Eighths Breeds. 
CO Head Fifteen Sixteenths Breeds. 
Two Full- Blood Bucks of the celebrated Hornless 
Stock. The whole baud will be Bold for $2,500 cash it 
applied for soon. 
july6-2t A. RIKER, 

Salinas City, Monterey County, Cal. 



C. P. SHEFFIELD. N. W. SPAULDINQ. J. PATTERSON. 




Pacific Saw Manufacturing Co., 

17 and 19 Fremont Street, San Francisco. 

REAPING AND MOWING MACHINE SECTIONS 
made to order— Three Dollars per Dozen. SAWS of every 
description on hand and made to order. All work war- 
ranted. 1 IvJ-tf 
15v3-3m 



FOR THE BEST OF 

SUMMER READING 

Get the Lives of the Great Music Masters; 
Of Beethoven (52.00) ; of Handel ($2.00) ; of Mozart 
($1.75); of Mendelssohn ($1.75); of Rossini ($1.7."); Of 
Chopin $1.50) ; or of Schumann $1.75). 

These are no Heavy Biographies, 

But are charmingly written and very entertaining 
books, as are 

Mozart's Letters, (2 vols., each, $1.75) ; 
Beethoven's Letters, ($2.00); 
Mendelssohn's Letters (2 vols., each, $1.75) ; and 
Reminiscences of Mendelssohn, ($1.75). 

To have a Jubilee at home, send for 

THE WORLD'S PEACE JUBILEE CHORUS 
BOOK 76 

For a good work on Composition, buy 

BAKER'S THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL 
HARMONY $2.00 

To make Sabbath School children's eyes sparkle, get 
that Gem of the Season, the New Sabbath School Song 
Book, entitled: 

SP \RKLING RUBIES I By Asa Hull and Harry 
Sanders, Esq 35 

The above Books sent, post free, on receiptor retail 
price. 

OLIVER DITSON & CO., Boston. 
CHAS. H. DITSON & CO., New York. 
25-v24-ly 



Endless Chain Elevator, 

FOR RAISING WATER FROM WELLS. 

BALL, & CRARY, Patentees. 




The inventor claim* that i i I I.I'VATOH cm, Is any 

ithst apparatus that, has ever heen brought before tile 
liublic tor the purnoso of raising water from wells, Its 

thief inoriteare: First— 'I he water is obtained from Die 
well in a purer and colder •tate, for the reason that It Efl 
drawn from near the bottom. Second — It ia operated with 
tlie least, difficulty, particularly in lifting a certain amount 

if water from any depth in a given time, as compared with 
xny other mode. Third— It obviates all necessity for going 
down into the well in putting in the machinery, or for pa 
pairing the same, as such labor can be performed at the 

rarfaoe. Fourth— It can be easily taken out of one well 

md transferred to another. Fifth— It is less liable to get 
,nit uf repair lint when repairs are necessary t bey tun I e 

■asily iniule by any one; the action made bj the landless 
Chain and buckets keeps the well properly ventilated; 
there is no possibility for tho person operating it (nor for a 

hild I to fall into the well. 
For circulars and particulars address 



:v4if 



JOHN A. BALL. 

Griss Valley, Nevada Co., Cal. 



30 






[July 13, 1872. 




IMPORTANT TO FARMERS. 



It will be totho Interest of the Farmers of California 
to know that D. -M. Osborne & Co., of Auburn, N. V., 
manufacturers of the 

KIRBY REAPING & MOWING MACHINES 

Have established an office on the corner of Clay and Da- 
vis streets, San Francisco, forthe ~:i!e of their Celebrated 
Machines. The kikby COMBINED is a machine thai 
lias been favorahly known on this ooast tor the i;ist ten 
years. Its performance as a bkafkb or mowkr, as a 
bakd-bakb or self-bakh machink. has never been ex- 
celled; and while it has kept up with all the late im- 
provements, we present it this vear with the new BAL- 
TIMORE SELF-RAKE, which'has proved itself to be 
all that can be required in that line. 




We would eall especial attention fo the two v 
KimiY moweb, a late invention of three, years bqoi 
tbst. It evbraoaa Bevaralnew features which no othej 

two. wheeled Mower has ever yet attained, aud whieh 
K'vesit several advantages which no other machii 
its hind poss- j which are. 

1st \ joiMii. PTTMAJI, which allows the knife or 
cutter-bar to work on ant angle without extra stk.un 

OB FRICTION. 

2d — It can be run with a stiff or limber pole, as 
DisrasD. 

3d — The points of the yards or finders can be 
pick at any angle to suit the condition" of grass ctf ground. 

4th— The driver's seat is also a lever to command the 
heel of the Cutter-bar, and also to change the pick of 
the guards. 

6th— A new device of the Pitman, expressly del 
for California, by which it will take up its own weir, 
thus preventing shake or jar aud the breaking of the 
knives . 

There are other points of advantage we will omit to 
mention, but which can he readily seen by the Farmer 
on investigation. 

We design to have local agencies at all the principal 
points of trade in the state, where the Farmer can in\. s- 
tigatc the merits of the Machines before purchl 
elsewhere. 

D. M. OSBORNE & CO. 
Corner Clav and Davis streets, San Francisco. 

By OMAK JEWELL, Manager. 18\ ::-:iin 



Hills Patent Eureka Gang Plow. 




The following are some of the reasons why these 
PIowb, are entitled to preference over any other Plow- 
in use. They are made of the best material, and every 
Plow warranted. They are of light draught, easily 
adapted to any depth, and are very easily handled. 

They will plow any kind of soil, and leave the ground 
in perfect order. 

FIRST PREMIUMS! 

These Plows have taken First Premiums at the State- 
Fair, at the Northern District Fair, at tin- Upper Sacra- 
mento Valley Fair, end the State Agricultural Society 
Premium of itO for the best Sang Plow, after a fair test 
and competition with the leading Plows of the- State. 

Champion Deep-Tilling Stubble Plow, 

Took the First Premium over all competitors at the 

State Fair, 1871. It furrows 11 in. deep and 24 wide. 

This Gang Plow combines durability with cheapness, 
being made entirely of iron by experienced workmen, of 
the best material. Over three hundred are now iu use, 
and all have given entire satisfaction. 

Manufactured and for sale at Marysrillc- by 

HILL & KNATJGH, 
And also by most leading Agricultural Dealers in the 

State. Send at once for Circulars, prices, etc. 21vj 



MATTESON & WILLIAMSON'S 




CT3 



Took the Premium over all at the great Plowing 
Match in Stockton, In 187(1. 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who 
have been long in the business and know what is re- 
quired in the construction of Gang Plows. It is quickly 
adjusted. Sufficient play is given so that the tongue will 
pass over cradle knolls without changing the working 
position of the shares. It is so construe ted that the 
wheels themselves govern the action of the Plow cor- 
rectly. It has various points of superiority, and can be 
relied upon as the Best aud Most Desirable Gang Plow 
In the world. Send for circular to 

MATTESON & WILLIAMSON, 

14v2-3m Stockton, Cal. 



San Francisco Wire Works, 

NO. 665 MISSION STREET, 

Hear Third Street San Francisco. 

C. H. GRTJENHAGEN & CO. 



BEIGHT UNION SAFETY LAMP. 



A CALIFORNIA INVENTION. 





The "BBIGHT UNION' 

and Patentee, 



aud 



Patented May 3d, 1871. Is the Beet and Safest Lamp ever 
put in the market, for the following reasons : 

1st.— The Lamp is constructed with two tubes, ae will be 
seen In out, the outside out- I 1>> Intended only for the attach- 
ment of the burner, and the inside one (O) to contain oil anil 
receive the wick. An there is no connection between these 
tubes, it w ill be evident that there is no possibility of commu- 
nicaiinp uny heat to the oil; and as long as the oil in a Lamp 
can be kept perfectly cool, there is, of course, no chance for an 
explosion. 

This Lamp is the only one ever invented in which this result 
has been secured. 

fcr v 2d.— "When the burner is attached to the Lamp it will be 
seen that there 
is no opportu- 
nity for the oil 
to escape should 
the Lamp be 
overturned, 
and in case any 
accident slio'Id 
occur the worst 
consequ ences 
that could en- 
sue wnu'd he 
the breaking <>f 
a chimney or 
shade. From 
these fact* it 
will be 

that thobe who 

adont this T^amp will secure thvmeelved apainst the possibility 
of nre or explosion arising from the use of kerosene oil. 

3d. -The Lamp is strongly and well made, attractive in ap- 
pearance, and something entirely new and novel. It will burn 
kerosene adapted to any burner. With all of these advantages 
it combines cheapness, and from present indications it [s des- 
tined to become very popular. 

Mb.— The tube to winch the burner Is attached (D> is free 
from the tube of the oil (C).anda space for air. passing from 
the lower end, between the tube of the burner and the tube of 
the oil, keeps it always cool. 

5th.— T tie burner is the cause of generating the gas in a 
Lamp. It can- 
not 00 it in ibis 
I , ,i in I '. as the 
burner is set <.n 
a tube which 
contains no oil, 
consequently it 
cannot make 
any KSS. 

tiib .— Tn case 
<.t accident, the 
Lamp falling »>r 
thrown over, by 
winch many ex- 
ds occur, 
is the cause of 
the oil riuhing 
to the Same. En 
this Lamp it is 
not so ; it can 
be [brown <»ver an j carinotRom i tne fl to the flame; it will run 
from it, so ther e j 9 D0 danger of catching fire. 



This Lamp can .*. filled from the fount, on tln> top <>f 
which is a screw. 

This Lamp can be attached to any Chandelier or Bracket 
mode. 



State and County Mights for Sale. Agents Wanted, 
all Trimmings can be had by addressing the Manufacturer 

I. L. MERRELL, 

No. 148 J Street, Sacramento. 



STUDEBAKER WAGONS 





Have become 

The Standard Wagons of the Pacific Coast. 

Fob Quality, 

Durability, 

Light Rcxxino, 

Good Proportion, 

asd Excellent Style, 
They Have no Peer. 
Iron Axle, 

Thimble Skein, 

hkadf-b amd 
t Spuing Wagons, 

Of all sizes, with heatt ttres rivited on, always ou 
hand and sold (or $100 to $1G5. 

Having established a Manttactobt to build Wagons. 
Beds. Brakes and Seats, I am better prepared than 
ever to furnish 

Just the Kinds of Wagons Needed, 
As I make a specialty of the wagon trace. 

The attention of Deaiebs is especially requested. 
Send for Circular and Price List. 

16v3-3m E. E. AMES, General Agent. 

Factory and Depot, 217 and 219 K street, Sacramento. 



Thimble-Skein Farm Wagons. 




A. L. BANCROFT & CO., 
Books, Stationery, Pianos, Organs, Maps, 

STEAM PRINTING A.N13 BINDING, 

ENGRAVING AND LITHOGRAPHING. 



JUST RECEIVED FROM 

THE CELEBRATED ZTJFELT & CO., 

Sheboygan Falls, Wis., established in 1850. Also the 

Celebrated La Belle Wagon. 

Manufactured by FARNSWORTH, WOODWARD & CO., 
At Fon du Lac, Wis. 

Price List of either or the above named V. 
.'( in Thimble Skein.. $120 
S!< '• " •• .. 125 

3X •• " " .. i:to 

4 " " " .. HO 

Above prices include Box 
and Top-Box, Spring-Seat. 
Brake, Double and Single- 
Trees, stay Chains, Neck- 
Yoke and Wrench. Racks 
with California Brakes, iu 
lieu of Boxes, $5 additional. 



S in Running Gear. .$90 

■■1H 95 

3* ...1IKI 

4 " ■' " ...110 



Above prices include 
Double and Single-Trees, 
Stay Chains, Neck-Yoke 
and Wrench. 



All sizes of Wagons with Boxes, Brakes and Spring 
Seats, or without. All Wagons are manufactured to my 
order for this coast, and are warranted for two years in 
any climate, and will be delivered on board of any boat 
or railroad cars free of expense to the purchaser. 

DAVID D. MILLER-*. 

IMPORTER AND MANUFACTURER 

715 Market street, near Third San Francisco. 

IMHa 



Miscellaneous and Scientific Books, Suitable for Farmers. 

NEW BOOKS RECEIVED DAILY. 

Libraries and professional men snpplied at greatly reduced rates. Our prices will always be the VERT 
LOWEST, and we invite all to visit us and avail themselves of the advantages we oner. 

SUBSCRIPTION BOOKS. 

Oocd live men can make money by canvassing for Books sold only through Agents. 
Send for Catalogues with prices. 



A. L. 



21v3-lam4t 



BANCROFT & CO., 

San Francisco, Cal. 



AVERILL'S 
CHEMICAL I»A.INT, 

Of any desired Shade or Color, 
Mixed ready for application, and sold by the gallon. 

It is Cheaper, Handsomer, more Durable and Elastic 
than the best of any other Paint. 

Office, corner Fourth and Townsend streets, San 
Francisco. Send for sample card and price list. 

16v23-3m BELY & JEWELL, Agents. 



CO-OPERATIVE MARBLE WORKS. 

JOHN DANIEL & CO., 

Manufacturers of and Dealers In 

Monuments, Headstones, Tombs, 

MANTEL PIECES, ETC., 

421 Pine street, between Montgomery and [ 

Kearny, San Francisco. 

21v2-ly 



CHINESE SERVANTS AND LABORERS 

of all kinds furnished at the shortest notice by apply- 
ing to WOLF & CO., 510 Pine Street, San Francisco. 
18v24-3m 



THE CELEBRATED 

"H. H. H." Horse Medicine 

Is truly a Scientific Preparation. Having adopted the 
l;l BBER CORK, it can safely be kept for mouths with- 
out losing any of itB healing properties. 

No Farmer, Teamster, Liveryman or 

STOCK DEALER should be without it. It will remove 
Calous Lumps, Splints, Wind Galls and Spavins. 
Sweeny, Stiff Joints and Contracted Ladere readily 
yield to its penetrating qualities. 
COLIC has lost its sting. The 

H. H. H. 

Will Cure in Fifteen Minutes. 
It is sold everywhere on the Coast. 

WILLIAMS & MOORE, Proprietors 
4v3-6m Stockton, Cal. 




FIRST PREMIUM AWARDED at the State Fair of 
1870; also First Premium at Mechanics' Fair, San Fran- 
1; and Silver Medal and First Premium for 
best Farm Wagon, and First Premium for the best im- 
proved Thimble Skein at State Fair, 1871. Also State 
Fair GOLD MEDAL for 1871. 

E. SOULE, 
Corner Tenth and I streets, 
ap22-3m Sacbamknto, Cai. 



A. New Firm. 

JEWELL & FLINT, General Commission 
Merchants, and Sacramfuto Agents for Walter A. 
Wood's Harvesting Machines, No. M Front street, be- 
tween J and K, Sacramento. G. R. JEWELL, 

15v3-3m T. B. FLINT. 



THRESHING AND REAPING 
Lubricating Oil. 

We invite attention to this superior Lubricator, spc. 
cially for all out door machinery exposed to the dust 
and dry air of a California climate. Being of Heavirh 
Gravity than Sperm, a less quantity is needed. It 
neither gums or becomes thick and sticky, like the ordi- 
nary machine oil in common use, with a saving of from 
15 to 25 per cent, in reduced friction, and at a 
per cent, less than the best Lard Oil. 

■W. STRINGER & CO., 

20v4-3m 424 Davis street, SAN FRANCI8CO. 



WILCOX'S 

IMPROVED STEAM WATER LIFTER, 

With neither Engine, Piston, or Plunger. 

The most Simple , Durable, and In al 
respects the most Economical of all 
Steam Pumps. Uses the same steam 
twice Instead of once. Any person can 
run it. They are used on the Central 
and Western Pacific R.R. from Oakland 
to Ogden. They are used for Water 
U'orksT Mining, Irrigation, and all other ordinary pump- 
ing. Send for Descriptive Circular and Price List. Ad- 
dress ALLEN WILCOX, No. 21 Fremont street, San 
Francisco. 16v2-3m 




July 13, 1872.J 



31 



Important to Wool Growers. 




PURE BLOODED 

FRENCH MERINO RAMS 

FOR SAXE BY ROBERT BLACOW, 
Of Centerville, Alameda County, Cal. 

These Rams are guaranteed to be pure blooded French 
Merino, and I would respectfully call attention to them 
from those who desire to see or purchase the best and 
purest of stock. 16v3-6m 



FULL BLOODED STOCK FOR SALE. 



The undersigned has perfected arrangements to re- 
ceive consignments of the Best Bred Stock from Europe 
and the Eastern States, consisting of Short-horned 
Durham, Devon and Alderney Cattle; Cotswold, Span- 
ish Merino and Silesian Sheep; Angora Goats; Berk- 
shire and Essex Swine. All of which will be sold on 
reasonable terms, and pedigrees guaranteed. Persons 
living in Utah or Nevada, by giving timely notice, may 
have stock delivered on their way westward, thereby 
saving the cost of freight back. 

26v3-tf ROBERT BECK. 



WATT 3l MCLENNAN, 

WOOL COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 

025 Sansome street, corner Jackson, SAN FRANCISCO. 



Receive Consignments of Wool, Sheep 
Skins, Hides, etc. Liberal advances made to 
consignors. Keep on hand the best quality of 
Wool Sacks, Twines, and other supplies. 
10v3-3m 



DURHAMS. 

TEN HEAD OF THOROUGHBRED 
DURHAMS FOR SALE. 
All Superior Animals, 

For particulars inquire of 

lv4-4t E. S. HOLDEN, Stockton. 

H & L AXLE GREASE. 




The attention of Teamsters, Contractors and others, 
is called to the very superior AXLE GREASE manufac- 
tured by 

HUCKS & LAMBERT. 

The experience of ovek twenty yeahs, specially de- 
voted to the preparation of this article, has enabled the 
proprietors to effect a combination of lubricants calcu- 
lated to reduce the friction on axles, and thus 

Relieve the Draft of the Team, 

Far beyond the reach of any who have but recently 
gone into the business; and as the H & L AXLE 
GREASE can bo obtained by consumers at as 

LOW A KATE 

As any of the inferior componnds now being iorced 
upon the market by unprincipled imitators, who deceive 
and defraud the consumer. 

HUCKS & LAMBERT 
Invite all who desire a First-class and Entirely Reliable 
Article, and which for Over 18 Years in this country has 
given such general satisfaction, to ask for the H & 
L AXLE GREASE. See that the trade marL H & L 
is on the red cover of the package, and take no other. 
3v24-eowr 



WARNER & SILSBY 

Manufacture all sizes of 

Bed and Sofa Springs, 

Which they offer to the trade at 
reduced prices; also the lele- 
1, rated Obermann Self- 
Fastening- Bed Spring;. 

Any man can make his own Spring Bed with them 
by attaching them to the slats of any bedstead. 

642 Mission Street, above New Montgomery, San 
Francisco. 23v3-fimbp 




MOWER and REAPER 

SECTIONS 

On hand and mado to order at Lowest Prices by the 

PACIFIC FILE WORKS*!, 

53 Beale Street, S. F. 

New FILES on hand. Old FILES Re-Cut. 

19v3-Jm 



Best & Brown's Unrivalled Seed Separator. 

PATENTED APRIL S5, 18T1. 

We wish to caU the attention of FarmerB, Millers and Threshers to the great usefulness of this Machine. 

We have sold in the last forty days about $24,000 of Grain Separators and County Rights. The following 
counties have already been disposed of, viz : Colusa, Sutter, Yuba, Butte, Yolo, Jan Joaquin, Solano, Stanislaus, 
Alameda, Sonoma, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz and Monterey. These machines have been sold to parties who have 
seen them in opera ion and know that they will do all that is claimed for them. 



Tule Land for Sale. 

13,000 Acres at $2.50 per Acre— Terms Easy. 
Also, several choice Title Ranches, of from 100 to 000 
acres, adjoining the main land, thoroughly reclaimed, 
well located, with Dwelling Houses and other Improve- 
ments, snd accessible both by steamboat and railroad. 
Inquire of 

J. STRATTON or C. n. DWINELLE, 
No. ;t Stevenson's Building, 
Cor. Montgomery and California stB., Son Francisco. 
25v24-lm 




It makes a perfect separation of Barley, Oats, Chess, Pink Seed, Kale and Mustard Seeds, and other impuri- 
ties, from Wheat, rendering the foulest grain (either Wheat, Oats or Barley) perfectly clean and fit for seed at 
one operation — common hand mills are nowhere. 

We Guaranty Every Machine to do Perfect Work 

At the rate of Thirty to Sixty Tons a day. They can be conveniently attached to and run in combination with any 
threshing machine, and driven by the same power. 
We wish it distinctly understood (and we mean all we say) that we clean grain that is too foul for the flouring 
mill separators, at one operation. 

Light Horse Powers, adapted to driving the Separator, furnished to order. 

State and County Rights for sale on reasonable terms. 

For further particulars address BEST &. BROWN, 

Manufacturers and Sole Proprietors of the Patent, Marysville, Cal. 
Send for Circular. (14v3-2am) P. O. Box 206. 



U 



Clear as Crystal." 




PEBBLES ARE MADE from Rock Crystal cut 
in Blices and ground convex, concave or periscopic, for 
Spectacles. In Europe and in the Eastern States they 
are superceding glass. 

Among the advantages they have over glass are, that 
being susceptible of the HIGHEST POLISH, they trans- 
mit more rays of light, nothing having more transpa- 
rency. 

They are COOLER to the Eyes— a very important gain. 

They are much harder than glass, and DO NOT 
SCRATCH. 

The best quality of Crystal is found in Scotland and 
the Brazils, and is manufactured into lenses by the best 
workmen in England and France, for 

Thomas Houseworth & Co., 

OPTICIANS, 

No. 9 Montgomery street, Lick House, 

Where they can be obtained, already fitted, in frames, 
or may be fitted to order. 
Persons sending their Spectacles can have Pebbles 
inserted of the same grade as their glasses. 

Illustrated Circular for style of frames sent to any ad- 
dress free, 
ay Pebbles sold as such by us, are Warranted. 
15v3awbp3m 



SAVE $40! WHY PAY $80? 

THE IMPROVED 

Home Shuttle Sewing Machine. 

PRICE $40. 

This has no superior as a Family Machine. It uses a 
Shuttle and Straight Needle and two threads. It makes 
the Lock Stitch (alike on both sides). It is simple, 
easy to understand, and light to run. Send for a Circu- 
lar. Agents wanted in every town. 

E. W. HAINES, General Agent, 

17 New Montgomery street, Grand Hotel Building, 
San Fbancisco. 



Los Angeles County Lands. 

Farming Lands In Los Angeles County for sale, in 
sections and quarter sections, at reasonable prices and 
on accommodating terms — say, one-fourth cash and 
balance in one, two and three years, with interest at 10 
per cent., payable annually. Apply at the office of tho 
Company, No. 642, corner Market and Montgomery 
streets, over the Hibernia Bank, San Francisco, or to 
the agent, W. R. OLDEN, Anaheim. 12v3-3m 



THE EAGLE HAY PRESS. 




1857. SEEDS. 

13 Years Established.. 

W. R. STRONG, 

8 and 10 J street SACRAMENTO 

Garden, 

Flower, 

Field, 

Fruit, 

Tree and Shvnb, 
Grass and Clover Seeds, 
Fresh, Pure and True to Name. 

Seeds forwarded by mail to any part of the United 
States at 8 cents per pound. 

My annual catalogue is ready and will be forwarded 
on application FREE. 

ALFALFA. 
50,000 pounds California Alfalfa, grown by J. Wil- 
coxson and others of the most careful and reliable pro- 
ducers. 

Keutucky Blue Grass, Red Top Timothy, Red and 
White Clover, Mesquit or Gramina Grass, etc. 
Seed Potatoes. 
Early Rose, Bruze Prolific, Climax. Excelsior and 
other of the best tested varieties. An Eastern Agricul- 
turist offers $1,000 for a potato superior to the Excel- 
sior in good qualities. 



10v3-3m 



W R. STRONG, 
8 and 10 J Street, Sacramento. 



THE OLD 



Maple Leaf Nursery. 



Has constant- 
varieties of 
ORNAMENT- 
GREEN and 
SHRUBS; also 
ment of Choice 
merous to 
Green House 
ers and Bulbs 




ly on hand all 
FRUIT AND 
AL EVER. 
DECID U O U S 
a large assort- 
ROSEStoonu- 
mention, 
PlantB, Flow- 
Garden, Grass 



and Flower Seeds of all kinds, are for sale by 

L. M. NEWSOM, Proprietor, 
I2v.3-tf Washington street, Brooklyn. Cal. 



H. K. CTTMMINGS. 

1858. 



J. M. MAXWELL 
1871. 



HENRY K. CUMMINGS & CO., 

Wholesale Fruit and Produce Commission 
House, 

ESTABLISHED 1858. 

115 and 417 Davis street, cor. of Oregon, San Francisco. 

Our business being exclusively Commission, we have 

ao interests that will conflict with those of the producer. 

4v23-ly 



Eagle Hay Press, 

THE INVENTION OF J. A. McGILLIVRAL, OF IIXI- 

NOIS, TO WHOM LETTERS PATENT WERE 

ISSUED JANUARY 10th, 1865, 

AND JULY 21th, 1866. 

Several years were devoted by the patentee to the per- 
fection of this powerful press, and its unprecedented 
sale in the East induces the proprietors to introduce it. 
into California and the Pacific States. 

All who have seen or used these Presses pronounce 
them superior to anything used heretofore. The power 
is applied by means of two levers, and it will be seen 
the power increases in ratio to the lesistance; as the 
levers approach a horizontal position the power can 
scarcely be estimated. It is not only a powerful Press, 
but has the advantage of being Cheap, and also Simple, 
therefore not liable to get out of order. 

Three men with one horse can bale from Ten to Fif- 
teen Tons per Day, each bale weighing 250 to 300 lbs. It 
obviates all necessity by beating the hay before press- 
ing. On account of its great power, it is well adapted 
for pressing Hydes, Rags, Wool or Cotton. When a bale 
is pressed and fastened, tho follower runs down of its 
own weight, and the bales can be taken out on either 
side. 

These Presses are now manufactured in San Francisco 
by the 

Himball Car and Carriage 

MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 
Who are the proprietors on the Pacific Coast, and will 
endeavor to have a supply constantly on hand. 
Every Press made by them is WARRANTED to give 
satisfaction. Agents wanted. 

PRICE, $250. 

I8v3Sm 



GEOHGE HUGHES, 

And General Commission Merchant, 

313 and 315 Washington street, 
Between Front and Battery SAN FRANCISCO. 

HOUSE ESTABLISHED IN 1850. 
14v3-0m 

THK 




Will sew everything needed In a family, from 
the heaviest to the lightest fabric. 

IT DOES MORE M'ORK, 

MORE KINDS OF WORK, 

AND BETTER WORK,. 

Than any other machine. 

If there is a Florence Sewing Ma- 
chine within one thousand miles of 
San Francisco not working well and 
giving entire satisfaction, if I am in- 
formed of it, it will be attended to 
without expenso of any kind to the 
owner. 

SAMUEL HILL, Agent, 

19 New Montgomery Streot, 
Grand Hotel Building, San Francisco. 

Send for Circulars and samples of 
the work. Active Agents wanted in 
every place. 



"Wanted, Agents! 

$100 to $250 per month, everywhere, male and 
female, to introduce the Latest improved, most Simple 
and perfect 

Shuttle Sewing Machine 

Ever invented. We challenge the world to compete 
with it. Price only $18, and fully warranted for live 
years, making the Elastic Lock Stitch, aliko on both 
sides. Tho same as all the high priced Shuttle ma- 
chines. Also, the celebrated and latest improved 

Common Sense Family Sewing- Machine. 
Price only $15, and fully warranted for five years. 
These machines will Stitch, Hem, Fell, Tuck, Quilt, 
Cord, Bind, Braid ami Embroider in a most superior 
planner, and are warranted to do all work that can be 
done on any high priced machine in the world. For 
Circulars and terms, address S. WYNKOOP & CO., 2064 
Kidge Avenue, or P. O. Box 2720, Philadelphia, Pa. 

22v3-3m 



32 



PACXFXO DEUmAX, PRESS. 



[July 13, 1872. 



The Pacific Rural Press. 

Thb Pacific Rural Pkkss is now in its fourth 
volume. Its columns contain a large amount 
of original information upon the different 
branches of husbandry on this coast. Its great 
variety of contents is properly systemized for 
the convenience of the reader, and ably pre- 
pared in pleasing language and stylo. Each 
number contains something of rare inl 
every member of the household. 

The state of this new fiejd of agriculture, so 
different from all others; the new and improved 
methods of forming necessary here; and the 

absence of any published record >>f fanning and 
rural experience on this coast, form a com- 
bination of circumstances which render a really 

,d journal 0< gre a ter importance to farmers 

here t'liim are similar issues to farmers in any 
other part of the world. 

The Pacific Bubal Pbjbss has been heartily 
received and well patronized, and its libera] 
success enables us to improve and enrich its 
columns from month to mouth. 

Its reading and advertising matter is entirely 
chaste. All farmers should subscribe without 
delay. Every household should enjoy its richly 
filled pages. 

Subscription, in advance, SI a year. Single 
copies 10 cts. Four single copies, of late dates, 
sent postpaid for 25 cts. Address 

DEWEY & CO., 
Publishers, No. 338 Montgomery street, S. F. 

Or\E DOLLAR A YEAR 

— for Tin: — 

PACIFIC COAST 

tfimttfy 9irectot[. 



This is a new l&*page monthly newspaper, of special In- 
formation tor wholesale and retail tradesmen- It will also 
contain reading of interest and importance to all husiiiess 
and professional men on the coast. 

OUR TABLE OF CONTEXTS 
Will comprise Full Prices Current and Monthly Review of 
(he Wholesale Markets; Diagrams of the Fluctuations of 
the Produce Markets; Rates of Freight and I 
Fares— corrected monthly; lllus-.r.itimis and sketches of 
Prominent Men and Buildings; Editorials on Manufactur- 
ing and industrial Progress: Departments containing ap- 
propriate reading matter and reviews for various branches 
of trade, including "Grocery and Provision ;" "Dry Goods;" 
"Trades and Manufactures," etc., etc. 

Our first Issue for May consists of 21 pages, embracing 
FORTY-FIYi: COLUMNS of important reading matter- 
mostly original and by first-class writers. Sample copies, 
post p lid. 10 ct*. Yearly subscription, in advance, $1. Sub- 
scribers to the Mining and Scikntikh' Pbesb or the PA- 
CIFIC RU&AX PBS88 will be supplied at half price. 

Published by MURRAY, DEWEY & CO., 
At the Publishing Office of the Ml lingaod Scientific Press 

and Pacific Rural Press. San Francisco. 



AGENTS WANTED to canvass 
every town on the Pacific Coast for the Minisc ant* 
Scieni mo Press, Pacific Kiral Press, and the 
Pacific COAST Mercantile Director. Experienced 
canvassers preferred. Good men ran make large «• 
£es, beeJHsj learning much and improving their talents. 



THE PATENT 

Novelty Mill and Grain Separator 




Is one of the greatest Improvements >>t the age foi 
cleaning lag grain, while it combines all the 

essential qualities of ■ IfiMt-clasfl Fauning Mill. It also 
fax excels anything that liar- been invented for the sepa- 
ration of grain, it has been thoroughly tested on all 
the different kinds ..f Mixed Grain. It takes out Mus- 
tard, (Irass Seeds, Bsrli y and Oats, and makes two dis- 
tinct qualities of wheat if desired. 

For further information apply to R. STONE. 

IvsVSaa 432 Battery street , Ban Francisco. 



kSbs 

*^Treadwello\Co 

"THEHOADLEY" is the Perfection of the Portable 
Engine. For wile, with or without wheels, at Ma- 
chinery Depot of TREADWELL& CO., Market, head Of 
Front street, San Francisco. 14\"24 gowbp 

St. Augustine's College, Benicia, Cal. 

ENGLISH AND <I.\SSl :al boardivg- school. 
Boys prepared for the Universities or for Business. 

Healthy location. New and larL,'e Builjin^s. Military 
discipline. First grade Teachers. 

deferences In Ban FranolBoo: Bight Ber. Bishop Kip. 
Rev. Drs.Lathrop and Tyman, and numerous palrnns. 

Trinity Term for 1872hegins August 1st. 

For Catalogue, giving particulars, applv to 

1T4-61 REV. w^P. TI'CKEK, Rector. Benicia. 

FOB 25 CENTS we will send, postpaid, four 
sample copies (recent numbers) of the PnEss. This, 
we believe, will induce many to subscribe who have not 
yet read our paper. It is a cheap and valuable favor to 
send a friend anywhere. 



Hooker's Patent Direct Acting Steam Pump. 

SIMPLE, CHEAP AND 
DURABLE. 

Ada] •toil for .'ill pur- 
poses for which Steam 
Pumps are used. Manu- 
factured by the inventor 
nml patentee, at Hooker's 
Machine Works, No. llfl 
\reet, Ban I', i 

It?" SEND FOR 01EC1 LAB. 

N. B.— Also manufacturer of Hooker's Deep 'Well and Double-Acting Force Pump. Received the Silver 
Medal awarded at the last Mechanics' Fair in San Francisco. j:iv_'4-lamCm-bp 




DEWEY & CO., 

American and Foreign 




l\o. titi>!i Montgomery J"»t., 
SAN FRANCISCO. 

Patents Obtained Promptly. 

Caveats Filed Expeditiously. 

Patent Reissues Taken Out. 

Patents Secured in Foreign Lands. 

Assignments Made and Recorded in Legal Form. 

Copies of Patents and Assignments Procured. 

Examinations of Patents made here and at 
■Washington. 

Examinations made of Assignments Recorded 
in Washington. 

Examinations Ordered and Reported by Tele- 
graph. 

Rejected Cases taken up and Patents Obtained. 

Interferences Prosecuted. 

Opinions Rendered regarding the Validity of 
l'atents and Assignments. 

Every Legitimate Branch of Patent Agency Bus- 
iness promptly and thoroughly conducted. 
Illustrated Circulars Free. 

DEWEY &. CO., 

Mining and Scientific Tress, S. 1". 



It. M. CHAMEERLIN & CO., 

COMMISSION 

Merchants 

AND dealers in 

Flour, Grain, 

M'OOI .. 

Hides. Butter, 

Eggs, Etc., Etc. 

N\ B office of 
the Oil Cake Meal 
Co. 

SEEDS of all kinds advised and (msished by appli- 
cation, 

228 Clay Street, near Front. 
ittvMin 




WONDERFUL AUTOMATON 
COW MILKER. 

Will Milk any Cow in Two to Four Minutes. 
NO LABOK! 

Can be used by a child of 12 rears. All you have to 
00 is to bold tin- pall and LET THE MII.K HIS. 
Can be Been at all clay street, from '-• to 11 a. K. 
Bight for sale. Retail h>r $5. 

2v4.1m WM. W. HENRY, S. F. 



Every 
Description of 
7a:mir.gaaa 



Machiner y 

FOU THE HABVBST OF '72. INCUDING HOADLEY'S 
Portable Engines, BuoBol I'g Threshers, Haines' Headers, 
Wood's Prise Mowers, ball's and MeConnick's Reapers 
Kiihy's Mowers and Reapers, Header-Wagons, Stude- 
baker Farm Wagons, Uurse-Powers, Trucks. Hay- 
Horse-Rakes, Scythes, Snaths, Rakes, Cradles, 
Forks, Cultivators, Hay Cutters, etc., etc., all at lese 
than invoice cost, at the old Farmers' Agricultural 
Warehouse and Machine Depot of 

TREADWELL & CO., 
Market, cor. Fremont St., Han Francisco. 
V3-16D 



Purchasers please any advertised in Pacific Rural Press. 



WILLCOX & GIBBS 

IJ1PROVED NOISELESS 

Family Sewing Machine 

IS THE BEST IN THE MARKET. 

It la the Most Simple, 

Easy to run (a child can operate it) , not liable to get out 
of order, sews the heaviest or h^htist goods, and 
is remarkable lor the great variety, perfec- 
tion and durability of its work. 

It is the only Machine 

Making the triple-threaded seam, with the twisted loop 
stitch, the strongest and most elastic made. 

The "VTillcox & Gibbs 

Received the only honorable mention and Btrongrccom 
mendation at the last Stockton Agricultural Fair. 

Its Work Received the First ' Premium 

At the San Francisco Mechanics' Institute Fair, 1871. 

Don't Fail to Examine. 

«y PERFECT SATISFACTION GUARANTEED. 
Other Machines taken in part payment. 
Call on or address 

WILLCOX & GIBBS S. M. CO., 

113 Post Street, S. F. 
22v2-9m 

Genuine Haines 

from 10 to 15 feet cut, made by Walter A.Wood 
at Hoosiek Fulls, N. V., with all his improvements, and 
having also Doane's Patent, Adjust \ki.k Ben.. eSF" No 
other Headers have these improvements: Take none 
but the Haines' Improved Headers made* by Wood, 
especiallj for California. 

HULL'S TllhKSIIEK 

sRiMi'Ecvin Is" the perfection of thi Machine. 

We have them from 50to 40 inch, with new feed table, 
i.ari'.e shoe, uontl.E PAN. elevator, DOUBLE disithui.k, 
etc., made especially fur the wants of California, after 
years Of Study. It has greater cleaning capacity than 
any Other, ana is kverv way perfect. U7~ N<"> other 
machine has ever equalled " The Kussell;" iiwie CAM 
excel it. 

Treadwell&Co. 

SAN FRANCISCO. 
r7y3-tf 

GLEN FLORA 

Stock Breeding Association. 

ira Go C. ('. Alt. II. Parks, Waokegan, III. Or- 
ganized under the laws of the State of Illinois. 

Importers and Breeders of 

SHORT-HORNED CATTLE 

ThoronEjhbred and Trotting Horses, Cotswold 

Sheep, Improved Uerkshire-s, nnd 

Pure-Bred Poultry in Great 

» arieties 

Stock of all Vi nils for sale at reasonable prices. Send for 
Catalogue giving full description. Address 

C. C. PARKS. Pres't., 
13v3-tf wai:ke<;an, ill. 



GOOD CABLE SCREW WIRE 

Boots and Shoes 

LAST AS LONG AGAIN AS ANY OTHER 
KIND- 



VINE GROWERS, ATTENTION. 

will be a meeting of the California Vine Grow- 
ers and Wme ami Brandy Manufacturers Association at 
ato on Thursday, the 18th of ■fuly, inst., at 3 
o'ciock p. k., for the transection of business of iniport- 
anee connected with the Association and the Wine and 
Brandy interest generally. 

A 11 pari id are invited toatt-nil. 

By order of the Board, 
jul6-tt I. N. HOAG, Secretary. 




FRESH GARDEN SEEDS. 

ALSO, 

Grass and Clover Seeds. 

ALFALFA. 

Trees, Plants, Roots, Etc., 

For Sale at Wholesale or Retail by 

GEO F. WLVEwTEB, 

No. 317 Washington Street, 
tV Send for a Catalogue. 

GUANO. 

100 Barrels Guano for Sale, 

In quantities to suit purchasers. 
6v2-ly-16p GEO. F. SILVESTER. 



OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS, 

Corner Sixteenth and Castro Streets. 

SEASON OF 1872. 

Eggs for Hatching from Pure Bred Poultry 

Carefully packed in handled hoses with elastic 

outturns, and guaranteed to carry safely 

to any part of the country. 




Send Stamp for Circular to 

GEO. B. BAYLEY, 

Importer and Breeder of 
CHOICE POULTKY 

P. O. Box 659, San Francisco. 



EGGN FOR. HATCHING 

riiOM 
THE FINEST BRED FOWLS IN AMERICA. 

Twelve First Premiums 

At the Sacramento State Fair. 

Light Brahmab, Seven Different Strains; 
Hark Brahmas, Imported from England and Ireland; 
Huudans. direct Ironi Franc*; 
La Flu he, direct from France; 

SILVER Sl'A SOI. Hi II AMIH 'l:i. lis. 

(Said to lay 240 Eggs per year) 

Ooi.iikn POLANDS, Non-Setters and Fine Layers; 
Silver Foe amis, Non-Setters and Fins Layers; 
White Cochins, 
Burr Cocdins, 
Duck Winged Bantams. 

tii'LIiEN SEABRIGHT llANTAVS, 

Japanese Bantams. 

Heathwood Oames, Finest in the World 

Alsio, l > inr°'» ,,M - 
Pouters, Carriers, Nuns, Priests, Magpies, HofBe-Heoked 
Black-Tailed Turbits, Fantails: and Mada- 
gascar and Lop- Eared Babbits. 

i»igs. 

China and Chester Whites; the Largest and Best bred in 
America. 

EggN nii.l l-'owlw for ^Jnl<-. 

Apply to THOS. E. FINLEY, Manager, 

California Stock and Poultry Association. 

Office— No. 113 Loidesdorff street. 
Yards— Cor. Laguna and Washington streets. 

4v:i-.')m-16p 



IV. GILMOKK, 

Importer and Breeder of 

Angora or Cashmere 
GOATS 

— or — 

PURE BLOOE 

— AND — 

A.H.IL. GRADES. 

For sale In lota to suit purchasers. Location, fon 
miles from Railroad Station, connecting with all part 

of the State For particulars address 

N. GII.MORE 
El Dorado, El Dorado county, 
Cv3-tf California. 




Volume IV.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JULY 20, 1872. 



[Number 3. 



Irrigation vs. Pulverization. 

During the last few years, much has been 
said and written on the subject of irrigation, 
and generally setting forth the advantages to be 
derived therefrom, when judiciously applied. 
It has been a favorite theory with a few, that 
all that California soils need, to render them 
fully productive during our long summers of 
uninterrupted drouth, is deep and thorough 
tillage and a perfect pulverization of the surface. 

Now this is all very well as applied to vegeta- 
ble, grape-vine and fruit-tree culture to a cer- 
tain extent and upon certain soils; and yet 
every year we see the laigest and finest speci. 
mens of fruit exhibited at our fairs, to be the 
products of irrigated grounds. 

When season after season had shown this 
fact to be undisputed, then the advocates of 
pulverization vs. irrigation partially changed 
their tactics, declaring that winter irrigation 
was all that was needed; a thorough soaking of 
the soil in winter, a thorough pulverization of 
the surface without irrigation during the sum- 
mer, constituted a full guaranty of success, and 
was all that could be hoped for, from the best 
elaborated system of irrigation that could be 
devised. 

Irrigating Grass Lands. 

But admitting that fruits can be grown good 
enough, without irrigation by keeping the sur- 
face of the soil finely pulverized, how are we 
to do this, even if desirable, upon grass and 
clover lands, that year by year pay better than 
any fruit or grain lands ? Now here is where 
summer irrigation comes in as a system undis- 
puted as to its beneficial effects. 

If — with perhaps the single exception of al- 
falfa — one good crop of clover, timothy or other 
of the cultivated grasses, is all that can bo grown 
from the natural or artificial irrigation of winter, 
and then the season is entirely too dry for a 
second crop, summer irrigation supplies us 
with the means of producing a second and even 
a third crop, instead of letting the land lie idle 
two thirds of the season. 

Here is a large percentage in favor of irri- 
gated lands, and is all the proof needed in sup- 
port of the system. One acre can by summer 
irrigation be made to produce as much grass or 
hay as three acres without it; whilst the cost, 
simply the turning on of the water for a few 
days, is but nominal'. 

Even to double the produce of the lands de- 
voted to the growing of grass and hay in Cali- 
fornia, would warrant a large expenditure in 
general systems of irrigation, that shall be 
available at all times, summer and winter, and 
until wc do have something approaching it, we 
shall never learn the full value of the soils and 
climates of California over other less favored 
ands. 



The Wool Market. 

We are in receipt of Walter Brown <fc Son's 
monthly wool circular for July, from which we 
extract as follows: 

During the month of June the wool market 
continued to exhibit the same dull character- 
istics which have been the prevailing feature 
for the past three months. Towards the close, 
however, some animation was imparted to trade 
by reason of an improved demand and the 
known exigencies of many manufacturers whose 
supplies are fast giving out. 

California wools are without improvement. 
The offerings are considerable, and holders 
seem disposed to meet the views of consumers 
even at a heavy loss to themselves. 



California Tulip. 

We herewith present the readers of the 
Rural with an engraving from Nature of one 
of the most beautiful wild flowers of San Joa- 
quin Valley and other parts of California. It 
belongs to the tulip family, and is properly 
called the California tulip, as its species are 
natives of our State. 

The species engraved here is of alight yellow, 



with a purple powder. It also has a large purple 
spot near the base of each petal, on the inside, 
resembling in shape and appearance the eye of 
a peacock's feather. A third kind, which is 
found only in the mountain districts, is of a 
light purple or lilac color, having a darker spot 
or eye, on the inner surface of each flower-leaf, 
like the species just described. These tulips 
when open measure from one to two inches 
across the mouth of the flower. Each plant 




A CALIFORNIA TULIP-CYCLOBOTHRA PUCHELLA. 



or straw color. Though reminding one at first 
glance of the California poppy, it can be readi- 
ly distinguished from the latter by the fact that 
it has but three flower leaves or petals, while 
poppy has four. Another means by which 
those at all acquainted with botanical terms can 
distinguish them is, tho tulip has only six 
stamens and ono pistil, tho latter three-cleft, 
but the poppy has more than twenty stamens. 
Again, the tulip is bulbous, the poppy not. 
The yellow tulip grows on the hard, knolly 
land of tho valley, and also in the foothills of 
the Sierras. 

Two species besides the yellow are found in 
the same localities, differing chiefly in color. 
In one, the flower leaves are of a greenish 
white, most of the inner surfaco sprinkled as if 



sends up from a bulb a single stem one or two 
feet high, producing from one to four flowers. 
Tho leaves are few and short, forming sheaths 
around the baso of the flower-stems, as repre- 
sented in the engraving. 

The Latin, or systematic names of the three 
species mentioned above, are Cyclobolhra 
puchella, the yellow kind— pucltella meaning 
beautiful; C. alba, the whito; and C. purpurea, 
the purple tulip. A fourth kind belonging to 
California, but which the writer has not yet 
found in San Joaquin Valley, is V. monphylla, 
or one-leaved tulip, which is described by 
botanists as having bright yellow flowers, three 
in number, a single leaf, and a stem less than 
a foot high. 

The name Cylibothra moans circular p'd, from 



the Greek kulclos, a circle, and bothros, a pit, 
and was given to this flower by Robert Sweet, 
an English Botanist, in allusion to the round 
hollow formed by the lower portion of the 
flower. By an examination of this pit in any 
perfect flower of the kind, one will see that it 
is almost an exact hemisphere. 

The upper edge of this pit in each species is 
heavily bearded. A common name among 
children in the mountains for these flowers is 
cat's ears, alluding to the shape of each flower- 
eaf. 

Beautiful as the California tulip is in its wild 
state, it could no doubt be much improved by 
culture, and is well worthy of a place in our or- 
namental flower gardens. 

And what would you think, children, were 
any one to tell you, that if you had been living 
a good many years ago, {and could have intro- 
duced our California tulip into Europe, you 
might have made thousands of dollars by it. 
Strange as it may seem, it is even so. For a 
long time ago in Holland, there was such a rage 
to have beautiful tulips, that rich men gave 
thousands and thousands of dollars just to get 
some new kind, such as nobody else had. This 
rage went so far and lasted so long, that people 
were thought to be crazy about it, and it was 
called the tulip mania. Now when the tulip 
mania was at its hight, you would have had a 
chance to make a handsome fortune just by 
carrying to Holland the four kinds of tulip that 
are natives of California, for they would have 
been entirely new in Europe. Some old na- 
bobs might have given you five thousand dol- 
lars or more for one kind. Some neighbor of 
his, just from a spirit of rivalry, might have 
out-bid him a few thousand more for the next, 
and so on, until you might have made $40,000 
or $50,000 by the investment. Don't you wish 
you could have tried it? Do some of you say 
you would like to try it now? It is too late. 
The tulip mania is over. Though people value 
beautiful flowers now, they will pay only what 
is reasonable for them. They prefer to spend 
their money in more useful ways. And then, 
you know, if you made money as easily as we 
were talking of, you would not value it. You 
would be apt to spend it quite as fast as you 
made it. After all, far the best way to make 
money and do well in life, is by studying hard 
and forming good habits while young, that you 
may be industrious, and prudent, and saving 
as you grow older. And while we strive to at- 
tend properly to all the duties of life, let us al- 
ways admire and love flowers, as among the 
most beautiful gifts that God has bestowed 
upon man. Ralph Rambler . 



We learn that Mr. Neuman of San Jose', who 
was to demonstrate to the satisfaction of every 
one, the entire practicability of silkworm culture 
in California, and a large profit attending tho 
same, has not been as successful as could have 
been wished. Tho report is, that his annuals, 
or what are known as tho common French an- 
nual, nearly all died before maturity, or so many 
of them as to constitute a failure rather than a 
success. If it is not so, we wish Mr. Neu- 
man would report his success and profit attend- 
ing it. 

We want to see the production of cocoons and 
raw silk a success, for the manufacture of silk 
goods in our country is rapidly on the increase. 
An exhibit recently made before the Committee 
of Ways and Means, shows the amout of capital 
actually invested in tho manufacture of Bilk 
goods to be $25,000,000. That there are 10,000 
operatives employed, who receive as wages an- 
nually, $7,200,000. 

The raw silk consumed costs millions of dol- 
lars, nearly all of which is imported. 



34 



' 



[July 20, 1872. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



Figs— Inquiry About. 

Editobs Bubal Press:— A lady in 
Florida writes to me as follows: "A 
friend in Boston sent me some Cali- 
fornia figs which he said were dried with- 
out sugar. They were very nice and sell 
well. We thought if they really were 
dried without sugar, we might be able to 
do something with our abundance. Can 
you tell me anything about them, or the 
process of preparing? 

Can you answer that question through 
the Press? Something about the fig, aa a 
market fruit, the best variety, and the 
process of drying and packing would be 
very acceptable to many of your readers in 
this section. 

We shall start orchards here of all kinds 
quite largely in the fall. Our soil is a rich 
sandy loam, some light, some heavy, with 
water only five or six feet below the sur- 
face. The intense heat recently has curled 
the corn, and some doubts are felt as to its 
maturing without irrigation. But the 
great success of the artesian wells which 
have been bored makes us feel independent 
for the future. These wells give strong 
streams through seven inch pipe at from 
seventy to eighty feet deep, the last one 
only sixty-four feet. One of these runs a 
good stream of water 3 + of a mile through 
sandy loam. We have organized a com- 
pany among ourselves to buy tools, and 
sink our own wells, and they will be sunk 
as rapidly as the tools can be moved. A 
well will cost about $150, and it is esti- 
mated that one good well will answer for 
40 acres. R. s. 

Westminster colony, near Anaheim. 
No sugar is required in preparing the 
figs of commerce. Figs for drying should 
be "dead ripe "when picked. They should 
be handled with care, not bruised in the 
least degree; carefully spread them upon 
mats or boards, as closely as possible, 
without piling them on each other. Care- 
fully turn them from day to day, we say 
carefully, because they will become very 
soft on exposure to the sun, and must not 
be broken in handling. Cover them at 
night from the dew if there is any, and 
never let a drop of rain touch them. 

AVhen they are dried so that they be- 
come somewhat tough, and can be hand- 
led without breaking, and apparently but 
little juice remains in them, they should 
be packed in boxes and set away in a mod- 
erately dry place for three or four months; 
during which time a greater part of the 
pulp of the fig will be converted into grape 
sugar or a sweet mucilaginous substance, 
that penetrates alike the whole body of 
the fig even to the outside. While this 
process is going on, much of the uni>leas- 
ant taste which some find in the undricd 
fruit entirely disappears. 

As the subject of fig drying and packing 
is assuming increased importance in Cali- 
fornia, we will take this opportunity to 
give a more elaborate method of manipu- 
lating the fig in the process of drying, 
hoping thereby to elicit experiment from 
our fig growers until our figs as an article 
of export shall equal any of the imported. 
The best Smyrna figs are prepared as 
follows: Procure wooden frames of suita- 
ble strength, and nail upon them, coarse 
wire gauze, having meshes of about one 
inch square; set the frames on any conven- 
ient support two or more feet from the 
ground. Prepare a lye by bnrning the 
trimmings or other dried limbs of the fig 
tieej itself, and throwing the same in con- 
siderable quantities into a kettle of hot 
water, and make a quick lye of decided 
strength. When settled, draw off the clear 
lye, and when just scalding hot or a little 
below the boiling point, drp the thoroughly 
ripe figs into the scalding lye for about a 
quarter of a minute; then place them in the 
meshes of the gauze frames as closely as 
possible without hitting each other, with 
their stems downwards. 

The reason for this method is, that large 
fat figs, in lying flat upon boards will 
sometimes burst and lose aportion of their 
juice which is the most valuable part of 



the fig, and by setting them on end in the 
gauze frames it prevents their bursting 
and saves all the trouble of turning them 
from day to day. W T hen dry enough to 
prevent the inside from running ont if 
handled, which is usually in ten or twelve 
days, they can be removed to, and laid 
upon boards to complete the drying. 

Figs under a very hot sun are sometimes 
"burned" in drying, and more particu- 
larly during the latter part of the process, 
and it is found preferable where the wind 
is dry and hot, to do the last half of the 
drying under the shade of trees or canvass. 
There is not a doubt but that figs will be 
very rapidly dried by some one of the in- 
ventions now in use for the artificial dry- 
ing of fruits. 

Inquiry About Alfalfa. 

Editors Press: — My subscription ex- 
pired the 1st of July, but I must have the 
Press can't do without it; will have the 
money as soon as I can sell my little crop 
of wheat. It is not yet cut., a portion of 
it not ripe, because I irrigated it and it 
kept green 3 or 4 weeks longer than that I 
was unable to irrigate. I am determined 
to have the Press if I have to borrow the 
money. I am going to try to make up a 
club as soon as the people sell their grain. 
The farmers in this portion of the San 
Joaquin valley are neglecting shade and 
fruit trees, good stock, etc. I think the 
Press would induce some to improve their 
stock and beautify their homes. 

We are trying alfalfa and it grows well. 
I was unable to sow any last spring. The 
ground was put in wheat and the wheat 
will be cut next week. Tell me if I can 
sow the alfalfa in July or August or in the 
fall with success. I have water to irrigate 
with; I want to sow two acres; do not want 
to wait until next spring. 

w. F. CLARK. 

Gilroy, July 11th. 

We would like to hear from our corres- 
pondent in regard to the irrigated wheat; 
the size of the straw, whether the grain was 
plump, time of sowing, time of ripening, 
etc., and his opinion of the practicability of 
its application on an extended scale. 

We think his head is sound on the ques- 
tion of the Bubal; and his efforts to get 
up a club will be appreciated; and to do 
it effectually— when ready for the effort — 
send for a few copies to canvass with, 
which will be sent free. Thore are 23,744 
farmers in California, and of these about 
10,000 more than we now have as subscri- 
bers, would bo benefitted by taking the 
Bural, and they would do so, if a copy- 
could be put in their hands for perusal. 

If the land can be irrigated, alfalfa can 
be sown at any time in summor when it 
can be properly plowed. First irrigate 
thoroughly, then allow it to dry sufficient- 
ly to plow it deep enough to cover the 
stubble and weeds. Harrow down smooth, 
sow the seed 15 pounds to the acre and 
harrow thoroughly both ways with a light 
harrow. If tho seed is good it will come 
up and will make its second and third set 
of leaves before the land will be too dry 
for a continued growth, when the water 
can be again turned on to advantage, if it 
seems to need it. 



P@Jlj^y fI@7ES. 



Silk in the Mountains. 

Editors Pacific Bural Press:— As 
many of your readers are interested in the 
silk-growing business, it may be of inter- 
est to them to know that Mr. Henry 
Keunzley, of Gold Bun, in this county, 
(although a native of Zurich, Switzerland,) 
has had considerable experience, and is 
now experimenting in its culture with 
very satisfactory results. Ho thinks that 
we have here the best climate in the world 
for the business, as he says it requires a 
continuous dry weather not too hot or 
cold, as rain-storms retard and interfere 
with the active operation of tho worms; 
and prefers this section to one much fur- 
ther up the mountains where it is colder 
or, below Auburn, where it is much 
warmer. He intends to send some of his 
cocoons to the State Fair, and will then be 
more fully able to report thereon. 

In Switzerland, although all of the raw 
silk is imported, he says there are more 
silk goods manufactured than in any 
country in the world, England not ex- 
cepted. 1. A. H. 

Colfax, July 15th, 1802. 



What an Alabama Lady Knows about 
Chickens. 

Mrs. Mary C. West, gives the readers of 
the Mobile Register, some excellent hints 
on the treatment of fowls, drawn from her 
own experience, and Prof. Stello, the able 
agricultural editor, makes valuable com- 
ments on some points, which we also repro- 
duce. The Register is fortunate in its cor- 
respondent and doubly fortunate in its 
accomplished and careful agricultural edi- 
tor: 

I have made up my mind to write you a 
chapter on chickens; but that does not 
imply that I am going to tell you all about 
what manner of creatures chickens are, 
and how they are produced, for I am writ- 
ing to editors who must understand some- 
thing about these things, and for farmers' 
wives and daughters who know a thing or 
two as well as I do myself. I don't want 
to write for anybody else — don't intend to 
do it — and therefore I may confine myself 
to a few practical hints, which I consider 
new, and which I hope to make of service 
to that class of readers for whom they are 
intended. 

Laying. — Hens lay more regularly all 
through the year in the far South than 
they do in the North. The greatest lull is 
in the spring, (January and February,) 
just about the time the hens North com- 
mence their season's laying. Eggs are not 
very plentiful with us at this writing. We 
never feed our hens much with a view to 
increasing their laying qualities, as people 
do in other sections — it might be better if 
we did. 

Setting. — I always find it best to set 
hens under shelter and on the ground. If 
the last is not practicable I have a 
green sod taken up thin and placed under 
the nest. This is very important, for the 
earth contains heat enough to keep the 
eggs in good condition while the hen is 
off in quest of food, something which 
boards or mere litter under the nest, would 
not be sure to do. I make my nests of 
straw pounded or bruised finely with the 
poll of an ax, usually laying it on a 
smoothly-cut stump of a tree to pound it. 
Testing Eggs. — On the evening of the 
sixth day after setting the hen, I go to 
the nest with a lighted candle, and hold- 
ing tho eggs up between it and my eyes, 
carefully observe their appearance. If 
they look clear and red, I know they are 
sterile, and so take them from the nest; 
they will not yet have been spoiled by the 
hen's setting upon them. The fertile 
eggs containing birds, will appear dark; 
that is, they will show no light through 
them. It is great folly to let a hen sit all 
through her term on sterile eggs, finally 
converting them into "rotten eggs," when 
they may be easily detected by this simple 
process. 

Assisting Nature. — About a week be- 
fore the time for hatching, in dry summer 
weather, I go to the nest when the hen is 
off, and sprinkle theeggs pretty thoroughly 
with a little warm water. I find this a 
great aid to nature in the process of hatch- 
ing, as it has a tendency to soften the 
shells. It applies equally well to all kinds 
pi poultry. 

Boostinii. — I find that young chickens 
should have a clean and well-ventilated 
roosting place. It is best for them to sit 
on the bare ground. The ground of their 
house should be thoroughly cleaned at 
least once a week, by scraping it out to the 
depth of, say, two inches, and supplying 
the place with fresh, loose earth. The 
loose earth acts as an absorbent, and keeps 
the house pure and the chicks in a healthy 
condition. [And tho loose earth removed 
once a week from a large flock of chickens 
is worth almost as much as the poultry, for 
it is one of the most excellent fertilizers 
that could be applied to plants. It should 
be well stirred together and carefully 
housed until the time for using it is at 
hand. If convenient, to cover it closely 
in boxes or barrels, all the better. We 
have tested quite a variety of fertilizers 
this season, bat none with results better 
than those shown by the scrapings of our 
chicken-house. — Ed. ] 

Feeding. — Very young chickens will 
have to be fed regularly until they are 
able to run about in quest of food. In 
their case most persons in this section use 
corn-meal slightly wetted, but experience 
has taught me to believe that corn "grits," 
given dry is best suited to their wants. I 
feed my young chickens regularly four 



times each day. \ln regions further North 
and less favored for poultry-growing, it 
is usual to feed young birds regularly but 
sparingly about every two hours through- 
out the day; that is, where persons make 
poultry-growing a business. Adult poul- 
try is fed twice a day— morning and even- 
ing — and corn, wheat, oats and bailey, with 
various garden vegetables, finely chopped, 
generally make up the feed. In our ex- 
perience we have found them to do as well 
as could be desired on boiled sweet potato 
mashed and mixed with a small proportion 
of corn meal — about one part of the latter 
or four or five of the former. Irish pota 
toes, carrots, turnips, pumpkins, squashes, 
apples or peaches treated in the same way 
will be found to answer every purpose. — 
Ed.] 

Doctoring. — My chickens are never 
sick, consequently I have no doctoring to 
do. I think sickness among fowls is more 
the result of bad management than any- 
thing else; and that doctoring does more 
harm than good. Bemove the cause and 
the effect will remove itself. I have, on 
several occasions, when chicken cholera 
was bad in my neighborhood, given, mixed 
in the food of my fowls, small propor- 
tions of powdered charcoal, oxide of iron 
and flour of sulphur. Never had a true 
case of cholera, but do not pretend to hold 
that the drugs administered should have 
credit for it. Bather think that keeping 
the houses clean and their floors well cov- 
ered with fresh earth has been the medicine 
that saved my chickens. 



THe i\nw- 



Bee Keeping in the South. 

An intelligent apiarist, Mr. S. W. Cole, 
of Andrew Chapel, Tennessee, writes to 
the Southern Field and Factory as follows: 

My attention was first called to the sub- 
ject of bee-culture through articles from 
the pen of General Adair, of Kentucky. 
I always had a fendness for bees, and the 
idea of having an occupation that would 
give me a good income, without so much 
drudgery and exposure to bad weather, 
and would allow me to stay at home in my 
own yard, where I could always be on 
hand to help my "better half" in her 
work, was so fascinating to me that I at 
once availed myself of all the attainable 
sources of information, such as books, 
periodicals, etc., on the subject, and went 
to work in earnest to master the mysteries 
of bee keeping. I soon provided myself 
with all the modern improvements in bee 
keeping, including movable comb hives, 
honey extractors, Italian bees, etc. ; and 
although I had been keeping bees for 
years, learned more about them in one 
year, in using movable comb hives than I 
had in all my life before. I learned that 
colonies of bees could be kept strong in 
numbers and if so, would always protect 
themselves from the moth. That the 
number of colonies could be diminished 
or increased at will, artificially. I com- 
menced with the belief that I could clear 
ten dollars from every good stock of bees 
wintered. My experience of five years, 
with improved modes, has convinced me 
that I can do better than that, fori have 
this year averaged nearly twenty dollars 
per hive for all colonies commenced with 
in the spring. I expected to have a long 
felt wish gratified next spring, in seeing 
one hundred colonies of Italian bees in 
my yard, and I should not be willing to 
pay a very high premium to be insured 
an income of ono thousand dollars from 
them from the sale of honey alone. I 
have on my table now, offers from two 
large honey dealers North, to buy, each 
ten thousand pounds of extracted honey 
from me next season. 

Often have I thought, on quite Sabbath 
mornings, in the bright summer time, 
when I have had leisure to recline on the 
grass in the shade near our hives, and 
listen to the low, gentle murmur of the 
bees, in their ceaseless labor, that if there 
was one spot on earth nearer to Heaven 
than another, it was here, and on warm 
days now, when I hear the first music of 
their gentle humming — so suggestive of 
the coming spring time, with all its glori- 
ous promises and think of the myriads of 
flowers soon to bloom in the sunny South, 
holding each their tiny cup of nectar, to 
be evaporated and lost, and of tho tons of 
honey ou every farm that is thus going to 
waste every year for want of bees to gather 
it, it constrains me to make some effort to 
induce others to engage in this most de- 
lightful and remunerative, but much neg- 
lected pursuit. 



July 20, 1872.J 



35 




The Nature ol Comets. 

We condense the following from the review of 
Zollner's work on the nature of comets in the 
June Am. Jour. Science. This volume contains 
some contributions to the theory of comets, 
which are so novel and remarkable as to merit 
more than a passsing notice, and a brief ab- 
stract of the more prominent points of the dis- 
cussion is given. 

Starting from the well known fact that water, 
mercury and many other substances, even in 
the solid state, give off vapor of a certain 
amount, though of very low tension, and infer- 
ring from the characteristic odors of metals 
that they too, even at very low temperatures, 
are constantly giving off vapor, it follows that a 
mass of matter in space will ultimately sur- 
round itself with its own vapor, and the tension 
of the latter will depend upon the mass of 
the body, that is, upon its gravitative energy, 
and the temperature. If the mass of the body 
is so small that its attractive force is insufficient 
to give to the enveloping vapor its maximum 
tension for the existing temperature, the evolu- 
tion of vapor will be continuous until the whole 
mass is converted into it. 

The discussion leads to the result that, in 
empty and unlimited space, a finite znass of gas 
is in a condition of unstable equilibrium, and 
must become dissipated by continual expan- 
sion and consequent decrease of density. A 
necessary consequence of this result is that the 
celestial spaces, at least within the limits of the 
stellar universe, must be filled with matter in 
the form of gas, pre-eminently that of the ter- 
restial atmosphere. 

The author then proceeds to discuss the densi- 
ty of atmospheric air upon the surfaces of the 
celestial bodies and in space. Assuming for 
the purposes of calculation, and in accordance 
with the above mentioned considerations, that 
the space occupied by the stellar system is 
everywhere filled with atmospheric air, and 
taking the temperature as that of melting ice, 
he finds the lower limit of density so small that 
there could be no appreciable effect either upon 
the rays of light or upon the motion of bodies 
in space. The limit becomes still less in value 
if the temperature is taken at 60° C, with 
Fourier, or at 1420 C. with Pouillet. 

Any solid body in space must, by virtue of 
its gravitative energy, condense the gas to form 
an atmosphere upon its surface, and the den- 
sity of this gaseous envelope canjeadily be cal- 
culated when the size and mass of the body 
are known. For the moon the value is found 
to be a vanishing quantity, and are completely 
in accord with the fact that no trace of a lunar 
atmosphere has ever been detected. For the 
larger plants, on the other hand, the value be- 
comes very great, so great that the high densi- 
ty of their atmospheres must occasion per- 
ceptible effects, by absorption, upon the light 
reflected from them, and the result lends a new 
interest to the peculiar spectra of Uranus and 
Neptune, as well as of Jupiter, which appear to 
exhibit lines resulting from atmospheric influ- 
ences. 

If a fluid mass, a meteoroid for instance, 
should exist at a distance from the sun or any 
body capable of radiating heat to it, its tem- 
perature would be that of the surrounding 
space, and, if its mass were not too great, a slow 
evaporation would gradually convert it into a 
sphere of vapor. Should the fluid mass, how- 
ever, approach the sun, the solar heat would 
cause it to evaporize much more rapidly, the 
smaller the mass, the more rapid the evapor- 
ation. The smaller comets, which have often 
the appearance of spherical masses of vapor, are 
examples of bodies of s>ich a nature. Prof. 
Zollner thinks there is no improbability of the 
existence of such fluid masses in space, consist- 
ing of water or of liquid hydro-carbons, and the 
spectra of some of the nebulae and smaller 
comets confirm the idea very strongly. 

The peculiarities already mentioned are readi- 
ly explained by reference to the general proper- 
ties of fluid substances. The comets offer others 
which are the result of their causes, namely, 
their Self- Luminosity and the formation of a 
train, with a special relation of the latter, in its 
position and direction to the sun. 

As to the former, only two causes are known 
through which a vaporous or gaseous mass can 
become self-luminous; — elevation of tempera- 
ture, as by combustion; and electrical excite- 
ment. The first the author rejects as uusuffi- 
cient and unsatisfactory, assuming the second. 
Granting that electricity may be developed by the 
action of solar heat, as it can bo produced by 
similar processes within the limits of our ex- 
perience, we have a cause sufficient to account 
for both the self-luminosity of comets and their 
train-formation. The spectrum of the vaporous 
envelope of a comet thus illuminated must 
necessarily be that produced by tho passage of 
an electrical discharge through vapor identical 
in substance with a portion at least of the 
cometic nucleus, from which the envelope is de- 
rived; that is, water and liquid hydry-carbons. 
Thus the resemblance and partial coincidence 
of the observed cometic spectra with those of 
gaseous hydro-carbons is explained. 

The form and direction of the train indicate 
the action of a repulsive force. After citing 
the confirmatory opinions of Olbers and Halley 



on this point, Prof. Zollner asserts that the as- 
sumption of an electrical action of the sun up- 
on the bodies of the solar system is necessary 
and sufficient to account for all the essential and 
characteristic phenomena of the vaporous en- 
velope and the train. 

When a body is at the same time under the 
influence of both the gravitative and the elec- 
trical forces, with an increase of mass there 
results a preponderance of gravitation over 
electricity, with a sufficient decrease in the 
mass the contrary. Hence the neuclei of com- 
ets, as masses, are subject to gravitation, while 
the vapors developed from them yield to the 
action of the free electricity of the sun. In- 
vestigations and researches lead to the remark- 
able result that, supposing the free electricity 
of the sun to be no greater than that repeatedly 
observed upon the earth's surface, and to be 
uniformly distributed, it would give a sphere, 
11 millimeters in diameter and 1-100 milligram 
in weight, a velocity of 408.4 geographical 
miles per second, or 70,540,000 geographical 
miles in two days, in which time the comet of 
1680, when near its perihelion, developed a 
train of 60,000,000 miles. These are magni- 
tudes of the same order aud show that it is 
sufficient to attribute to the sun electrical ener- 
gy not greater than that observed on the earth's 
surface to account satisfactorily for the appear- 
ances presented by cometic trains. 

Furthermore, comets have appeared with 
trains directed towards the sun, and such a 
direction is easily explained by the supposition 
of opposite instead of like electrical characters, 
which accords perfectly with the phenomena 
observed in the development of electricity by 
vapor-streams in the hydro-electric machine. 
The theory acquires an additional interest and 
strong confirmation from Schiaparelli's discov- 
ery of the identity of the paths of certain 
comets with great meteor-streams. 



The Future of American Iron. 

The opinion lately expressed in an article on 
the probable future of iron manufacture in this 
and other countries, that the iron industries of 
Great Britain were rapidly and inevitably re- 
ceding from the limit of their greatest possible 
expansion, finds ample confirmation in the 
present condition of the British iron market, 
and fully agrees with the views of those best 
able to forecast the future of the trade. A 
comparison of prices current in the English 
market, with the quotations of eighteen months 
ago, shows that, during this brief period, the 
value of iron in its various forms has increased 
from 50 to 80, and, in some instances, 100 per 
cent., and there is every warrant for the belief 
that prices are not yet so high as to threaten a 
break in the market by causing an appreciable 
falling off in the consumptive demand. Even 
at the present high prices, the demand is so 
active that the British iron masters could sell 
the' products of their furnaces and mills for 
many months in advance if they were willing to 
do so, but the necessity of depending upon 
foreign sources of supply for ores to supplement 
the failing production of the British mines, 
renders the future of iron manufacture in that 
country so uncertain that contracts fo> - future 
delivery are only accepted conditionally, and 
with extreme caution in some instances, and in 
others refused altogether. — Age. 

Poweb of a Locomotive. — The driving 
wheels of a locomotive revolving with a veloc- 
ity of twenty-eight hundred feet per minute at 
point of contact with the rail, and the traction 
of all combined being equal to six tons, the 
apparent effect will be this weight multiplied 
into the stated velocity, representing the power 
exerted by the locomotive. The number of 
foot pounds thus determined would be over 
thirty-three millions, or an equivalent for 
about one thousand horse-power — over five 
times the power a locomotive of such dimen- 
sions is capable of exerting. — Leffel'sNews. 

To the above the Manufacturer and Builder 
adds: "We believe it has been thoroughly 
demonstrated that but little difference is made 
in the power of traction, either by speed or by 
increasing the surface of contact, results usu- 
ally showing that the most that can be depend- 
ed on is about one-fifth of the weight of the 
moving vehicle." 



Stone Tuening Apparatus. — Mr. J. B. Druu- 
ion, says the Iron Age, has invented an apparatus 
for turning and polishing granite and other 
stone, which promises to become of much 
practical utility. It is said that this machine 
will do as much turning in a day as a mason 
can accomplish in a week, and, the mason's 
tool marks being avoided, the work comes out 
with a smoother surface — so much so that the 
first process of polishing is almost saved. Tho 
present machine is capable of working stones 
of 16 inches diameter and under, but ar- 
rangements are in progress for extending its 
application's to work of larger dimensions. 
Balusters, vases, pedestals, and all sorts of 
circular molded work arc done very satisfactorily. 

Industbial schools are now in successful op- 
eration in Europe, and especially in Germany, 
where children and youth, tor five hours a day, 
attend educational institutions similar to our 
public schools, and in addition are required 
to spend two or throe hours in practical 
schools, where a thorough knowledge is imparts 
ed of drawing, designing, modeling, spinning, 
weaving, dyeing, mixing of colors, and the use 
of tools and machinery. 



TlflE SlfEEf p@LO. 



Sheep Husbandry. 

[Written for the Pkess.] 
The unprecedented success which has at- 
tended sheep-farming in California, renders this 
pursuit worthy of more attention from the farm- 
ers than it has hitherto received. The yield 
of wool in this State has increased from 
4,600,000 pounds, in 1861, to 22,181,000 pounds 
in 1871, and this result, it must be remembered, 
has been achieved in the face of various diffi- 
culties, with many of which the farmer has not 
to contend. The price of wool during the last 
decade, has often been down to eighteen or 
twenty cents per pound ; while at the present 
time it is about thirty-five cents per pound, and 
is unlikely to fall again to the prices that ruled 
in 1865 and 1866. In the first place, there is 
since 1867, on imported wool, a duty equal to 
twelve or fifteen cents per pound. This cir- 
cumstance alone materially increases the price. 
Again while the quantity of wool and mutton 
required in the United States is becoming ever 
year greater, the range on which sheep can be 
pastured for nothing is continually becoming 
more circumscribed. The owners of large flocks 
have to employ shepherds at a cost of three or 
four hundred dollars for every thousand sheep. 
The farmer, on the other hand, must have his 
land fenced, and, consequently, a small flock of 
sheep would cost him nothing in the way of 
herding. Being continually under his own eye, 
any diseases to which the flock are subject, 
would be more readily perceived and eradicated 
than if the sheep were in charge of a mercen- 
ary shepherd. Indeed, since some of the 
greatest scourges to which sheep are subject, 
are contagious, a flock in an enclosed pasture 
are not at all so liable to contract disease as if 
they were allowed to roam at large. Having 
only a small flock, the farmer can easily per- 
ceive the merits and defects of each individual 
animal, and by a judicious system of crossing, 
improve his flock to such an extent that, not 
only will the yield of wool and mutton be in- 
creased, but these articles themselves will be 
of better quality. One of the greatest disad- 
vantages under which large sheep-owners labor, 
is the great droughts and consequent scarcity of 
grass that occasionally occur. The death of a 
large portion of their flocks is not the only re- 
sult ; the wool of the living sheep becomes de- 
teriorated. Every time the sheep suffers from 
a scarcity of food, a weak spot appears in the 
wool ; and when the supply of food is dimin- 
ished to such an extent as it often is during our 
very dry seasons, the wool, on applying the 
slightest pressure, breaks across as cleanly and 
as readily as if cut with a knife. This is the 
principal reason that California wool does not 
bring so high a price in the Eastern markets as 
wool sent from other parts of the United States. 
All other things being equal, long wool will 
bring a much higher price than short wool ; 
yet, notwithstanding this, we raise very little 
long wool in California ; as, on account of this 
weakness, it is never allowed to attain its full 
growth, but clipped twice a year. The farmer 
can easily supply his small flock with food at 
all times, and that without encroaching to any 
extent on the provisions set apart for his other 
live stock. It is not too much to say that at 
the present time the farmer, for every acre ef 
wheat he raises, burns as much straw as would 
be required for tho maintenance of a sheep the 
greater part of the year. In many instances, 
the wheat itself would be benefitted considera- 
bly by causing sheep to feed upon it in spring. 
Their droppings enrich the ground, and wher- 
ever the crop is too thin, nothing is more 
effectual in causing it to stool than the feeding 
of sheep on it. The best farmers in the world 
adopt this plan, and even California farmers, 
who have no sheep of their own, recognize it to 
such an extent as to borrow a flock of sheep 
occasionally for that purpose. Sheep, too, 
will derive a great deal of their support, on a 
farm from obnoxious weeds that other animals 
will not touch, and that will prove an injury to 
the farm unless destroyed. Many of these 
weeds spring up before the crop is planted. 
This is especially the case, with regard to late 
crops, such as corn and flax. In assisting the 
farmer to clean the ground preparatory to I In 
cultivation of these crops, sheep are a positive 
gain, without at all taking into consid- 
eration the value of their wool and mutton. 
The large sheep owner sells his sheep for two or 
three dollars each, but the farmer when he 
buys a sheep in the shape of mutton, has to pay 
ten or twelve dollars to tho butcher. Every 
farmer, instead of living so much on salt pork, 
should raise sheep enough to supply himself 
and family with fresh meat whenever a change 
in their food becomes desirable. Even if lie 
has to sell his sheep 10 the butcher, he can com- 
mand a better price for them than the large 
sheep owners can for similar animals. The 
large sheep owner, usually lives a long distance 
from market, and his sheep Dave to travel many 



a mile before they reach the place where t 
are consumed. In this journey they lose fl. 
to a large amount, and therefore are not sl 
valuable as when they left the pasture. They 
are sold in large flocks, and the butcher must 
purchase grass for them, often at an immense 
cost, until he finds it convenient to kill them. 
Sometimes the butcher is compelled to keep 
them in his yard for several days. There they 
suffer for the want of food and water, they 
grow lighter in flesh, and those that remain 
grow poorer in qualit3 r . With the farmer all 
this is different. He lives within a small dis- 
tance of some town, and generally visits it once 
a week. Having previously come to an under- 
standing with the butcher, he can take a few 
sheep with him in his wagon, and deliver them 
in the best condition. The butcher, seeing the 
sheep fresh from the pasture and when lie is 
ready to kill them, can afford to pay a better 
price than if he labored under the disadvan- 
tages enumerated in purchasing from the large 
sheep owners. But the strongest reason that 
the farmer should keep more sheep arises from 
the fact, that under his present system of farm- 
ing, the soil is rapidly losing its power of pro- 
duction. We will not say that he must raise 
less grain, on the contrary, we want him to 
raise more. In order to do this, however, he 
must reserve a smaller portion of his land for 
grain, and try to keep this portion up to its 
original fertility. Land that, in many instan- 
ces, produced thirty sacks of wheat to the acre 
when first cultivated, now, owing to the ex- 
haustion of the soil, does not produce fifteen 
sacks. The difference between the cost of cul- 
tivating and sending to market a crop of fif- 
teen sacks of wheat to the acre, and that 
of a crop of thirty sacks of wheat to the 
acre, does not amount to more than 
five or six dollars, while the difference in the 
receipts would amount to about twenty-five dol- 
lars. Instead of trying to raise grain on his worn- 
out soil, let the farmer sow barley, rye, beets, 
etc., and have them eaten green on the ground 
by a flock of sheep. A crop consumed in this 
manner pays for itself in wool and mutton, and 
in addition the ground, by the process, becomes 
so fertilized as to produce again those immense 
yields which have made California the wonder 
and admiration of the world. John Hayes. 



The Sheep Dog. 

Buffon thus eloquently describes the 
sheep-dog, and compares his sagacity and 
value to man, with other races. — "This 
animal, faithful to man, will always pre- 
serve a portion of his empire and a degree 
of superiority over other beings. He 
reigns at the head of his flock, and makes 
himself better understood than the voice 
of the shepherd. Safety, order and disci- 
pline are the fruits of his vigilance and in- 
stinct. They are a people submitted to 
his management, whom he conducts and 
protects, and against whom he never ap- 
plies force but for the preservation of good 
order. * If we consider that 

this animal, notwithstanding his ugliness, 
and his wild and melancholy look, is su- 
perior in instinct to all others; that he has 
a decided character in which education has 
comparatively little share; that he is the 
only animal born perfectly trained for the 
service of others; that, guided by natural 
powers alone, he applies himself to the 
care of our flocks, a duty which he exe- 
cutes with singular assiduity, vigilance, 
and fidelity, that he conducts them with 
an admirable intelligence, which is a part 
and portion of himself; that his sagacity 
astonishes at the same time that it gives 
repose to his master, while it requires 
great time and trouble to instruct other 
dogs for the purposes to which they are 
destined; if we reflect on these facts, we 
shall be confirmed in the opinion that tho 
shepherd's dog is the true dog of Nature, 
the stock and model of the whole species." 

Fine vs. Coabse Wooled Sheep. — Prob- 
ably no particular breed of sheep will suit 
all localities; and the kind that would 
prove most profitable in one place, would 
not in another. Where the climate is 
mild, the range extensive, and mutton in 
little demand, the Merino or fine wooled 
will be found the most profitable. Where 
the soil is rich, the pasture luxuriant, and 
proper shelter and winter food available, 
the Leicester breed and its grades will be 
found the best paying. 

Wkaning Lambs.- The Canada Farmer 
gives the following suggestions in regard 
to weaning lambs: " When separated from 
the ewes, lambs should be placed in a field 
as distant as possible from them, so as to 
be out of roach of their bleating, and will 
become contented and thriving. The pas- 
ture where the lambs are, ought to be some- 
what better than that to which they have 
been accustomed, yet not too luxuriant, 
and if tho ews and lambs can be turned 
into it together for a week, and then taken 
away, the lambs will not fret so much, as 
would he the case were they removed to a 
field that is strange to them. - ' 



36 



[July 20, 1872. 



p^RpSE^S Ifl CodftCIL. 



The Oakland Farming, Horticultural 
and Industrial Club. 

The Oakland Farming, Horticultural and In- 
dustrial Club held a very interesting meeting 
Friday Eve., July 12th, with a very large atten- 
dance of ladies and gentlemen. Professor Can- 
presided. After the reading of the minutes of the 
previous meeting, Mr. John Kelsey was elected 
a 1111 mber of the Club; names were also handed 
in for membership at the close of the meeting. 
After the meeting had been regularly opened 
Professor Carr announced the programme of 
the evening to be an esssay by Mr. J. V. Web- 
ster, of Fruit Vale, and some remarks by him- 
self on the subject of bread-making. As Mr. 
Webster had not yet arrived the Club decided 
to hear their President first. Dr. Carr there- 
upon mounted the platform and delivered one 
of the most interesting practical lectures (illus- 
trated with chemical experiments) that he has 
yet delivered before the Club. We regret not 
being able to report, the lecture in full, but will 
give the following well condensed report from 
the Bulletin: 

Process of Bread-Making. 

" The Doctor first called the attention of his 
auditors to the consumption of the various in- 
gredients used in making different kinds of 
bread. Fine flour is formed of water 16 per 
cent., gluteu 10 per cent., fat 2 per cent., starch 
and other substances 72 per cent. The per 
cent, of these properties in bran, oatmeal, corn- 
meal and rice were also shown, and the propor- 
tions of each that go to make flesh, fat, etc., 
were given. The Doctor showed some starch 
and gluten, in separate vessels, which he had 
prepared during the day to assist him in illus- 
trating his remarks. He had placed a few 
pounds of wheat flour in a bag, tied the neck 
and immersed it in a dish of water, frequently 
compressing the bag with his hands. The 
starch in the flour had thus become separated 
from the gluten. The toughness and consis- 
tency of the gluten was explained. The pro- 
cess of ' raising ' bread was then discussed. 
The agent almost universally for this purpose 
is carbonic acid gas, which is generated under 
a variety of circumstances. The best way, 
however, is to generate it by fermentation. 
Several interesting experiments were made" 
with chemicals, showing how the gas is made. 
Objections are urged by some against the use 
of cream of tartar, which contains an excess of 
soda and potash. Their action injures the coat- 
ing of the stomach and impairs the digestion. 
The injurious results following the eating of 
warm bread come in part from eating the bread 
warm when its consistency is less favorable to 
digestion, and in part from the soda and potash. 
A healthy person might go on eating warm 
bread for years before his digestive organ would 
become impaired; and when the penalty came 
lie might not connect it with the true cause. 
But there is nothing more true than that Na- 
ture's laws are imperative, and a violation of 
the physical as well as the moral is sure to be 
followed by a penalty. A person who knew 
how to cook food so that indigestion would not 
follow the eating of it was as much to be hon- 
ored as the professor of a university who talked 
about it. Indeed, he understood that the head 
cook of a certain hotel in Paris receives a larger 
salary than any of the professors of Harvard 
College. The Doctor explained the necessity 
of there being bone-making material. A large 
proportion of phosphate of lime is near the out- 
side of the kernel of wheat. This the flour does not 
contain. If we can supply a yeast powder that 
makes up this deficiency we shall have one 
that supplies all the wants and that instead of 
being injurious, will have positively beneficial 
effects. Light bread cannot be made from all 
kinds of grain. The gluten in rye is more te- 
nacious and tough than in corn. You may 
make raised bread with it by putting in some- 
thing to make it tough. When the gluten in 
wheat is affected by rain or other cause, the 
bakers use alum to toughen it. The alum also 
makes the bread whiter. Sometimes sulphate 
of copper, or, as it is more commonly called, 
hlucstone, is used in very minute quantity. Per- 
haps the least objectionable is lime water. 

The Doctor continued his remarks at some 
length, and concluded with the heartiest express- 
ions of appreciation from the audience. 

As the hour was getting late, Vice-President, 
J. V. Webster, who had come in during the lec- 
ture, decided to withhold his essay until 
another meeting. The Club, by vote, gave him 
a hearty invitation to deliver it at the next 
meeting, which he promised to do without 
fail. 

Scale Insects Again. 

According to promise, several members had 
brought some scale insects to exhibit. J. Hunt 
had a rose bush covered with the nuisance. A. 
D. Pryal exhibited an orange sprig upon which 
were numerous insects. He also produced 
from his pocket a six-legged black spider, con- 
fined in a bottle, which he said subsisted on the 
insects. He would describe the little fellow 
and his influences after some further opera- 
tions. 

Appreciation of the Public Press. 

Mr. Webster presented the following pre- 
amble and resolution, which was adopted: 

Whebeas, The Pacific Rukal Phebb, of San Fran- 
cisco, and the Oak-land Daily News have, unsought and 
unsolicited, published the proceedings of this Club al- 



most verbatim from it8 organization, without undue 
criticism of the defects we feel conscious they possess, 
thereby publishing much that could be of but little in- 
terest except to those engaged in pursuits similar to our 
own ; therefore be it 

Resolved, That we, the members of the Oakland 
Fanning, Horticultural and Industrial Club, do com- 
mend the energy and enterprise of said newspapers in 
this matter, and acknowledge the courtesy thus paid to 
this Club, and we do hereby cheerfully recommend tlieiu 
to the support and patronage of the agricultural, horti- 
cultural and industrial classes of this State, and more 
especially to those of Alameda county. 

The local and agricultural press of this State 
have done much by their free publication of no- 
tice of meetings to be held, and liberal reports 
of their proceedings to encourage and support 
the Farmers' Clubs, which are still increasing 
in numbers and good results. The publication 
of the discussions no doubt enlighten a hun- 
dred fold more minds than attend the meet- 
ings. 

On motion of Mr. Pryal, Wm. Gagan and 
O.L. C. Fairchild of the Oakland Nmts, and W. 
S. Harlow, reporter for the A'euw and S. F. Bul- 
letin were elected honorary members of the 
Club. 

A vote of thanks was also extended to^Dr. 
Carr for his lecture. 

Mr. Pryal said that in connection with Dr. 
Gibbons' remarks on scale insects, at some fu- 
ture meeting he would give a recipe for killing 
the insects. 

Dr. Carr exhibited several specimens of silk 
worms making their cocoons, after examining 
which the Club adjourned till next regular 
meeting, Friday evening, July 2Gth. 

San Jose Fanners' Club and Protective 
Association. 

[Reported for the Pacific Rubal Press.] 

The Club met as usual, President Casey in 
the Chair. 

The Question adopted for discussion at next 
meeting: "Can the Cultivation and Manufac- 
ture of Silk be made profitable in California." 

Fifteen minutes being allowed to any one de- 
siring to deliver an essay, or talk on whatever 
subject he may choose, Sir. Jesse Hobson dis- 
cussed 

The Finance Question. 

He did not believe in our present financial 
system, he never had believed in it. We got 
along tolerably well while all were miners, but 
even then the miners would have profited by a 
good paper currency. The difference of exhange 
would have been in his favor, and let the cur- 
rency be ever so good gold will always be at a 
slight premium. 

Interest is always higher where gold circu- 
lates as money, and men can't compete in man- 
ufacturing where they have to pay high rates 
of interest, with a community where they have 
the national currency, and low rates of interest. 
The bankers may like and profit by our gold 
currency, but the common people lose heavily 
by it. There are many men of large means 
who stand ready to come to our State, and es- 
tablish manufactories, but our gold currency 
and high rates of interest deter them. If we 
want a rapid increase of population and wealth, 
and a reduction of taxes, we must change our 
financial system. 

Merits of the Different Breed of Horses. 

Mr. Chipman is greatly interested in the 
Horse Question. He likes good horses and 
always keeps a good team, fie proposed the 
question desiring to learn the views of the Club. 
Farmers need the best of horses, and he thinks 
he knows a good farm horse. Can tell from 
build and general appearance, without regard 
to breed. Big farmers may need big horses, 
but he prefers ten to twelve cwt. to 14 cwt., for 
the weight of a horse. Good travellers are 
what we want. Slow teams lose time and time 
is valuable, he can not afford to keep a slow 
team. 

Mr. Burgland said every man who keeps a 
Stud Horse says his is 

The Best Breed. 

The breed don't matter much if the build is 
good. Horses of the Canadian pony build are 
the most durable and useful. America is full 
of beautiful large horses, but they cannot en- 
dure. The trouble is, they are fed too high. 
The hardiest men and horses are raised on 
plain food. Mr. Erkson wants a medium- 
sized horse, one that can walk well — walk with 
a load, or hitched to a plow. Walking U the 
principal gait for farmers. Hard- worked teams 
are never so sprightly or fast as if they are 
worked but little. The common crossed with 
the thoroughbred is the most serviceable. 
Pampering and over-feeding spoils the horse. 
The Arab lets his horse pick grass and gives it 
but a small cake of ground barley sometimes 
cooked. 

Mr. Caldwell said heavy feeding destroys the 
durability of horses. In southern Illinois and 
Indiana, where colts are brought up in the 
cornfields, and fattened like hogs, they never 
can stand short feed and heavy work. They 
import most of their durable horses from some 
place where their food is not so plentiful. 
Vermont has much better horses. He said the 
Morgan and Messenger were good horses. 

In support of what the last speaker said, Mr. 
Erkson referred to the serviceable Canadian 
horse as being brought up in hardship. Mr. 
Chipman says a horse can be driven spritely 
and worked hard at the same time. He has a 
team that he has worked hard and can drive 
fast without a whip; there are few men who can 
hold them and give them one cut each with the 
whip. He always puts his teams to hard work 
to fit them for the market. Care and judgment 
are what are needed in the management of 



horses ; there are plenty of valuable horses but 
their owners fail to see it. A man of good 
judgment can make money in buying horses 
and bringing out their good qualities and sell- 
ing again. 

Mr. Holloway Jr. thinks oxen and mules 
should be used on the farm and not horses. It 
was the custom in Texas and other Southern 
States. Perhaps it may be called old-fogyish 
but it is the most independent. 

Mr. Hobson thought Agricultural Societies 
should give prizes to walkers and not to run- 
ners and trotters, then we might gain something 
by it. He had seen mules and horses thorough- 
ly tested, while in the iron trade in the South. 
The horse can stand as much hard work as the 
mule. Horses perhaps need more care, mules 
can stand more abuse — perhaps that is why they 
used them in the South in a community of 
slaves. Mr. Burgland said colts should be 
broke while sucking; like boys they need work, 
not overwork — to develop their muscles, and 
increase their capabilities. Boys who do noth- 
ing till they are grown, waste a year or two in 
developing their muscls. 

Chipman said Wilke's has the Messenger as 
a cross between the thoroughbred and a small 
French horse. A lazy horse he would not have. 
There is no need of lazy horses if they are not 
over worked, especially while breaking. Some 
horses can't work without grain, yet when 
properly fed are just as profitable as thobe that 
can work on hay. 

He would not recommend thoroughbreds on a 
farm. Never raise mules if you desire to be 
neighborly. He tried mules; they can climb 
like boys, and are sure to get into your neigh- 
bors' fields. 

Mr. O. Cottle offered a resolution, which lies 
over, "That hereafter we adopt no subject for 
discussion unless it relates directly to agriculture 
without a two thirds vote of the members 
present." Adjourned. 



Sacramento Farmers' Club. 

The club met on Saturday at the usual time 
and place, President Baker in the chair. 

After the reading and approval of the minutes 
of last meeting, Robert Williamson, in behalf of 
the committee to obtain subscriptions for the 
city market, reported progress and were granted 
further time. 

Irrigation. 1 

This subject being under consideration was 
discussed by Haynie, Williamson and Kendal] 
at some length. All agree that in this State, 
notwithstanding the soil can be made, by good 
cultivation, to produce without irrigation large 
yields of cereals — of vegetables, of fruit, and in- 
deed of most every thing that grows from the 
ground — by judicious irrigation this yield can 
be greatly increased, even in the most favorable 
seasons. That by irrigation all uncertainty can 
be removed and farming made the most certain 
and profitable of occupations. All agreed that, 
owing to the peculiarity of our climate, irriga- 
tion must of necessity be resorted to to keep up 
the fertility of the soil under a system of con- 
stant cultivation and cropping. All agreed that 
we have in the great rivers and their tributaries 
ample means for the irrigation of the great 
central valleys of the State, and that the Sierra 
Nevada and coast ranges of mountains, with 
their numerous creeks and mountain streams, 
and their facilities for vast reservoirs, furnish 
the means of irrigating the vast area of table 
lands adjoining them and rendering these lands 
as valuable as the richest and most prolific river 
bottoms. 

Captain Haynie spoke in the highest terms 
of the enterprise and sagacity of those capitalists 
who, seeing and appreciating these facts, had 
projected and were executing plans for the ir- 
rigation of the great valley of the San Joaquin, 
and expressed a hope that before many years 
equally comprehensive plans would be adopted 
for the irrigation of the Sacramento valley, and 
that the capital would be found for carrying 
out such plans. 

Co-operative Grocery. 

W. Hoyt called up the subject of a farmers' 
co-operative grocery store, and establishment 
for the sale and distribution of the products 
of the farm. He thought well of the idea, and 
believed such an establishment can be so man- 
aged as to result in great benefit to all who 
should join in the enterprise. He suggested 
that the better way would be to commence on a 
small scale, and add to the business as experi- 
ence should dictate. If two hundred farmers 
should put in $20 each it would make a capital 
that would do to start with, and in a little while 
each stockholder would find that his family 
groceries and expenses of living would be con- 
sideiably decreased. 

Aiken had thought of this subject a good 
deal, and was well satisfied that the plan may 
be adopted by which the cost of living to the 
farmer cun be materially reduced, and the farm- 
er can dispose of his products at much better 
and more satisfactory prices. As things now 
stand the farmer is at the mercy of the trader, 
both as to the price of wheat he buys for him- 
self and family and what he raises to sell. It 
is high time the farmers should realize their 
strength, and prepare to use it for their own 
benefit. When men can come into the city with- 
out a dollar, rent a store and set up in the 
commission business to sell fruit, and in the 
course of two years accumulate from $15,000 to 
$20,000, and make this amount all from a few 
fruit-growers, it is time for those whose fruit have 
afforded this profit to the commission merchant, 
and but little to themselves, to open their eyes 
to the real situation of things. He was ready to 



join with a few or any number of his fellow- 
farmers to make a change in this thing — to try 
to see if the producer can not make some of the 
meney instead of the middle man taking all. 
The fact is, the fruit costs the consumer more 
than it should— so much that he can afford to 
buy and use but little, and yet the producer 
does not receive a living price. The trouble is 
in the system of doing the business between the 
producer and the consumer — there are too many 
profits — too much handling, too much waste", 
too much fruit thrown away and charged to the 
loss of the producers, so as to keep up prices. 

Murphy was glad this subject was up for con- 
sideration. He had been talking it up outside 
for the last three months — had once proposed 
it in the Club, but did not then meet with much 
favor, and had consequently taken it up outside 
— thinks the first thing to be considered is the 
establishment of an agency for the sale and 
shipping of the fruit. As the fruit season is 
close upon us let us look after and establish 
this part of the cooperative system first, and add 
tbe grocery and other departments after. The 
fact is, we have no fruit commission merchants 
in the city — they are all speculators. When 
they can sell fruits so as to make anything, 
thej' will buy it, and thus they are all the time 
placing themselves in competition with those 
whose fruit they receive to sell on commission. 
They do worse than this ; but I need not state 
what I know to those who know itby experience 
as well as I do. The fact is, we are swindled, 
and if we have not the spirit to protect our- 
selves we deserve to be swindled. 

The subject was further discussed by Haynie, 
Hoyt, Beck and Kendall, all of whom favored 
the idea of union for mutual protection and 
advantage, but the discussion elicited a con- 
siderable difference of) opinion as to the man- 
ner in which the object should be attained. 

Finally, on motion of Kendall, the Chair 
was called upon to appoint a committee to con- 
sider the subject of establishing an agency for 
the sale and shipment of fruit, with power to 
act in their own discretion. Chair appointed 
as such committee, E. F. Aiken, P. H. Murphy, 
A. S. Gieenlaw and James Holland. 

The subject of establishing a cooperative 
farmers' grocery store was laid over for consid- 
eration at the next meeting, on next Saturday, 
and a general invitation to all who feel an inter- 
est in Buch an enterprise and who would like to 
join it, is extended. 

The Club adjourned for one week. 

Santa Cruz Farmers' Club. 

Held its semi-monthly meeting at the Court 
House last Saturday afternoon, and decided to 
hold its next Fair on the 10th, 11th and 12th of 
next October. Great preparations will be made 
to make it surpass anything of the kind ever 
held in this part of the country. The Execu- 
tive Committee will soon hold a meeting, when 
all the necessary arrangements will be made 
and invitations issued to all farmers and citizens 
generally to participate with the Club in mak- 
ing the Fair a credit to the county. F. Adams, 
Esq., from the committee appointed to investi- 

fate the proposition sent from the Sacramento 
'tinners' Club, as to the effect which the heavy 
rains last winter had upon grain and fruit, read 
a very interesting report. It stated that the ef- 
fect of the heavy rains had been such as to ma- 
terially effect the yield of grain. 1st — By drain- 
ing low spots which were not drained before, 
and where the water stood on the surface. 2nd- 
By fouling the groun by growths of fine grasses 
forming a sod. 3d — By producing foreign mat- 
ters, such as cheat, cockle, smut, and other for- 
eign smut, and 4th, by preventing the farmers 
from getting in their late crops in time to en- 
sure a full yield. In respect to the fruit crop, 
the report stated that it never was better, ex- 
cept peaches, which had been somewhat injured 
by late frosts. The report also stated that some 
few fruit trees had been injured by water stand- 
ing around the roots, thereby decaying the 
smaller fibers. The Committee recommended 
thorough drainage as the best preventitive 
against loss of fruit trees or their injury by 
heavy rains and long wet winters. 



Hazel Ncts in California. — The regu- 
lar "down East" hazel nut is only found 
in a few localities on the Pacific Coast; they 
have been cultivated to some extent and 
with fair success — but the bushes do not 
yield as well as in the Eastern States — 
the leaves of the first year's growth are 
small and scattering, but the second year 
come out as large and profusely as the 
Eastorn stock. The hazel nut is found in 
the northern valleys of Humboldt county 
and in Nevada county. The Grass Valley 
Union says: "The indigenous nut is now 
ripe, and juvenile America is in ecstacies 
over the treat. The bushes are loaded 
down with nuts. Gunny-sacks and old 
gloves are in active demand by Young 
America and the woods are alive with the 
infantile gatherers. Many a treat of nuts 
is in store for them during the cominglong 
winter evenings. Beware of 'poison 
oak,' for it abounds on all sides, and woe 
to the handler thereof. The treat of the 
nuts is well worth the risk, however, is the 
verdict of hotheaded youths of both per- 
suasions." 

Toads are said to be a regular article of trade 
in the English markets, selling readily at twen- 
ty-five cents a piece, for service in the gardens 
where their usefulness as insect destroyers is 
appreciated. 



. 



Jnly 20, 1872.] 



37 



Lydf^L P@tes. 



BUTTE. 

Appeal, July 11: Grain.— But little grain 
is being hauled to town as yet. Farmers 
are busy harvesting and they will not be 
in a hurry to haul grain at ruling prices, 
even if the work of harvesting was ended. 
At the present ruling but little grain will 
be marketed for some time. Farmers will 
sell enough to meet expenses and hold the 
remainder for an advance. Whether they 
are wise in so doing remains to be seen, 
but certain it is that few feel inclined to 
sell their grain at the prices now offered. 
Fruit. — J. G. Briggs will have about 
1,200 boxes of early peaches from his 
young orchard this season. He is shipping 
rapidly now, getting the benefit of high 
prices. Yesterday, Cumberson shipped 
122 boxes, and the day previous 119 boxes 
from this orchard, of very fine peaches, 
equal to any shipped from this city. By 
the time the ordinary peach becomes ready 
for market these early peaches will have 
all been cleared off at good prices. 
CONTRA COSTA COUNTY. 

Gazette, July 13: The Harvest.— The 
slow ripening of the grain with the pre- 
vailing cool weather, is highly favorable 
to the farmers who find it impossible to 
obtain sufficient help to prosecute their 
harvest labors with dispatch, if undertaken 
all at once. By taking the grain as it 
ripens most of our farmers in this portion 
of the county are managing to secure the 
harvesting of their crops with less waste 
than if they were suffered to stand for the 
chance of gathering them with a large 
force at one operation. The grain in the 
Diablo and Pacheco Valleys is nearly, if 
not quite, all now ready and most of it has 
been cut, and promises a good yield. 
Wheat has been threshed in Ignatio Val- 
ley which has turned off 25 sacks to the 
acre, where calculation was not made on 
more than 18; and one piece of volunteer, 
intended for hay, has turned out between 
13 and 14 sacks, on an expectation of 6 or 
8. San Ramon, and the adjacent valleys 
will yield, well, but a considerable portion 
of the wheat there is yet a week or more 
from maturing. 
FRESNO. 

Expositor, July 10: From the bluff 
above Witt's on the San Joaquin river to 
Fresno, a distance of fifteen miles, the 
land is as level as a floor, and the soil a 
dark, sandy loam, occasionally of an allu- 
vial nature, the very sandiest of which is 
not more so than the soil in the town of 
Millerton, but better from the fact of its 
being free from gravel, and by far supe- 
rior to land in what is known as the "Par- 
adise Country," of which so much has 
been said. South and west of Fresno the 
same character of country stretches away 
for miles, while eastward toward Center- 
ville the finest grain lands of the county 
are found. Within four and a half miles 
of Fresno is the immense farm of Mr. A. 
Y. Easterby planted, and conducted by 
Mr. Chas. S. Lohse. Mr. Russell Flem- 
ming hitched up a fast team at Fresno and 
drove us up to this big enterprise. We were 
shown over the place by Mr. Lohse, and 
if anything in the world will overcome the 
incredulous minds of those who are deter- 
mined upon swearing that our plains is 
but an immense sand desert, this cer- 
tainly would. Here stretching awav in 
every direction as far as the eye can reach 
is one grand field of grain. Three head- 
ers, and a steam thresher and upwards of 
fifty hands have been at work for several 
weeks in harvesting the crop, and there is 
still some three weeks work left on hand. 
Forty tons of wheat per day is being ship- 
ped to San Francisco, by rail, from Fresno 
—the product of this farm, and 1,000 tons 
are to be shipped between now and the 1st 
of August. On the ranch is about twelve 
acres of corn which stands f nlly ten feet in 
hight, while melon and pumpkin vines 
loaded with their products are to be seen 
in abundance. This piece of "desert" 
compares favorably with the balance of 
the "sand heap," which stretches over a 
scope of country of about thirty miles one 
way and fifty the other. It is certainly 
not so good as a large area of country in 
the vicinity is. A branch of the Fresno 
Irrigation Company's ditch extends 
through the farm, and if turned loose 
would flow into the town of Fresno in two 
hours time. One hundred and fifty acres 
of corn will be planted by Mr. Lohse, so 
soon as the wheat crop is harvested. This 
gentleman informs us that there is but one 
drawback to the successful farming of the 
land of that vicinity, and that is the freight 
to market. This evil we think will be 
remedied by next year. If the railroad 
company will reduce the price per car 
load to $40, Mr. L. will put in 5,000 acres 



of grain this noxt winter, while other par- 
ties in the vicinity will put in from 35,000 
to 40,000 acres more. Fresno is bound to 
be a town of importance. It will always 
be the point through which three-fourths 
of the county will communicate with the 
outer world. During the present summer 
and coming fall, from two to three hun- 
dred settlers who have applied for pre- 
emption olaims will settle within ten miles 
of Fresno and cultivate the soil. Mr. 
Daulton expressed himself as agreeably 
surprised with what he saw, and was more 
than astonished at the remarkable misrep- 
resentations which have been made by 
parties who "know all about the country." 
We were fully repaid for our visit, and 
more than ever convinced that there is no 
place in the State of California that offers 
better inducements to farmers than Fresno 
county, and that it is, as we have always 
contended an agricultural county, and 
better fitted for that purpose than for cat- 
tle raising. 
MARIPOSA. 

Gazette, July 12: The Weather. — A suc- 
cession of oppressively warm days has 
characterized the meteorological record of 
the present week— not ranging as high by 
the thermometer as is frequently expe- 
rienced, but calm, sultry, and prostrating, 
with unusually warm nights. Wednesday 
was for the greater portion of the day 
cloudy — distant thunder further up in the 
mountains — a very feeble and scattering 
attempt at a shower, followed by a magnifi- 
cent rainbow and a sunset defying the most 
gorgeous word-painting to describe. 
MONTEREY. 

Argus, July 13: Warehouse. — We learn 
that Friedlander, the " Grain King," will 
shortly commence the erection of an ex- 
tensive warehouse on the depot grounds at 
this place. 

Heavy Freighting. — Vast quantities of 
new wheat, barley, hay, mustard seed, and 
other produce, are constantly passing 
through our streets, destined for shipment 
via Moss' Landing. Lumber of every kind 
is also being hauled through town to the 
interior every day. Who says that Cas- 
troville is not the gate to the great Salinas 
Valley. 
NAPA. 

Register, July 13: New Wheat. — The 
first wheat of the season arrived from Ber- 
ryessa Valley, July 3d, to Sheehy's Ware- 
house. Since that several lots have arrived 
— some to Sheehy's, and some to the Ban- 
ner Warehouse. It is quoted in San Fran- 
cisco at $1.55 (p), $1.65 per cental. 

SACRAMENTO. 

Folsom Telegraph, July 13: Good Yield. 
John Taylor has seventy acres of land in 
wheat, in Brighton, that has yielded 2,100 
bushels this season. This is the o/dinary 
yield, year by year, on the red land in the 
upper part of Brighton Township. 

The grain in this vicinity has mostly 
all been harvested and threshed, and the 
crop hereabouts will average about thirty 
bushels to the acre on the red lands in and 
bordering the foothills. We can beat the 
average valley lands. 

Sheridan, at his garden in Ashland, has 
an orange tree four feet in hight, four 
years old, laden with fruit. He also has a 
young chestnut tree, of threeyearsgrowth, 
laden with burrs. 

Heavy Yield. ■ — D. L. Williamson, 
whose ranch is located near Salsbury's 
station in this county, says the Folsom 
Telegraph, last year obtained a new kind 
of wheat from the East, called the Soft 
Siberian. He sowed a half pound, which 
yielded two hundred and forty pounds. 
This season he put in five acres, which it 
is believed will not produce less than sev- 
enty bushels to the acre. This is an enor- 
mous yield, and the new wheat is creating 
quite an excitement among the farmers in 
the vicinity. The yield of ordinary wheat 
on the same land is about thirty bushels to 
the acre. 
SAN JOAQUIN. 

Republican, July 11: Warehouse at Mo- 
desto. — Our townsman, J. D. Peters, is 
building a large wheat warehouse at Mo- 
desto. The work is under the manage- 
ment of J. 8. Davis. The building will be 
two hundred feet long by seventy-five 
wide. 

Home Made Paper. — The Republican's 
mailing clerk is now using for wrappers, 
paper made at Lane's paper mill on Weber 
Avenue. Yesterday the mill turned out a 
large quantity of brown paper, and it will 
be kept running until the amount on hand 
is counted by the ton. 

Wheat Arriving. — The wheat is begin- 
ning to come in. Immense quantities are 
piled up on both sides of the Stockton 
Channel. 

Wheat Shipment. — J. D. Peters, yester- 
day loaded the barge Farmer with 100 tons 



of wheat. To-day he loaded the sloop Alli- 
son, with 85 tons. Both lots go to Oak- 
land wharf. 

Arrived. — The steamer Fresno with 
barge Paradise arrived from Grayson to- 
day. She brings down a cargo of 3,000 
sacks of wheat, which is consigned to Kal- 
isher & Roseman for storage. 

Stored. — Yesterday afternoon four 
thousand sacks of wheat were taken from 
the steamer Clara Crow, and stored in the 
Eureka warehous. 
SAN LUIS OBISPO. 

Tribune, July 13: At the Cambria Cheese 
Factory may be seen as fine a looking lot 
of cheese as can be found in the State. 
About 5,000 pounds of milk is consumed 
from which nearly 700 pounds of cheese is 
manufactured daily, a much less yield, we 
believe, than at any previous part of the 
summer,— the season being now advanced. 

SOLANO. 

Chronicle, July 13: Advances on Grain. — 
The Land and Improvement Association 
are distributing circulars among the farm- 
ing population to the effect that they are 
prepared to store grain at South Vallejo 
at 25 cents per ton, and will make advanc- 
es thereupon to two-thirds its value at 
one per cent, per month. This will be an 
accommodation to farmers who are embar- 
rassed to secure money to harvest and 
move their crops. 
TULARE. 

Delta, July 11: Yalko Valley crops are 
good. The grain is all cut and waiting 
for the thresher. 

It is thought the grain crop of Tulare 
this year will be greater than ever before. 

A Field on Lewis Creek of 440 acres 
yielded 15,080 bushels of grain. The field 
had no fence, and the grain: was not irri- 
gated. 

Farmers are very busy now haying and 
harvesting; haying is mostly completed, 
and harvesting just commenced. Crops 
are generlly very good; some are light in 
consequence of scarcity of late rains, and 
late sowing. Farmers are just awakening 
to the importance of sowing early in the 
mountains, as well as on the plains. 

YOLO. 

Mail, July 11 : The Army Worm. — These 
pests have unexpectedly ceased to tor- 
ment. They closed their career some- 
what in the manner of a wart,. — in an hour 
unknown. The destruction which followed 
in their course was pretty effectual, and 
we are happy to record — reguiescat in pace. 

The Artesian Well. — The boring at 
the well has ceased for a few days in order 
to procure piping from the city. The 
depth now reached is G42 feet, and from 
this time the work of boring will probably 
be under the proprietorship of another 
gentleman. Mr. Peck is determined that 
if there is any water anywhere in that di- 
rection, he will find it. 

Dull, Dull! — Woodland has been ex- 
tremely dull for several days. With the 
exception of a little life on the 4th, this 
month has been terribly hard on progress- 
ive nerve's. But the harvest is under full 
headway. Every farmer is hard at work, 
and the past few days has ripened the 
wheat so fast that the cutting is general. 
We ought to be thankful that no wither- 
ing, threshing north winds have appeared 
so far to help the machines. We notice 
that many are stacking their wheat in 
order to take their time to thresh it out. A 
scarcity of help makes it necessary. 

OREGON. 

Oregonian, July 13: Farmers from vari- 
ous parts of Yamhill county report crops 
flourishing finely since the rains. 

A stock show was held at Roseburg on 
the 4th of July, when v some really fine 
cattle were exhibited. 

Recent rains in Jackson 'county, it is 
said, will save thecrops, which, otherwise 
would have been a total failure. 

Our Hillsboro correspondent says: " It 
is wonderful how fields of wheat and oats 
have come out since the heavy rain. Most 
all farmers say that they expect a full 
yield." 

A young apple tree in a garden near 
Walla Walla has indulged in a remarkable 
freak this spring. A few weeks ago it 
blossomed as usual, and is now covered 
with apples the size of a hickory nut. 

Speaking of the crops and the late rains, 
the Farmer says: " The grain crops are 
safe and the hay much improved, and 
gardens are as promising as could be de- 
sired. There is one thing learned from 
this season, and that is the necessity of 
sowing fall grain. Most fall grain is very 
good, and always is in Oregon. Much of 
the spring grain is moderate. Oats a fair 
crop." 

Cheese Factory. — Mrs. Hannah M. 
Smith, who resides in this city and owns a 



splendid farm on the Columbia river, m 
the mouth of Sandy, has laid us under ob- 
ligations for a large piece of cheese of the 
best quality. Mrs. S. has been engaged in 
manufacturing cheese for some time, and 
succeeds in producing an article' which, 
for quality, is pronounced by good judges 
to be fully equal to any made in the State. 
Some of it was on exhibition at the State 
Fair at Salem last fall, and was looked up- 
on as being a superior article, though as to 
whether it received a premium we are not 
informed, but we know that the specimen 
sent us yesterday deserves a premium for 
richness, good flavor and freshness, in all 
of which qualities it is excellent. 



Napa County. 

The following Resolutions were adopted by 
the Napa County Farmers' Club, at its^meeting 
on the 13th inst. 

Whereas, It is notorious that the farming in- 
terests of the State have suffered, and are now 
suffering serious damage from monopolies r or 
"rings" which take in hand and control the 
prices of our produce, and increase the cost to 
us of putting the same inmarket; and 

Whereas, The farmers of this State are pecu- 
liarly exposed to extortion by being so far re- 
moved from competing markets; therefore.be it 

Resolved, That we deem it expedient and 
necessary for the farmers throughout the State 
to organize a system of County, District and 
State clubs, with representative delegates from 
county clubs to district clubs, and from district 
clubs to a State club, with the sole objects in 
view of self-protection. 

Resolved, That we invite the respectful atten- 
tion of other county clubs to the foregoing pro- 
position and urge them by correspondence to 
bring about a meeting of delegates for the 
furtherance of the object sought to be attained. 

Endorsed, W. A. Fisher, President. 

G. W. Henneng, Secretary. 

We are not surprised at the movements now 
in progress, to enable our farmers to secure to 
themselves a fair portion of the profits upon 
their industry. It is time that such a movement 
be made; for under the present system the prop- 
ucer is made wholly secondary. 

A succession of unpropitious seasons and 
light crops, in which the producer barely covers 
his expenses of production are of no manner of 
account to the middle-man, the grain broker; 
his commissions and percentages must be paid, 
whether producer makes expenses or not; and 
we see fortunes made by " grain kings, " who 
are but the handlers of the wealth of others ; 
fortunes that should have been held back by a 
proper concert of action and made to do good 
service where it more properly belongs. We 
hope every farmers' club in the State will push 
forward the movement. 



Santa Clara Valley. 

Editors Press:— In passing through various 
parts of the 

Santa Clara Valley, 
It has been a real pleasure to note the general 
aspect of prosperity and thrift among the farm- 
ers. It is true that the hoated term of three 
weeks since has, in some fields, caused a pre- 
mature ripening of the grain crop; but, as 
a general thing the crop will be good, and tho 
grain of good quality. The failures of the past 
two seasons havo been severely fielt by many 
jn this valley, as elsewhere, but the expression 
of hope and cheerfulness which is to be noted 
in every countenance you meet, is indicativo of 
the change. Another change is to be noted in 
this valley, which may be considered amatter of 
congratulation, that is the improvement in'social 
relations. On the 

Fourth of July 
There congregated at Cook's grove a wary largo 
number of people; farmers, merchants, me- 
chanics and professional men, from far and 
wide, to enjoy the literary exercises of tho occa- 
sion, and a pic-nic. Among these were repre- 
sentatives from almost every State in the Union, 
whose cold looks and severe exclusiveness of a 
few years past, were now replaced by a cordi- 
ality and friendliness which seemed remark- 
able, and was certainly most notable. It is very 
creditable to the people of this valley that the 
differences of tho past seem to have engendered 
no permanent feeling of hostility. 

Thos. II. Lane, Esq. delivered an 1 oration, 
which was worthy of the high encomiums it 
received, and gave entiro satisfaction to all 
sects and classes. s. a. b. 

Santa Clara, July 15, 1872. 

Prof. Geo. Ville's "complete chemi- 
cal fertilizer" — for a rotation of wheat, 
beets, barley, and peas— consists of 488 
pounds nitrate of soda, 132 pounds quick- 
lime, 352 pounds of carbonate of potash, 
352 pounds phosphate of lime. 

Some men are called sagacious because 
they are avaricious; whereas a child can 
clench its fist the moment it is born. 



38 



JtT vCA, Cv <k «V Jo W 



jBSS. 



[July 20, 1872. 



H©P»E ^f* D 



Hair Ball from a Hog's Stomach. — 
The Country Gentleman lately received 
from a correspondent a package contain- 
ing a ball similar to the "hair balls" some- 
times found in the stomachs of cattle, but 
which was found in a yard where no ani- 
mals execept hogs had been for many 
months, with the request for an explana- 
tion of what it was. That paper reports 
as follows:— Examination of this curious 
ball, which is about 5 inches long and 2% 
in its shorter diameter, led us to suppose 
that it was a speciman of the hair balls 
sometimes found in the stomachs of cattle 
and swine. But as it differed from any- 
thing of the kind we had seen, we consult- 
ed on the subject with Profs. Peck and 
Lintnei of this city, who proved satisfac- 
torily that the hairs with which it is coated 
and which form a large part of the sub- 
stance of the mass were hog's bristles, and 
who subsequently found in the collection 
at the State Geological Hall, a hair ball of 
almost exactly the same size and shape, 
that was actually taken from the stomach 
of a hog. 

Farming as a Business. — A man who is 
not smart enough to run a store is not 
smart enough to run a farm. Farmers are 
not to be made out of what is left after 
lawyers, doctors, ministers and merchants 
are sorted and picked out. And if a man 
fails on a farm he is not likely to succeed 
in a store, for it requires more talent to be 
a thriving farmer than an average mer- 
chant. The one great failure is the dis- 
proportion between a man's farm and his 
capital. A farmer's capital is skill, labor 
and his money. If he has little cash, he 
must have no more land than he can thor- 
oughly manage by his personal labor. 
Every acre beyond that is an incumbrance. 
One acre well worked is more profitable 
than twenty acres skimmed over. It is 
this greed of land by farmers that have 
not the capital to work it that keeps so 
many poor. Small farms are better than- 
large ones, simply because they are better 
suited to the capital of common farmers. 
— American Artisan. 



Animalcule in the Month. 



TljE D^y. 



Points of a Good Dairy Cow. 



Some of our readers may not be aware 
that the teeth and gums, when not proper- 
ly cared for, are subject to the presence 
of innumerable forms of animalcule. In buying or rearing dairy cows, always 
Dirt and filth and decay always breed **9 aud have them of 80me g° od breed - 
animalcule, and not unfreqnently larger < ;rade8 of the Ayershire, Alderney or 
and more disgusting forms of animal life 



(irades of the 

Short Horns are the best; she should be 
Probably all of our readers are aware of f medium size; fine head; very broad be- 
this fact; but that neglect of the makth is tween tlie eyes . eye of a milcl and p i easant 
followed by such results perhaps has [ . ,, . , , 

never occured to many; yet such is the i expression ; small horns of a waxy color 
j ac j. preferred; rather a long neck, which must 

Every time we eat, more or less of our | be thin but may be deep, particularly 
food adheres to the teeth or is deposited where it springs from the breast; light 
between them, or upon the gums. Now if fore-quarters; shanks, from the knee down, 
this matter is not removed, at least once a short and fine; barrel round, and ribs 
day, by thoroughly brushing or cleansing arching well from the back; body long; 
the teeth and gums, it sours by the heat back straight; hips broad — can scarcely be 
of the mouth, and furnishes a favorable too much so; tail falling at right angles 
breeding place for innumerable micro- with the back, and should belong and fine; 



scopic animals, the germs of which we in- 
hale with our breath or take into the mouth 
with our food. These animalcule, when 
placed under a powerful glass, appear in 
great numbers and in almost all imaginable 
forms, resembling snakes, worms, snails, 
etc. Upwards of thirty different species of 
these curious little forms are quite faithful- 
ly represented in the accompanying ill ustra- 
tion, many of which are disgusting enough 
when magnified so that we can get a fair idea 
of what they are, and their habits. Scrape 
off a little of the tartar or other matter 
which adheres strongly to the teeth, and 
which has been for some time subjected to 
the natural heat of the system, and place 
a small piece, not larger than the head of 
a pin, under a powerful microscope and you 
will never feel like eating until you have first 
cleaned your teeth and thoroughly rinsed 
your mouth. If these minute organ- 



hind-quarters rather long and thin; udder 
well developed, particularly the forward 
part of it; teats standing well apart, of 
medium size, and pointing forward; the 
ooat should be of a medium length, 
tine, and of a silky feel; the skin should 
be loose and mellow, and of a yellowish 
tinge. 

Experience has taught us that a cow 
combining the greatest numberof tlieabove 
points is the most profitable for the dairy- 
man to keep. Such a cow will give a great- 
er quantity and a better quality of milk 
than a larger and coarser animal. Our ex 
perience in different breeds has been con- 
fined almost entirely to the native, but we 
believe that judicious crossing with milk- 
ing families of thoroughbreds, would re- 
sult in immense advantage to the dairy 
farmer. We would not advise any one to 
stock a farm with pure-bred stock of any 



Familiar Science. — A scientific paper 
in a recent notice of a floral exhibition, 
concluded as follows: — "The specimens 
of the sarracenia drummondii, of the 
imantopylium miniatum, of the cyanophy- 
lium magnificens and the sphacrogyne lat- 
ifolia call for a distinct notice;" whereat a 
cotemporary quotes the following verse 
from Barry Cornwall's weaver's song: 
" Come show us the rose withits hundred dyes. 

The lily with a blot, 
The violet, deep as your true love's eyes, 

And the little forget-me-not " — 
It then parodies the same in the following fash- 
ion: 
The Rose deschenhaultiana come show us, 

The Lilium sepalisalbis white, 
With the Viola ranuuculifolia endow us, 
And the wee Myosotis palustris height. 

To Get Rid op Fleas. — Mr. Ely said at 
a late meeting of the New York Farmers' 
Club that there are two or three substances 
that are obnoxious to the flea — he does not 
like the smell of them, or they remind him 
of something he does not like to think 
about — these are carbolic acid and sulphur. 
If you want a barn thoroughly purged of 
weevil, or lice, or fleas, the best way is to 
fumigate it with sulphur. But if you 
whitewash all around the stables and posts 
of the yard with a whitewash made by add- 
ing carbolic acid to the lime, it will drive 
most of these pests away. Washing an 
animal thus infested with carbolic soap- 
suds will give relief. 

Selecting Calves for Milkers. — A 
writer in one of our exchanges says: "The 
points that indicate the good cow are dis- 
cernable in the calf, and why not? This 
may stagger some dairymen, but that is just 
what we wish to do. This wholesale 
slaughter of calves in the spring is wrong. 
A calf will show a good milk-mirror, as 
well as a cow, and a rich cream colored 
udder as well as a cow, a healthy, thrifty 
looking and strong loin as well as a cow. 
And these points make up the cow every 
time. Let the breed be what it may, this 
is our experience in the matter. A calf 
that is worth ten or fifteen dollars should 
not be killed for its mere hide, for the lack 
of judgment in selecting." 

He that gives good advice builds with 
one hand; he that gives good counsel and 
example builds with both; but he that 
gives good admonition and bad example 
builds with one hand and pulls down with 
the other. 



c\3 m J* 






MICROSCOPIC FORMS OF LIFE IN THE HUMAN MOUTH. 



isms are suffered to remain for any consid- 
erable time, they commence feeding upon 
the gums, which soon turn red, become 
sore and bleed at the slightest touch. 
Even the enamel or smooth ivory surface 
of the teeth not unfrequently become cor- 
roded, is broken, and the teeth decay aud 
ache, to the great annoyance and suffering 
of the possessor. 

We trust that all our readers who are not 
already doing so, will, after reading this, 
get into the habit of regularly- and thor- 
oughly cleansing their teeth and mouths 
after eating, using soap freely. If they have 
uo brush, use a small rag, or if that cannot 
be had, use the finger, and afterward thor- 
oughly rinse the mouth. By so doing you 
will add greatly to your general health, be 
repaid by sweet breath, clean, healthy, 
good looking teeth and gums, and the mi- 
croscopist will search in vain for the dis- 
gusting forms of animal life which we have 
depicted above. 

Alfalfa. — Lux <fc Miller, who are among 
the largest cattle-raisers in the State, for 
beef, own extensive ranges of land on the 
San Joaquin and its tributaries. Of late 
they have seeded large tracts of land with 
alfalfa, which flourishes to such an extent 
as to make one acre of land supply as much 
food for cattle as was formerly yielded by 
twenty acres. More than this, the alfalfa 
land supplies food for cattle the year 
round, whereas hitherto the same land 



breed, believing that grades of one-half or 
throe-fourths blood at the utmost, will be 
found most profitable in the long run for 
milk and butter.— Ruralitt, 



Dairy Hints. — Feed as we may, we can- 
not make good and cheap butter from a 
poor cow. The more we improve our 
stock the more money we shall make; and 
improvement (for a butter dairy) must lie 
in the direction of a more complete extrac- 
tion of the nutriment of the food and 
its more complete conversion into cream. 
We want the highest type of the Jersey — 
a butter breed almost exclusively — or as 
near an approach to it as our means will 
allow. A "poor man" cannot at once set 
up a herd of Jerseys, but no farmer who 
owns fifty acres of fair land is so poor that 
he cannot afford to buy a thoroughbred 
Jersey bull from which to raise grade 
heifers to take the place of his present 
stock. The first cross will be much im- 
proved, and the heifers may be allowed 
to breed at two years, so that in four years 
there will be a good sprinkling of three- 
quarter-breds. This generation may be 
sired by the same bull that sired their 
dams, thus, much of in-breeding doing no 
harm when the sire is a thoroughbred; but 
after this it will be necessary to change the 
bull. Of course good "native" cows 
furnished grazing only five or six months I should be selected at the outset. All poor 
in the year. The general introduction of ' milkers should bo sold off and their places 
alfalfa into grazing regions will not only I be supplied with the very best that can be 
improve the quality, but increase the quan- found. Such a plan, coupled with soiling, 



tity of beef, and besides enable the graziers 
to dispense with the use of three- fourths 
of the land now occupied by them. — Mer- 
ced Tribune. 



Preserved Meats.— Australian meats 
are arriving in England at the rate of 28,- 
000 cases a month— a great increase over 
last year. New Zealand is also increasing 
its meat trade. This meat seems to take 
so well in Great Britain, that we expect an 
effort will be made to introduce it in this 
market. 



will enable any farmer to double his net 
income within five years if he is farming 
only as much land as he can properly take 
care of. — Ogden Farm Papers. 

Mb. Jno. M. C. Reed, of Georgia, writes 
to the Plantation that his Ayrshire cow 
"Fancy" has yielded him in milk at home- 
market prices (63,' ', cts. per gallon on an 
average) 84,71 2.40 in ten years time, besides 
raising quite a herd of fine valuable stock. 
He says that she has aveiaged two gallons 
per day all the time. 



Selection, Breeding and Care of 
Cattle. 

A writer in the Boston Cultivator gives 
the following as his convictions, derived 
from observation: 

1. Stock, to be profitable, must be adapt- 
ed to the locality, and the particular branch 
of business to be pursued. Many farms 
in New England cannot keep with profit 
the large Short-horn stock, however excel- 
lent they may be. For the production of 
milk, the Jersey stock is most desirable; 
for the manufacture of butter, the Ayr- 
shire stock is not the best; and for the pro- 
duction of either, no kind of stock is 
profitable if not well fed and cared for. 

2. It is important that in every neigh- 
borhood there should be kept a good stock 
of thoroughbred cattle, such as will be 
adapted to the feeding capacities of that 
neighborhood, and the particular branch 
of business pursued, whether of milk, 
butter or cheese. 

3. In every case the base (I don't know 
that this is the best term) of all herds for 
profit should be the best of our native 
stook, taking into consideration endurance, 
adaptation to climate, etc. 

4. All stock must be kept in good con- 
dition — well housed, and well and regular- 
ly fed— care being taken to give as much 
Indian meal as will keep the cows in good 
order. No cow will last long that is only 
fed with reference to a great flow of milk, 
to the entire neglect of fat-producing food. 

5. Variety is essential to a healthy appe- 
tite, and this should be determined by cir- 
cumstances, as to time of year, the use 
made of the milk, etc. 

6. It should be known that, considering 
the economy of feed, the cow fed on oil- 
meal, whether from cotton seed or linseed, 
will eat about the same quantity of hay as 
though they were not fed with it; but the 
cows fed on cornmeal oat less hay — some 
say pound for pound; that is, one ton of 
meal will save one of hay. 

Cost of a Small Cheese Factory.— As 
there are doubtless many of our readers in- 
terested in this branch of farm industry, 
we take from a cotemporary the following 
estimate of the cost of a small cheese fac- 
tory, such as a farmer might erect alone, 
or such as might be established by several 
together, forming a joint-stock company — 
the patrons furnishing the milk taking 
most of the stock: 

For 100 cows, a building 60 by 26 feet, 
with 16 feet posts, making it two stories, 
would be required. Take 24 feet from the 
lower story for a " make-room " leaving 
the remainder aud the upper story for 
" curing-rooms." The upper story should 
be partitioned the same as the lower. 
The 24-foot room over the "make- 
room " should be plastered and fur- 
nished with stoves suitable for curing 
early and late cheese. The cost depends 
upon the price of lumber and labor, which 
differs in localities. A rough, substantial 
building, which will answer in every re- 
spect in most localities, would cost $1,000. 
If finished with paint, etc., §1,300. It 
could be furnished with vat, tank, presses, 
hoops, scales, etc., for §300, making in all 
SI, 3(KI for rough building, and §1,600 for 
the finished one. For 200 cows, the same 
sized building would answer. For vat and 
fixtures, fSDO, making in all §1,500 for 
rough, and §1,800 for finished building. 
This is the size of many that were built in 
this State this season. 

Milking With Dry Hands. — I believe 
that much of the milk gets tainted with 
noxious or bad odors before it reaches the 
the pail. Some persons, and hired help 
especially, have a habit of wetting their 
fingers with the milk every once in a while, 
and then wetting the cows teats, as they 
say to make them milk easier. Now this 
wetting process causes much foul stuff to 
drop from their hands or teats in the pail 
while milking. This is all wrong — cows 
can be milked as easy with dry hands as 
wet ones. I have been in the habit of 
milking cows; and although I have met 
with hard milkers that require their teats 
to be softened in order to draw the milk, I 
have generally found it easier and pleas- 
anter to milk with dry hands. If the teats 
are dirty, the udder should be washed 
with tepid water and allowed to dry before 
milking; ami if the teats are very hard and 
tough to draw, the cow had better be 
turned into beef, or kept to raise calves 
from, — Practical Farmer. 



Jnly 20, 1872.] 



39 



UsEflfL ffJf©^[Vf/\yiQN. 



The Mississippi aDd Niagara Rivers. 

It is well known to geologists that the upper 
lake regions, embracing, Lakes Superior, Michi- 
gan and Erie, are very old — that they existed 
long before the Allegheny mountains were lifted 
above the ocean. The same may also be said 
of the region through which the upper St. Law- 
rence flows. Many millions of years is the 
length of time assigned, by geological evidence, 
for the existence of the lake system, and yet 
those same geologists are agreed that two or 
three hundred thousand years, at most, is the 
period that can be assigned for the flow of the 
Niagara river, through which those lakes are 
now drained. 

How then are we to account for their drain- 
age through the millions of years not registered 
in the channel of the Niagara ? 

Careful surveys have shown that the Niagara, 
at the head of the rapids, is only thirty feet hii/her 
than the waters of Lake Michigan; consequent- 
ly a barrier, a little more than thirty feet high 
across the Niagara plateau, would throw the 
waters of Lakes Erie and Huron back into Lake 
Michigan. Other surveys have shown that the 
waters of the Chicago river, where they reach 
like Michigan, are bat five or six feet higher 
than the waters of the nearest tributary of the 
Illinois river, which flows southward into the 
Mississippi. The Chicago river, in fact, has 
long been little better than a mere slough, its 
waters almost stationary, and very filthy from 
stagnation, so much so, that, if we are correctly 
informed, its upper bed has recently been deep- 
ened, for sanitary reasons, and a communication 
opened with the Illinois river, so that the waters 
of Lake Michigan are now actually flowing 
both ways — eastward to the St. Lawrence and 
westward to the Mississippi. 

An old river bed, of large dimensions, has 
long been known to exist, through which it is 
supposed all the waters of Lake Michigan for- 
merly found their way into the Mississippi; 
while there is a plainly defined barrier across 
the Niagara river, just above the rapids, which 
must, at sometime in the past, have prevented 
tho waters of the upper lakes from flowing east- 
ward. 

Further evidence that these suppositions are 
correct is found in the fact that the enormous 
extent of flat country in Louisiana, Mississippi, 
etc., must have been made from the drift of an 
atjeient river of much larger magnitude than 
the present Mississippi. There could have been 
no other source for such a flow of water except 
from the region of country drained by the Great 
Lakes, which is fully equal, if not greater in 
extent, than the area drained by the Missouri. 

But what is stronger still, this mighty stream 
of early geologic age, once emptied its waters at 
a point some three or four hundred feet below 
its present level, as is fully shown by artesian 
borings, which bring up vegetable remains and 
chips from huge trees from that distance belo w the 
existing surface. Itwas by the mighty rush of the 
waters of this huge river, laden with mud, 
sand, floating and tangled trees, etc., that the 
thousands of square miles of the best cotton and 
sugar land on the Continenfr'have been made 
all along the north western coast of the Gulf 
of Mexico. It is said that unmistakable evi- 
dences of the once rough and rugged bottom 
and shores of this stream are still to be seen 
along some of the upper portions of the present 
bed of the Mississippi. The gradual subsi 
deuce of the land near the Gulf must account 
for the apparent elevation of its waters from 
the level of their earlier deposits. 



Putting Grindstones in Order. 

It is impossible for any one to grind a tool 
properly on a stone that wabbles like a drunken 
carriage- wheel. In order to grind the basil of a 
chisel or plane-iron true, the periphery of the 
grindstone must revolve as true as a millstone. 
The first step toward putting a stone in proper 
order is to measure from the center or the eye 
to the periphery, on four sides, for the purpose 
of determining whether the stone has been worn 
off more on one side than on the other. Wh«n 
a stone is driven by a treadle, a large part of 
the grinding is done on one side of the stone 
when the treadle is going down. In such a 
case, the stone should be rehung with the jour- 
nal nearer one side of the eye than the center 
of it. After it has been hung as true as practi- 
cable, screw down the caps of the bearing- 
boxes so that the journal will have no play; 
then, with the end of an old file turn a 
small groove near each edge of the peri- 
phery, after which dress off each side 
with a shaq> cold-chisel an inch or more 
from the grinding surface. Now fix a solid rest 
close to each side of the stone, turn a small 
groove in each side of tho stone, and dress off 
the prominent parts with a sharp cold-chisel. 
Always cut horizontally toward the middle of 
the stone from eueh side, and thus avoid split- 
ting away large chips from the side of the peri- 
phery. Always use a light hammer or mallet 
and a small half-inch chisel. With a heavy 
hammer and large chisel, there will be great 
danger of chipping off a large piece of the stone 
beyond the mark. With a light hammer and a 
small, sharp chisel, one can fit up the periphery 
of a wabbling grindstone, in a brief space of 
time, so that it will revolve satisfactorily true. 
The Industrial Monthly. 



What Oils will Ignite Spontaneonsly. 

That certain drying oils, as linseed, for ex- 
ample, absorb oxygen, thereby raising the tem- 
perature of the article on which they may be 
spread, is well known, or ought to be, and this 
increase of temperature may be carried to the 
extent of causing combustion. That oiled rags, 
etc., do take fire, and the fire is from them 
often communicated to woodwork, must be ad- 
mitted. Hence, the origin of certain fires that 
cannot be accounted for otherwise. 

The recent burning of the monster balloon 
at Chelsea, Mass., is a case of spontaneous com- 
bustion, the linseed oil and varnish with which 
it was coated taking fire by the absorption of 
oxygen and raising the temperature to the ex- 
tent of setting the cotton cloth, of which the 
balloon was made, on fire. 

But these drying oils are vegetable products, 
the chief one used being the linseed referred to. 
It does not follow that animal or mineral oils 
will produce any such effect, for they are not 
drying oils and therefore absorbers of oxgen. 
Yet the mistake is possibly made and the idea 
is certainly entertained that rags and sawdust 
saturated with lubricating oils will take fire 
spontaneously. We do not understand the 
matter. The fire at Faber's pencil factory in 
New York, lately, has been attributed to saw- 
dust saturated with machinery oil, taking fire 
spontaneously, but with how much reason. 

Quite likely the common mistake is made that 
because certain things moistened with certain 
oils take fire, these same certain things will or 
may take fire if wet with any oils. Some go so 
far as to say that oil heated by friction in 
machinery bearings if allowed to fall on cotton 
rags, waste, sawdust, and the like, will gener- 
ate sufficient heat to take fire, but of that we 
want proof. It is an important matter, and it 
is to be hoped those who possess facilities will 
investigate the subject further. — Cabinet Maker. 



The Narrow Gauge Convention which recent- 
ly met in St. Louis, was expected to be attended 
by every manager of such an interest in the 
country, and to develope certain facts concern- 
ing which many railroad men are now in doubt. 
The friends of the narrow gauge system assert 
that their road can be built and equipped at a 
cost not exceeding one-half that of the broad 
gauge; that they earn as much per mile as the 
latter; that they are equally rapid in trans- 
porting and far more secure. So far there does 
not seem to be any question regarding the prac- 
ticability of narrow-gauge for the business to 
which it has been applied. 



Q©OD He^LJU. 



Grafting Wax. A Tecipe for making 

grafting-wax, from a practical nurseryman of 
great experience; is — resin, six pounds; bees- 
wax, one pound; tallow, one pound; melt and 
work until cold. This is to be used warm, 
when working in the house. For outdoor work, 
Mr. J. J. Thomas recommends the same for- 
mula, except using linseed oil, one pint, in 
place of the tallow. For outdoor work a good 
wax is made by using one to two pounds less of 
resin, one-half to one more pound of beeswax, 
and one and one-half pints of linseed oil; to be 
melted, made in a mass, and applied by hand. 



Test for Japan. — Pour out a few drops of 
Japan on a stone or a piece of glass, and add 
two or three drops of raw linseed oil. Stir the 
the two together, and if the oil readily combines 
with the Japan, the dryer is of a quality safe to 
be used on carriage work. If the Japan repels 
the oil and the end of the stick becomes 
gummy, the Japan is worthless. We have the 
above from a varnish and Japan maker of large 
experience. 



Tan Color. — The best way to make this 
shade is to get a pail of ground bark from the 
tannery; but if that can't be done, make hem- 
lock bark as fine as possible, soak or beat it un- 
til you think the color is out; make your goods 
as soft as possible by washing them in strong 
soap suds, and immerse; if not dark enough, 
add more bark. Don't color in iron, it will 
make drab ; if you want drab, add a little cop- 
peras. 

Mildew in Boat Sails. — A safe plan is said 
to be to dry the sails thoroughly, in the open 
air if practicable, and to sweep them well on both 
sides with a strong hairbrush, having sprinkled 
it beforehand with water in which a little am- 
monia has been dissolved. Do not roll the sails 
up wet, as it is damp which has produced the 
mildew. To disinfect sails, or prevent infec- 
tion, carbolic acid is good. 



The tendency of steam is to fly to the coldest 
place to impart its heat. If, for instance, a ball 
of ice be suspended at the ceiling of a room, 
and some water thrown upon a hot stove in the 
room, the steam thus generated will go contin- 
ually to the ice until it is melted. Thus as an 
equalizer of heat steam has no equal. 



Engraving Extraordinary. — Claude Mellen 
engraved in 1700, a full head of Christ with one 
unbroken line. This line commenced at the 
appex of the nose, and wound out and out like 
a watch-spring, until it ended in the border of 
the picture. 

Misery assails riches, as lightning does 
the highest towers. Or as a tree that is 
heavilyy laden with fruit breaks its own 
boughs, so do riches destroy tho virtue of 
their possessor. 



Increasing Longevity of Human Life. 

A cotemporary says that physiologists toll us 
that with a greater prevalence of knowledge 
of the laws of health the world may expect an 
increase of the average duration of human life. 
Perhaps this time is already dawning. At any 
rate here are a few " health considerations " 
for those above sixty. Von Moltke, compara- 
tively juvenile at seventy, plans and executes 
such a campaign as modern times never wit- 
nessed; Emperor William, tough as oak at 
seventy-four, roughs it on the field as jauntily 
as a young lieutenant. Von Roon, the Prus- 
sian War Minister, older than either General or 
Emperor, directs from Berlin the marshaling of 
hosts and gathering of supplies. 

Nor were these wonders of longevity by any 
means confined to the German side of the con- 
test. Thiers, at seventy-five, was seen at the 
end of the contest flitting with the vivacity of a 
boy from one camp to the other, as a negotiator 
of peace, and as the executive head of the 
French Government has since shown a power 
of intellect and application to business that 
would be considered wonderful in any man even 
in the prime of life'. Of his associates, Dufaure, 
the Minister of Justice, is seventy-three, and 
Guizot, King Louis Philippe's ex-Minister, 
though past eighty, writes books with as much 
force as when he occupied a professor's chair. 
In England, where men are reckoned young 
till they are past fifty, splendid examples of 
vigorous old age are plentiful. Palmerston, 
Lyndhurst and Brougham, octogenarians all of 
them, led public opinion of Great Britain to the 
end of their days, and in harness. It is said of 
the first of the three, that after a field-night in 
the House, he would be seen at daylight walk- 
ing home at a pace which a .young man might 
envy. Thomas Carlyle, over seventy, abates 
nothing of his intellectual vigor; while Lord 
John Russel, though creeping towards eighty, 
still attends the Upper House of Parliament. 

Mercury in the Human System. — A table- 
spoonful of quicksilver was lately found in an 
old grave in York county Pennsylvania. It is 
supposed to have been buried there in the shape 
of calomel within the patient. — Ex. 

In old times the doctors sometimes adminis- 
tered pure mercury as a medicine; a more com- 
mon form of mercurial administration was the 
blue mass. Either of these prescriptions would 
account for the presence of quicksilver; but 
dosing with calomel would not. — Scientific 
American. 

We have known globules of mercury to be ab- 
stracted from the systems of persons who had 
never taken it in any form but that of calomel. 
Calomel being a chloride of mercury formed by 
heat and a pulverizing process, the mercury can 
be precipitated or restored by the use of 
acids. Why will not the acids of the stomach, 
which will not act upon the mercury itself, de- 
prive it of its chloride vehicle and leave it pure. 
If the American does not believe that dosing 
with calomel will account for the presence of 
quicksilver, it can be satisfied of the fact by 
submitting a calomel dosed patient to an elec- 
tric bath. — Am. Manufacturer. 

Necessity of Carefulness in Old Age. — An 
old man is like an old wagon; with lightloading 
and careful usage it will last for years; but one 
heavy load or sudden strain will break it, and 
ruin it forever. So many people reach the age 
of fifty, sixty, or even seventy, measurably free 
from most of the pains and infirmities of age, 
cheery in heart and sound in health, ripe in 
wisdom and experience, with sympathies mel- 
lowed by age, and with reasonable prospects 
and opportunities for continued usefulness in 
the world for a considerable time. Let such 
persons be thankful, but let them also be care- 
ful. An old constitution is like an old bone; 
broken with ease, mended with difficulty. A 
young tree bends to the gale, an old one snaps 
and falls before the blast. A single hard lift; 
an hour of heating work; an evening of expos- 
ure to rain or damp; a severe chill; an excess 
of food; the unusual indulgence of any appetite 
or passion; a sudden fit of anger; an improper 
dose of medicine; — any of these, or other simi- 
lar things, may cut off a valuable life in an 
hour, and leave the fair hopes of usefulness and 
enjoyment but a shapeless wreck. 

Drugging. — A writer in the London Standard 
described a " most successful mode of drugging 
in use over the American continent, which pro- 
duces loss of strength and torpor, and which, 
in the case of death resulting, defies the most 
acute medical analysis." He was himself once 
a victim to this drugging. lie drank one mouth- 
ful of so-called brandy, and in ten minutes after 
he became giddy, lost the use of his limbs, and 
then conciousness, and did not recover for some 
seven hours sufficiently to enable him to walk. 
He subsequently got acquainted with a man 
who had been employed at a New York vault to 
enact thepartof a (bugger, and this respectable, 
and no doubt reliable individual, explained the 
drugging process. Part of a bottle of any liquid 
is decanted and the space tilled up by tobacco 
smoke, expelled from a clay pipe, well impreg- 
nated with nicotine. The bottle is then well 
shaken and filled up again with the portion be- 
fore taken out. It is then left to stand for a 
week or so; but if left standing for a fortnight 
death will M the EflBQU of drinking. 



Physiological Action of Quinine.- 
physiological action of quinine has lately b< 
the subject of detailed experiment by Binz, who 
found it to have extraordinary power in arrest- 
ing the process of fermentation and putrefac- 
tion, and to be a powerful poiaon for low organ- 
isms, or, in other words, for all moving bodies 
consisting of protoplasms. It appears to kill 
fungi and bacteria, which accompany fermenta- 
lion and putrefaction, and puts a stop to these 
processes. It arrests the motion of the white 
blood corpuscles, and thus prevents them from 
making their exit from the blood-vessels. It 
therefore diminishes or arrests the formation of 
pus in inflammation, pus consisting in great 
measure of an accumulation of white corpuscles 
which have issued from the vessels. It also 
destroys the power of certain substances to pro- 
duce ozone. The red blood corpuscles have 
this power, and, by depriving them of it, qui- 
nine, when present in the blood, must diminish 
the change of tissue in the body, and thereby 
lessen the production of heat. 

It is also found that quinine lessens oxidation 
in the blood; other substances, such as snake 
poison, increasing it. When putrid fluids are 
injected into the circulation of an animal, its 
temperature rises; but if these are previously 
mixed with quinine, this rise is arrested, or very 
much diminished. According to Zuntz, the use 
of quinine has a marked influence upon the ex- 
cretion of urea, the amount diminishing very 
greatly. — Harper's Monthly 

Ancient Dentistry. — Among the ancients 
great success was obtained in this art. Cassel- 
ius was a dentist in the reign of the Roman 
trumvirs, and gold was used in the filling. But 
nearly 500 B. C. gold was thus used, and gold 
wire was employed to hold artificial teeth in 
position, and it does not seem to have been a 
new art. A fragment of the tenth of the Roman 
tables, 450 B. C., has reference to preventing 
the burial of any gold with the dead except that 
bound around the teeth. Herodotus declares 
that the Egyptians bad a knowledge of the dis- 
eases of teeth and their treatment 2,000 B. C. 
In Martial, Casselius is mentioned as either fill- 
ing or extracting teeth, but he specified that he 
would not polish false teeth with powder. These 
facts cover a period of 600 years. 

Fatigue. — In order to understand, says Lei- 
big, the influence of an irregular expenditure 
of force, we need only to remember that when 
greatly fatigued we lose our appetite, and that 
when the stomach is in full activity the limbs 
are indisposed for performing hard work. In- 
sufficient nourishment and fatiguing work, dur- 
ing the period of growth, stop the corporeal de- 
velopment of the individual. The amount of 
daily exercise necessary for health depends 
upon the kind of exercise, and varies considera- 
bly with different persons and with the same 
persons at different times. A safe rule to go"by 
is to exercise until slightly fatigued. It should 
not be continued so long that half an hour of 
perfect rest will not entirely remove all feeling 
of fatigue. 

Morbid Fears. — The fixed idea of having 
heart-disease is a very common one. We know 
an Indian officer who indulged in it for twenty 
years, to the great annoyance and terror of his 
wife and his friends, and who died at a good 
old age, with a perfectly " sound heart," physi- 
cally speaking: By auscultation, doctors can 
very easily tell you whether the heart is right, 
just as you can hear whether a clock is right as 
to its tickings and beatings. There are other 
very sure symptoms well known to the profes- 
sion. Many persons also fear they have cancer 
in the stomach or liver; oratape worm.orsomo 
other dreadful malady; but generally these 
fears are the result of a disordered imagination, 
and groundless. — Herald of Health. 

Micrococci in Measles and Scarlet Fe- 
ver. — Dr. Hallier, well known by his researches 
upon the fungi as supposed agents or concomi- 
tants of disease, states in a recent paper that 
measles and scarlet fever are both occasioned 
by tho presence of certain fungi in the blood, 
which can be seen by the microscopo in the 
form of minute cell-like spores, called micrococ- 
cus. In the course of treatment of persons af- 
fected with the above diseases care was taken to 
collect the perspiration obtained from the pa- 
tients under these circumstances, which, on be- 
ing submitted to Dr. Hallier for examination, 
was found to contain the micrococcus in abun- 
dance. 



Toothache. — A correspondent of the Eng- 
lish. Magazine gives the following curious remedy : 
Put a piece of quick-lime as big as a walnut in 
a pint of water, in a bottle. Clean tho teeth 
with it, every morning, rinsing tho mouth with 
clean water afterwards. If the teeth are good, 
it will preserve them and koep away toothache; 
if the teeth are gone, it will harden the gums, 
so that they will masticate crusts and all. 

In India, whero stinging insects and soveral 
crawling reptiles are often wounding people, 
they apply chloroform on lint, which speedily 
allays irritation and perhaps neutralizes the 
poison. Why not try it here. 

On, of Pkim-khmint. — A writer in the Ameri- 
can Journal of 1'harniacy asserts that commer- 
cial oil of peppermint is adulterated to the ex- 
tent of thirty to forty per cent., with castor oil 
and alcohol. 



Take Care of Your Health. — A man too 
busy to take care of his health islike a mechan- 
ic too busy to take caro of his tools. 



40 



PACIFIC E17EAI, 2P21ES8. 



[July 20, 1872. 




PUBLISHED Bl 

DEWELY «5* CO- 

A. T. DEWEY. W. B. EWEE. O. H. STHONO. J. L. BOONE. 

Principal Editor W. P,. EWER. A.M. 

Associate Editob I. N. HOAG, (Sacramento.) 

Office, No. rws Montgomery street, 8. E. corner of 
California street, where friends and patrons are invited 
to onr 8C I I8WT1F1C Piiess, Patent Agency, Egraving and 
Printing establishment. 

SUBSCRIPTION AND ADVERTISING RATES. 

Subscriptions payable in advance — For one year $4 : 
six months, $J..VJ; three months, $1.35. Clubs 6f ten 
names ormore $3 each per annum. $5, In advance, will 
pay for l'j year. Remittances by registered letters or 
P. O. orders at onr risk 
Advertising Bates.— 1 werk. 1 mimfA. 8 months. 1 yrar. 

Perltne 25 .80 $2.00 $5.00 

One-half inch $1.00 $3.00 7.50 20.00 

One inch 2.00 5.00 14.00 38.00 

Law advertisements at favorable rates. Special or 
reading notices, legal advertisements, notices appearing 
in extraordinary typo or in particular parts of the paper, 
inserted at special rates. 



SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, July 20, 1872. 



Table of Contents. 



ILLUSTRATIONS- A California Tulip, 33. Microscop- 
ic Forme of Life in the Human Mouth, 38. Peter- 
sen's Patent Bee Hive, 41. 

EDITORIALS — Irrigation vs. Pulverization; The Wool 
Market, 33. Editorial Notes Among the Farmers; 
Artesian Welle in Idaho:Tlie Stale Fair, 40. An Hour 
Among the Flowers; Salt as a Fertilizer: Water as a 
Fertilizer; Soils— Causes of Sterility, 41. 

CORRESPONDENCE.— Figs— -Inquiry About; Inquiry 
About Alfalfa; Silk in the Mountains, 34. 

POULTRY KOTES.— What an Alabama Lady Knows 
about chickens, 34. 

THE APIARY.— Bee Keeping in the South, 34. 

MECHANICAL AND SCIENTIFIC— The Nature of 
Comets; Tlie Future of American Iron; Power of a 
Locomotive; Stone Turning Apparatus. 35. 

THE SHEEP FOLD.— Sheep Husbandry; The Sheep 
Dog; Fine vs. Coarse Wooled Sheep; Weaning Lambs. 
35. 

FARMERS IN COUNCIL— Oakland Farming, Horticul 
luraland Industrial (Tub; San Jose Farmers' Club 
and Prot ect ive Association; Sacramento Farmers' 
< !hlb: Santa Cruz Fanners' Club; 36. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from various Counties in 
i lalifornta and Oregon, 37. 

HOME AND FARM- Hair Ball from a Hog's Stomach: 
Farming as a Business. Familiar Science; To Get Rid 
.f Flea.-: Selecting Calves for Milkers; Alfalfa; j>re- 
serve,! Meats. 38. 

THE DAIRY.— Points of a Good Dairy Cow: Dairy 
Bints; Selection, Breeding and Care of Cattle; Cost 
of a Small Cheese Factory; Milking with Dry Hands, 
38. 

USEFUL INFORMATION.— The Mississippi and Ni- 
agara Rivers: Putting Grindstones in Order; What Oils 
will Ignite Spontaneously: Grafting Wax: Test for 
Japan; Tan Color; Mildew in Boat SailB; Engraving 
Extraordinary. 39. 

GOOD HEALTH.— Increasing Longevity of Human 
Life: Mercury in the Human System: Necessity of 
Carefulness in Old Age; Drugging; Physiological Ac- 
tion of Quinine; Ancient Dentistry: Fatigue, Morbid 
Fears: Micrococci in Measles; Toothache; Oil of 
Peppermint, 39. 

HOME CIRCLE.— "Papa"; (Poetry); No Interest in 
their Work; Collegiate Honors; Knocked About in 
the World; About Babies; Who are the Young: A 
Cheerful Home; Powder vs. Hair Dye; Country Life 
Preferable. 42. 

Vorxii FOLKS' COLUMN. -The Old Grove School 
House; (Poetry); Among Our Juvenile Exchanges; 
Age of Animals. 42. 

1>( iMES TTCECONOMY— Whitewashing; Tomato Sauce; 
Dried Figs as Food; Summer Drinks; Practical Re- 
ceipts, 43. 

MISCELLANEOUS. — The Bidwell Farm; Dreary 
Homes; New Fertilizer; Home Attractions, 43. 



State Fair. 



The officers of the State Society are wide 
awake making preparations for the approaching 
State Fair. At a meeting of the Board on the 
9th inst., a full speed premium was adopted, 
and will soon be ptiblished. The price of ad- 
mission to the Park was reduced to 50 cents, 
and the price for a seat in the grand stand was 
fixed at 50 cents for gentlemen — Ladies' seats 
free. 

The Superintendent of the Park was author- 
ized to make all necessary arrangements for ad- 
ditional stalls at the Park so as to accommo- 
date a much larger number of stock of all kinds 
than ever before. The Visiting Committee re- 
ported that the prospects are good for one of 
the largest exhibitions ever held on the Pacific 
Coast. 

Everybody seemed to be making arrange- 
ments to attend. All the district and county 
Fairs are working in harmony with the State 
Society. Taken all in all the Fair of 1872 bids 
fair to exceed all its predecessors, and present 
a creditable exposition of the industries and re- 
sources of the State. 



Refused.— The advertisement (with cash) 
from W. H. Chidester, New York. Keason. 
We think our readers are better off without 
reading, and certainly without answering his 

advertisement. 



On File. — From J. M. S., Hopeton. From 
G. D. C, Riverside. Farm House Chat. 



Editorial Notes Among the Farmers. 

It is so uncommon to have poor crops in So- 
noma county that every farmer we met seemed 
to feel called upon to appologize, not only for 
the appearance of his own grain but for that of 
the general grain crop of the county. As we 
have before remarked, the coast counties are 
generally favored with a good complement of 
rain each winter, and the fogs of the summer 
ensure a good crop of the cereals. The past 
winter, however, brought so much and so con- 
stant rain during the usual time of sowing, that 
all farming operations were suspended until 
very late in the season. The consequence was 
that the grain was generally sown late and 
the ground was not in very good condition. 
The usual late rains failing and the accus- 
tomed fogs being suspended this season, the 
cereals and grass are unusally light. But no 
other people of the State are in a better condi- 
tion to meet the consequences of light crops 
than those of Sonoma county. And while they 
apologize they do not complain. In fact they 
seem as well satisfied with their lot and location 
as any people we have met in the State. 
Petaluma. 

This town is, of course, to some extent, feel- 
'ug in advance the effects of a comparative fail- 
ure of crops in the county, but a more gallant, 
enterprising, generous-hearted people, we have 
not met in all our travels, than the people of 
Petaluma. Nor have we met anywhere a more 
wide-awake and determined set of men con- 
trolling the business and destinies of a District 
Agricultural Society than those composing the 
management of the Sonoma and Marin Society, 
located at this place. Already are they busy 
in making preparations for the annual fair, 
to come off in September. Already are many 
of the stalls at the fair ground occupied with 
young horses in training for ihe trials ol speed 
to be had at the fair. 

Seneca Daniels, 
J.hat successful stock breeder, both in the line 
of horned cattle and horses, has fifteen colts, 
all the get of his celebrated stallion McLellan, 
on the grounds speeding for the District and 
State Fairs. 

Mr. Daniels has now seventy colts between 
one and six years old, sired by this favorite 
horse, and if we are not mistaken, some of them 
will make a record worthy of their sire. He 
has six thoroughbred mares, the dams of a 
number of his most promising colts. 
Devon Cattle. 

At the residence of Mr. D., we had the pleas- 
use of seeing his herd of beautiful Devon cattle. 
This herd consists of twenty-five head of cows 
and calves — all one color — a deep bright, red. 
For easy keeping qualities symmetry of form 
and desirableness of color, this breed of cattle 
are not excelled by any other. In Mr. Dan- 
iel's opinion they are for general purposes 
superior to all others. Mr. D. had just sold 
his two last bulls — one a three-year old and one 
a yearling. He will import others this summer 
to supply their places. He has also a number 
of very fine bull calves. 

Hennery. 

While walking over the rolling hills of which, 
in part, Mr. D's, valuable home farm consists, 
we came upon one of the most extensive and 
be9t planned and managed henneries it has ever 
been our lot to behold in California or any other 
State. It might very appropriately be termed 
a chicken village. It was located in a ravine 
through which was a small stream running, 
supported by living water. The surrounding 
hills protect it from the prevailing winds. The 
village consisted of some three or four small 
board houses about 12 by 14 feet square. In 
one end of each of these houses were the nests 
and in the other the roosts for the large ,hens. 
These houses were situated at a considerable 
distance, say twenty rods apart. One house of 
about the same size was the^ store room for the 
chicken-feed and a work-shop for the poultry 
master. Scattered over a space of four or five 
acres, and extending up the sides of the hills 
were one hundred and fifty coops, each one con- 
taining a hen, the mother of a brood of chick- 
ens or turkeys. 

The prettiest sight of all were the young 
chickens and turkeys, from 1,500 to 2,000, all 
the way from a quarter to half grown, running 
in droves all over the country for a mile and a 
half in circumference, to the very summits of 
the surrounding hills, catching the unlucky flies 
and grasshoppers that happened to come that 
way. Mr. D. says this chicken business is the 



best paying enterprise he has engaged in. He 
started it to supply his table with meat and 
eggs, but it had grown away beyond the require- 
ments of his own table and now makes no 
small figure in the annual income of his farm. 
The chickens, old and young are all healthy 
and in a thriving condition, and bj* careful 
management, keeping the coops at a good dis- 
tance apart and clean, and supplied with plenty 
of fresh water and good food they are kept so 
from year to year. 

Among the Wine Growers. 
Sonoma Valley is one of the first localities in 
the State in which the vine was planted, and is 
justly celebrated the world over, for the superi- 
or quality of its wines and brandies. To visit 
this valley, its vineyards and wine cellars, was 
therefore one of the principal objects of the 
visiting committee in their travels through this 
portion of the State. This fact was no sooner 
known to the Board of Directors of the Sonoma 
and Marin Agricultural Society than provision 
was made for our conveyance to the desired 
locality, and Treasurer F. W. Longee, and citi- 
zen G. Warner, volunteered to accompany us. 
A pleasant ride of about three hours in an easy 
carriage over a spur of the Coast Range, that di- 
vides the Petaluma from the Sonoma valley, and 
at the same time serves as a barrier to the coast 
fogs found us at the pallacial residence of J. R. 
Snyder. This residence is situated on the east 
of the valley, on the brow of an oval hill at an ele- 
vation which commands a delightful view of the 
rich flatlauds of the valley below. The ever pres- 
ent light-green of the vineyards through which 
you i ide.aud which here everywhere abound, the 
cropping nut of volcanic ledges here and there 
as yon wind your way up the elevation, the 
massive walls of the wine cellar seen through 
the dark green foliage of the live oak, and the 
lofty broken peaks of the Coast Range in the 
back ground, give to the location an air of 
Alpine beauty and grandeur. As you approach 
the residence, you seem almost to hear within 
its massive walls the Major's voice as he sings; 
" The ruby dew that 'stills 
Upon Val d'Arnois hills. 
Touching the sense with odor so divine 
That not the violet, 
Its lips with morning wet. 
Utters such sweetness from her little shrine. 
When I drink of it I rise 
O'er the hill that make s all poets wise; 
And in my voice and in my song 
Grow so sweet and grow so strong. 
I challenge Phoebus with his Delphic eyes! 
Give me then from a golden measure 
The ruby that is my treasure, my treasure! " 

We were temporarily disappointed in find- 
ing that the Major was not at home. But a 
few minutes elapsed, however, when he and his 
daughter drove up aud extended to us a cordial 
reception, in that easy and hospitable manner 
for which the old California pioneers are so 
eminently distinguished, and which places one 
so completely at ease. A walk through the vine- 
yard show's that the location has been selected 
with admirable judgment. The soil is of the 
best for wine purposes — being, to u great exent 
composed of the wash and debris of the sur- 
rounding hills, thrown up evidently by volcanic 
eruptions. Being sheltered from the fogs of 
the coast, and yet so near the sea, the climate 
is equible and well calculated for ripening the 
grape in the best possible manner to make a 
light and delicate wine. We next were shown 
the cellar and invited to sample the wines them- 
selves. Here we found samples of each year's 
vintage since 18C6. We will not attempt here 
to give an opinion as to their quality. Suffice 
it so Sfiy that the Major intends placing 
samples on exhibition at the Wine Growers' 
Association, to be held in connection with the 
State Fair, and we think he may do so without 
fear of an unfavorable result. The Major is 
wide awake to whatever may benefit this great 
industry — to whatever may improve our wines 
and introduce them into general use instead of 
the alcoholic and poisonous mixtures hereto- 
fore so extensively imported to this country. 
He is now engaged in testing the wines 
of the different vineyards in Sonoma 
county, to ascertain their percentage of al- 
cohol. His cellar contains from 35,000 to 
40,000 gallons of wine, mostly of the vintage of 
1870 aud 1871. We spent here a most agree- 
able night, and after breakfast next morning 
the Major's carriage was at the door ready to 
give us a turn through the valley. The first 
place we visited was the 

Biicna Vista Viniculturist Association. 
Learning that by the rules of this association 
the Superintendent could not admit anyone 
iuto the cellar without permit from the Presi- 
dent, Judge O. H. Pratt, we had taken the pre- 
caution to be fully armed and equipped with the 
necessary papers. We were politely met by 
Messrs. Grotham and Eitz the cellar master 
and champagne maker in charge, and shown 
the entire establishment, but as the Rubal has 
lately given a full and very correct description 
of the same, we shall omit particulars. The 
Association has on their place 540 acres of bearing 
vines. They have sold nearly all their wine 
except the vintage of 1871 — samples only of 
previous vintages since 1866 having been re- 
tained. In 187l they made 142,000 gallons of 
wine aud 5,000 gallons of brandy. They turn 
out about. 5, 000 bottles of champagne each month. 
There are at this time about 30,000 bot- 
tles in the racks. Each bottle is jarred by 
hand each day while in the rack, and 
the average time of setting is two and a 
half months. We went through the entire 
establishment and were very politely shown 
every process, and listened to a full description 
of the same by Mr. Eitz. Our traveling com- 
panion, Col. Younger, being more of a cattle 
than wine man, and having been told that it 



was almost impossible for one to go through so 
extensive an establishment and come out per- 
fectly straight, faltered on the way and awaited 
our return in the outer room. We noticed, 
however, when the sparkling champagne was 
brought on beseemed to appreciate good wine as 
well as any one. So much so that the Major could 
not forbear relating the anecdote of the Piker 
who, having indulged on a similar occasion, 
confidentially remarked to a friend, "this is the 
best way to eat grapes I ever knew, you get so 
much grapes in so small a compass. ' ' 
0. W. Craig. 

We next visited this gentleman's placo; ho 
has a vineyard of about 28,000 vines; buys 
grapes from neighbors and makes on an average 
from 25,000 to 30,000 gallons of wine a year. 
Has on hand samples of wines since 1807. Is 
also extensively engaged in making brandy. 
Uses Schleifer's patent still and thinks it has 
many advantages over other kinds. From the 
quality of the brandy tasted wo conclude that 
either the still is good or Mr. Craig understands 
his business — perhaps both — also that the ma- 
terial from which it is made must be superior. 

We were next driven to the farm of our old 
Sacramento friend, 

Leonard Goss, 

Who with his amiable lady gave us a cor- 
dial greeting, and did not forget the wants of 
the inner man. Mr. Goss has a beautiful and 
valuable farm of 320 acres, is engaged in gen- 
eraly farming, including vine growing and wine 
making. Has 75 acres in vines just coming 
into bearing; made his first winein 1871 — 10,000 
gallons; takes to country life naturally and 
says he is happy and contented. 

On up the valley we went, Mr. (loss increas- 
ing our party, to the place of 

William McPherson Hill, 
One of the pioneer horticulturists and farmers 
of Sonoma valley and the State. Mr. Hill was 
to Sonoma what A. P. Smith was to Sacramen- 
to. As early as 1852, he imported fruit I 
various kinds and set out an orchard. In 1866 
his peach trees bore quite freely aud sold 
peaches at $9 per dozen, in quantities. From 
200 peach trees planted in 1862, he gathered 
in 1857, 37,000 lbs. of peaches which he sold as 
high as $1.26 per lb. From the two cherry 
trees planted in 1852 he realized in L85E ~ VI pea 
tree for cherries sold, of these two trees one 
died this season and the other is still alive. 
Mr. Hill is also engaged in the same business. 
He has 75 acres in vines mostly of valuable 
foreign varieties-prizes theZinfindel very highly 
for wine — has samples of wine on hand of 
each year since 1867— winter of 1871—10,000 
gallons. On our trip through the valley we 
passed many other valuable places and regret 
we had not time to call. We shall long remem- 
ber our trip through Marin and Sonoma coun- 
ties. We found the Rubal everywhere and con- 
sequently felt at home everywhere. 

Artesian Wells in Idaho. 

We see by the Idaho Press, that artesian 
wells are to be resorted to in that/Territory, for 
irrigation purposes, and supply of water for the 
towns. The valleys and plains of that Territory 
are well suited to agricultural purposes in every 
respect except a supply of water — the spring 
rains and melting of the snows are all they have 
to depend upon for the season. With water, the 
plains would "blossom like the rose," and the 
soil produce an abundance of grain, grass and 
vegetables. The soil of the large valleys that 
are so destitute during the hot summer months 
is really better than that of Utah — which is so 
well adapted to agriculture when properly 
irrigated. The Idaho basins with plenty of 
water would yield fine fruits.and product the 
best varieties, and in great abundance. Somo 
experiments have been made by enterprising 
parties who have located small farms where 
they could supply themselves with water from 
a river or large springs — and the n suit has 
been satisfactory. 

The citizens of Boise City have been devoting 
their attention within a few weeks to this 
artesian well system — they have experienced 
some trouble and drawbacks from employing 
incompetent men, and put to considerable 
unnecessary expense. The Standard gives the 
citizens a piece of advice to this effect: "Try 
it again and succeed, and thus get back the 
money now apparently thrown away. It is 
your only chance to get even." 

The Queen river valley and all the valleys 
north of Snake river, arc rich in soil and climate, 
and with plenty of water would make fine farm- 
ing lands, and afford pleasant homes to the 
agricultural citizens of Idaho. Several wells 
have been dug in all these valleys and water is 
usually obtained at 20 or 30 feet below the 
surface. 

The Artesian Well company now operating at 
Boise d i not sdem to understand the process of 
drilling, whereat the press of that city advise 
them "not to get the cart before the horse so 
often." No doubt the successful sinking of the 
wells and a bountiful supply of water will yet 
reward the labors that are now being made un- 
der difficulties. 



July 20, 1872.J 



4L 



An Hour Among the Flowers. 

In all this beautiful world, San Francisco is 
undoubtedly the one only Eden of flowers. 
Our climate is so genial that summer and 
winter, winter and summer, they are seen in 
such prodigal profusion, variety and beauty as 
to excite the admiration of every resident, lover 
of the beautiful aud the envy of the stranger. 

Upon the altar of prayer, on the desk of the 
banker, the counter of the merchant, in the 
lady's boudoir, in the parlor of the rich and in 
the dwelling of the humblest poor, these em- 
blems of purity pour out their rich fragrance 
and gladden our hearts with their sparkling 
beauty; and we have often wondered where all 
these charming flowers came from. 

Attracted by a gorgeous bouquet and pots of 
strikingly elegant flowers in the window of the 
business house of E. E. Moore, seedsman, nur- 
seryman and florist, 425 Washington street we 
were induced to step in and see if we could 
solve the mystery of their place of growth 
and rare development. We found them to be 
entirely the growth of his own grounds, and he 
invited us at once to take a ride with him to the 
corner of Jones and Chestnut streets and see 
what he was doing in his line of business. 

We accepted the invitation and in a few mo- 
ments were at the place indicated. Here, so 
near North Beach it seemed to us the ocean air 
must be too harsh for the growth of such deli- 
cate beauties, we found a perfect exuberance of 
vegetation, in a soil evidently well adapted to 
the growth and habits of a vast variety of 
plants, that in green houses and open grounds 
were everywhere flourishing in the full strength 
of a perfect development. 

In one portion of the grounds, are the pro- 
pagating borders, where the choicest plants the 
world produces, gathered in from England, 
France, Italy, China, Japan and Australia are 
reproduced from seeds, suckers, slips, cuttings 
and divisions of roots and bulbs, and grown to 
a condition of flowering perfection. 

In another quarter are seen great masses of 
beautiful flowers, from which bushels are daily 
cut and sold to the rogular bouquet dealers, 
whose business is specially to arrange them in 
bouquet form for market, a business wholly dis- 
tinct from their propagation; and it is simply 
astonishing to see the immense quantities of 
flower3 that these grounds daily supjfly, not 
only to bouquet dealers but to others who may 
send in their orders. 

Not only flowers, but here also are grown all 
the choicest varieties of elegant plants, elegant 
in form of leaf and coloring and so many 
species as to be beyond enumeration here, were 
we to attempt it. Nor is this all, but the most 
rare, useful and ornamental among deciduous 
and evergreen trees, here find a genial soil, and 
show a growth that tells of a scientific culture. 
And thus and there we found one of the souroes 
from whence comes so many beautiful flowers. 

Who has Lost a Bridle ? — A Minnesota 
wood-chopper hewed down a tall tree the other 
day and upon splitting up the trunk with an 
axe and wedge, fourd embedded in the wood 
at the point where the trunk diverged into 
branches, a leather bridle of antique pattern, 
with bit and buckles attached, and all in a re- 
markable state of preservation. It was found 
fully thirty feet from the ground and its pres- 
ence there can only be accounted for by the 
supposition that some passing horseman had 
used the crotch of a sapling as a rest for his 
bridle, and, led from the place in pursuit of his 
straying horse, had been unable to find it again, 
aud abandoned the bridle to be carried up and 
entombed by the slow growth of the tree. It is 
believed that the tree must have been fifty years 
in hiding its treasure. 

We clip the above item from the Morning Call; 
but hope it is not claimed as original, for who 
does not know, that there is no elongation or 
lifting up of the trunk of a tree or its "crotch," 
if it have one, from the hight at which it is 
first formed, though it live a thousand years. 

Subplus Melons. — Instead of allowing the 
surplus melons of the farm to go to waste 
toward the close of the season, send to the office 
of the Bubal Pbess for Wadsworth's work on 
Melon Sugar Making. Price, fifty cents in 
coin, or sixty cents in currency or postage 
stamps. 

Otjb Patent Elastic File-Holders. — We 
have sold many of these, and never heard but 
one verdict concerning them — and that highly 
in their favor. Price $1.50 post paid. Will 
last many years and preserve thousands of 
papers. 



Petersen's Patent Bee Hive. 

In the Rubal of April 27th we gave a short 
description of Petersen's patent bee hive, with 
a cut illustrative of its form as a whole, and 
being one of the two that we here present; but 
the other cut which had not then been received 
from the engraver, gives a clearer illustration 
of the interior of the hive, the form and ar- 
rangement of the frames for the support of 
honey and breeding comb. 

The advantages claimed for this new hive 
over many of those in common use are the fa- 
cility it affords of examining at all times the 
stores of the bees, and the taking away of any 
surplus, or supplying whatever may be want- 
ing. Also the presence and state of health of 
the queen bee, in fact of the whole hive. It 
enables the keeper to interfere in all sorts of 
emergencies ; increasing the number of bees by 
artificially creating young swarms; and what is 
of especial importance to the progress of bee 
science, can be thoroughly examined with ref- 



sort are sold at $6.00, and- the others at $5.00. 
The swarm carrier, which is necessary in 
order to place a swarm into the hives, will cost 
fifty cents. 

This hive has been patented through the 
Scientific Peess Patent Agency by P. O. Pet- 
tersen who can be addressed care of W. H. 
Raymond, corner of Twelfth and Clay streets, 
Oakland, Alameda Co. 

State and County Rights for sale by Wiester 
& Co., 17 New Montgomery street, San Fran- 




erence to the behavior and habits of the differ- 
ent bees, queens, drones and workers, although 
there is no glass used in its construction. 

Persons familiar with the habits of bees know 
that one of their most necessary and frequent 
employments is the expulsion of the overheated 
and foul air from the hive. To do this, the 
bees station themselves at or near the open- 
'ng in the hive, turning their heads inward, 
take hold with their feet and move their wings 
with such rapidity as to cause a considerable 
current of air, frequently causing a draft 
strong enough to be perceptibly felt outside the 
hive. The improvements in this hive consist 
in providing it with suitable openings both 
above and below by means of which the neces- 
sary ventilation can be secured and regulated. 
One hive has a gable roof, and at intervals in 
the upper edge of the side walls saw cuts or 




kerfs are provided which will be sufficiently 
wide to afford a passage for the air. A strip is 
secured between the projecting eaves and side 
of the hive so as to leave a triangular space ex- 
tending from end to end of the hive, and thus 
provide a passage for the air. By stopping up 
the ends of this passage, the ventilation is shut 
off. Near the bottom of the hive is a false 
bottom, the side edges of which are also 
provided with saw cuts or kerfs. At short 
intervals and in the lower edge of the 
sides of the hives other kerfs are cut so as 
to break joints with the first mentioned. 
The frames are made in the usual manner, ex- 
cept that the upper corners are rounded and 
project slightly, so that they will fit into a 
groove in the upper part of the hive and bo sus- 
pended there, and they can be turned slightly 
so as to come out easily. There is sufficient 
space over them to admit the hand so as to re- 
move them when necessary. A flat piece of 
wood covering two frames is laid over the tops 
so as to prevent the bees from building above. 
When these loose pieces are taken out the frames 
may be removed. There is a door at each end 
of the hive which may be opened so as to get at 
the honey from either end. A portion of the 
hive may be partitioned off when convenient by 
a piece of board which fits into it. The other 
hive is similar in construction, the only differ- 
ence being the flat roof, making it cheaper. 
Two kinds of hives are made. The better 



Salt as a Fertilizer. 

In all countries where salt can be obtained 
at cheap rates, it can be used profitably on all 
light lands as a direct and quick fertilizer. It 
has long been known that certain root crops, 
and especially the mangel wurzel are very greatly 
benefitted by using salt as a fertilizer. All the 
grasses and clovers are increased in quantity 
and quality; giving to the stalk or haulm more 
of strength and maturity; and particularly is its 
effect apparent upon dry Luid in a dry sea- 
son; and as this condition of soil aud climate 
pertains to much of California, it is believed 
that salt will eventually become with us a staple 
fertilizer. 

It is said by Liebig, that its effect upon cere- 
als and particularly wheat and barley, is on ac- 
counts of its power to dissolve the silica of the 
soil, which goes to strengthen the straw, and to 
the production of a large portion of the heads of 
wheat exclusive of the grain. It has been found 
that upon land said to be too rich for wheat, 
and on which the straw was too weak, and con- 
sequently "lodged," the application of salt 
always remedies the evil. 

Salt Increases the Product. 
Well conducted experiments prove that the 
application of 200 pounds of salt, as atop dress- 
ing for wheat in early spring, strengthens the 
strav, without increasing its growth, and adds 
materially to the weight of the grain per acre, 
without increasing the quantity by measure. 

Ths same quantity per acre will increase the 
quanity and quality of grasses upon closely fed 
pasture grounds, which is probably owing in 
part to its deliquescence or power of attract- 
ing moisture from the atmosphere. The same 
effect is noticeable where plaster — gypsum — is 
sown broad cast in spring upon any of the 
clovers; not only the quality but the quantity 
is largely increased, whether the land is in re- 
ality made more fertile or not. 

Lands have been rendered more fertile by 
simply rrigating with the waters of salt springs 
in numerous localities, but it is easy to do too 
much where the supply of salt is abundant and 
cheap. 

Water as a Fertilizer. 

A correspondent asks the following question: 
" Is it eyer claimed, that pure spring or river 
water, is in any respect a fertilizer of lands, 
beyond tie furnishing of a sufficiency of mois- 
ture to ar.d soils, that without it would not be 
made productive ?" 

We do aot consider the question fairly put, 
because ve know of no pure spring or river 
water. If ordinary spring or river water is 
meant, no matter how clear of impurities it 
may appeir to the eye, then we say emphatical- 
ly, yes! and for the following reasons: We have 
seen a hillside of an Eastern New York farm, 
that had for many years produced little more 
than the common daisy aud a small running 
vine called five-finger, completely renovated 
and made to produce luxuriant crops of nutri- 
tious grasses, by the simple turning on of the 
water of a large spring brought to the place a 
third of a mile through a leaden pipe, and the 
mere harrowing in upon the surface the neces- 
sary glass seeds. 

This field continued steadily to increase in 
productiveness for years, in fact till it had at- 
tained its apparent maximum of production, 
without the addition of any manure whatever. 
We have seen numerous instances of increas- 
ed and continued productiveness in soils by 
flooding at intervals with clear river water. 
Such lands are capable of yielding indefinitely 
large yields of jrass and hay without deteriora- 
tion, which coud not be, but for the fertilizing 
effect of the waters of irrigation. 

The rationale of its operation we conceive to 
be this — there is hardly a spring of water to bo 
found, however pure it may appear to the eye, 
that does not cortain more or less of the very 
salts— in solution— that form the constituents 
>f plants, and in the bent possible condition 



for instant elaboration into the juices of 
vegetation acted upon. 

The fertilizing effect of the apparently pure 
waters of rivers is due to the same cause. That 
all fresh water rivers contain these salts in con- 
siderable'quantities, though not noticeable with- 
outanalysis, isproveninthe one undeniable fact, 
that all lakes or bodies of water that receive 
large fresh water rivers, and have no outlet, are 
always salt. 

Salt alone is a powerful fertilizer when judi- 
ciously applied, and this, and the salts of iron 
— another powerful vegetable stimulant if not a 
direct manure — are doubtless the two principle 
mineral fertilizing agents conveyed to the roots 
of plants by the waters of irrigation . 

Soils— Causes of Sterilty. 

Though California possesses a great variety 
of soils of unsurpassed fertility, they are not so 
fertile but they can be speedily exhausted by in- 
judicious cropping. A variety of causes are oper- 
ating here, tending more speedily than in other 
countries and climates, to the impoverishment 
of cultivated lands. One of these is found in 
the high value attached to crops of grasses and 
clovers for hay-making, for the supply of the 
cities and the immense number of working ani- 
mals in all parts of the State, and among all in- 
dustries. 

This produces a direct drain upon the fertil- 
ity of the land because no attention is given to 
a return of fertilizers to make good the loss, as 
but a small part if any is ever fed out upon the 
land. Barn-yard manure is here almost un- 
known, for, as compared with other countries 
we have no barns or barn-yards. 
The Straw is Burned. 

Even the straw from our grain fields not act- 
ually sold off the farm for hay, is in too many 
instances a total loss, so far as its value as a 
manure to the farm is concerned, being con- 
sumed in immease piles, and no care taken to 
return the ashes to the soil from whence it 
came. This return of only the ashes of the 
burned straw, may seem but a poor return for 
the quantity of straw removed. 

We have ample demonstration, however, in 
proof that this is all that is needed. We see the 
very tops of our hills kept fertile in the highest 
degree by the annual burning of the grasses aud 
straw of the wild-oat; but as it is labor to re- 
turn, spread and burn the straw upon the fields 
from whence taken, it is seldom done and 
never without danger from the fire. 
Plowing in the Straw. 

Even now before our lands are worn quite.out, 
we might profit by the experience of the past, 
or by what we have seen and practiced in the 
older states, and by a generous return of vege- 
table growth or its ashes, to the soil, save our 
lands from that process of deterioration, that 
has rendered so many districts of older coun- 
tries almost unfit or unremunerative for culti- 
vation. 

It is an axiom with most culturists, thttfea 
crop, be it what it may, exhausts the soil of 
properties peculiar to itself, and that, therefore, 
an annual recurrence of the same crop on the 
same field is attended with a corresponding 
loss of those properties necessary to the fullest 
development of such crop. If this be true, and 
the truth of the proposition is difficult of refu- 
tation, what more appropriate application for 
the purposes of manure could or can be made, 
than the return of the entire haulm or straw, as 
food for tho succeeding crop. 

Not Mere Theory. 

We are not introducing theory alone, nor is 
there anything new in our proposition to en- 
rich the soil by the application of vegetable 
growth, for we have all seen land greatly en- 
riched by the plowing in of both green and 
dried crops as manuie. Everybody lias son 01 
heard of it; it is old as scientific agriculture it 
self, and is the means by which tho worn-out 
lands of the East are being renovated and 
brought back to their original productiveness. 

But in California the same system will not 
answer, or as completely as it does in other 
countries. We have seen straw turned under a 
five-inch depth of furrow, and two years after- 
wards, found on examination, entirely unrottted 
and nearly as bright as when first covered. 
The reason for this is found iu the fact that the 
winters are so continuously wet and cold, with 
out freezing, however, as to entirely prevent the 
straw from lotting, whilst the summers are so 
constantly ho( and dry that, then it cannot rot; 
and the a»me to a great extent is the case with 
all "h>ng" or coarse manures. 

Thus the burning of the straw upon the 
land, may be found after all to be the most 
practicable way of disposing of it, giving pref- 
erence of course to any plan by which it can be 
fed to animals and the manure returned to the 
soil. 



42 



[July 20, 1872. 




" Papa." 

What is so sweet as tho baby's voice, 

" Papa, Papa 2" 
If of all music I had my choice, 
I'd choose the pure, little, ringing voice, 

Calling, cooing, 

Tenderly wooing, 

Papa, Papa ? 

You wrong it by saying its like a bird, 

Papa, papa ? 
No soaring lark that you ever heard, 
Or robin, or thrush, or bob-o'link, 
Hot even a nightingale, I think, 
Has a note so tender, so soft and true, 
A voice that so thrills one through and through, 

Calling, cooing. 

Tenderly wooing, 

Papa, papa ? 

Life has its sorrows, they'er not to be missed, 

Losses and pain; 
But when baby put up her dear face to be kissed 
There's always a balance of joy in the seal. 
When I hear her sweet voice my heart cannot 
fail, Calling, cooing, 

Tenderly wooing, 

Papa, papa ? 



No Interest in their Work. 

Light and trifling minds do not succeed 
in life, for the reason that they take no in- 
terest in their work. What they do is 
done mechanically, without thought or 
care, so that they "kill" so much time and 
get paid for it. If they talk or tattle, it is 
about that which has no sense in it, show- 
ing clearly smallness of calibre and va- 
cancy of thought. If girls or young men, 
they are or would be constantly on the 
"go," and chatter about every little some- 
things or absolute nothings. 

An hour in such company is enough. If 
it be young men of the same class, the 
weightiest discussions are on "how to 
make the hair grow" on their feminine 
faces, or about somebody's fast horse, 
fighting dogs, or the late runaway match 
of two silly youths. One seldom hears 
from them any reference to the real duties 
of life, or to the work by which they are 
to get a living. If a target company or a 
band of street minstrels passes the pre- 
mises where they "work," all these "light- 
weights" rush to the doors and windows, 
leaving their duties, it may be, in confu- 
sion. Without exhibiting interest in their 
work, without application, without energy 
or persovereuce, and with no economy as 
to the way in which they spend their time, 
is it surprising that their "efforts" are not 
appreciated by their hard-hearted em- 
ployer? These eye-servants, these giddy 
human soap-bubbles, are now "fixing 
things" for life. They are sowing the 
wind, and will reap the whirlwind. Hav- 
ing "no interest in their work," they will 
come to naught, and perhaps assist in fill- 
ing the poor-houses, asylums, hospitals 
and prisons. 

Remedy. — "What you find to do, doit 
with your might." Be diligent in busi- 
ness; do one thiug at a time, and finish 
what you begin. Let nothing divert yonr 
study of the interests of your employer. 
Make his interest your interest; he will, in 
time, if not at first, appreciate and reward 
your efforts. Be prompt, temperate, 
industrious; never "in the drag" always 
up to time, or a little ahead. Think more 
than you can talk. Read such books as 
throw light on your pursuit, that you may 
become thoroughly posted on all matters 
connected therewith. Attention to these 
things will call out your faculties, develop 
your mind, and secure to you a good 
measure of success in life. — Jour, of Com- 
inerce, Indianola. 



Collegiate Honors. — At the opening of 
the Cornell University recently twoyoung 
ladies, taking advantage of the recent res- 
olution of the trustees to admit young 
women on the same terms as young men, 
presented themselves for examination. 
Their names are Miss Emma S. Eastman, 
of Worcester, Mass., a former student 
of Vassar College, aud Miss Sophie B. 
Fleming, of Ithaca, New York. It is said 
that they passed the examinations in a 
manner highly creditable both to them 
selves and to the University. Both of 
them entered the Junior class registering 
themselves for an elective course which is 
nearly identical with the course in letters. 



Knocked About in the World. 

It is a good thing for a young man to be 
"knocked about in the world," though his 
soft-hearted parents may not think so. All 
youths, or, if not all, certainly nineteen- 
twentieths of the sura total, enter life with 
a surplusage of self-conceit. If, in meas- 
uring themselves with wiser and older men 
than they are, they discover that it is un- 
warranted, and get rid of it gracefully, of 
their own accord, well aud good; if not, it 
is desirable, for their own sakes, that it be 
knocked out of them. 

A boy who is sent to a largo school soon 
finds his level. His will may have been 
paramount at home; but school boys are 
democratic in their ideas, and, if arrogant, 
are sure to be thrashed into a recognition 
of the golden rule. The world is a great 
public school, and it soon teaches a new 
pupil his proper place. If he has the at- , 
tributes that belong to a loader, he will be 
installed in the position of a leader; if not, 1 
whatever his own opinion of his abilities I 
may be, he will be compelled to fall in | 
with the rank and file. If not destined to 
greatness, the next best thing to which he 
can aspire is respectability; but no man 
can either be truly great or respectable 
who is vain, pompous, and overbearing. 

By the time the novice has found his le- 
gitimate social position, bo the same higi 
or low the probability is that tho disagree- 
able traits of his character will be softeiud 
down or worn away. Most likely the pro- 
cess of abrasion will be rough, perhaps 
very rough; but when it is all over, and he 
begins to see himself as others see him, 
and not reflected in the mirror of self-csn- 
ceit, he will be thankful that he has run 
the gauntlet, and arrived, though by a 
rough road, at self knowledge. Upon the 
whole, whatever loving mothers may 
think to the contrary, it is a good thing 
for youths to be knocked about in the 
world— it makes men of them. 

About Babies. 

Too much caressing, fondling, totting 
and handling takes the sprightliness out 
of a kitten. Is not the same true o: ba- 
bies? 

Do not mothers who tend baby all day, 
walking the house, rocking, treating or 
jumping the little precious bundle to quiet 
its cries, pursue a wrong course of treat- 
ment for the good of the child? 

Many a woman thinks it would be hard- 
hearted and neglectful to put her baby to 
bed. then go out and shut the doer and 
let it quietly go to sleep as other people 
do, instead of rocking, singing, and coax- 
ing for an hour or two to induce seep to 
close the little eye-lids, but it makes a bet- 
ter natured and healthier child. 

"My baby would scream itself to death 
if I should do so," says one of the fussy, 
soothing-syrup, paragoric, hot drops, and 
other dosing kind of mothers. It all de- 
pends upon how you begin wiih your 
child. If you wish to be a slave, there is 
no surer way than to let a baby go hap- 
hazard, and. get the upper hands in bad 
habits. 

Human nature from its earliest infancy- 
is so much the subject of habit, that the 
greatest care should be taken to commence 
right with the baby. — Ehn Orion. 

Who are the Young? 

The feelings which are conventionally as- 
sumed to be the accompaniments of ago 
are not its especial consequences. We 
meet with old men and women who have 
not, according to common parlance, 
reached their prime. The beauty of youth 
has faded in them, or been crushed out of 
them. The candle of life though not half 
burned down to the socket, seems already 
to emit that "smoke where vanishes the 
flame." Sometimes suffering, sometimes 
sin, and not unfrequently bo.h— the one 
the consequence of the other — produce the 
ordinary effects of age prematurely; while, 
on the "other hand, we occasionally meet 
with the freshness and elasticity of youth 
in people who have long passed the grand 
climacteric. But in this "fast" era elderly 
youths are more common than youthful 
veterans. No man can wa.k the streets 
without admitting that fact. Men who live 
rationally, moderately, in acccordance 
with the true purposes of life, are gener- 
ally young in spirits to the last; but the 
sordid, the sensual, the nnsympathizing, 
whose hearts are wholly set upon mate- 
rial things, always grow oil before their 
time, and find, in the end, that the idols 
they have worshiped, at th* expense of all 
that is good and noble in human nature, 
can give them neither help nor solace. 

Mosic is an invisible dtnee as dancing 
is a silent music. 



A Cheerful Home. 

A single bitter word may disquiet an en- 
tire family for a whole day. One surly 
glance casts a gloom over the household; 
while a smile, like a gleam of sunshine, 
may light up the darkest and weariest 
hours. Like unexpected flowers which 
spring up along our path, full of freshness, 
fragrance and beauty, so the kind words, 
and gentle acts, and sweet dispositions 
make glad the home where peace and 
blessing dwell. No matter how humble 
the abode, if it bo thus garnished with 
grace, and sweetened with kindeness and 
smiles, the heart will turn longingly to- 
wards it from all the turmoils of the world, 
and home, if it be ever so homely, will be 
the dearest spot beneath the circle of the 
sun. 

And the influences of home perpetuate 
themselves. The gentle grace of the 
mother lives in her daughters long after 
her head is pillowed in the dust of death; 
and fatherly kindness finds its echo in the 
nobility and courtesy of sons who come to 
wear his mantle, and to fill his place; while 
on the other hand, from all unhappy, mis- 
governed homes, go forth persons who 
shall make other -homes miserable, and 
perpetuate the sourness and sadness, the 
contentions, and strifes, and railings, 
which have made thir own early lives so 
wretched and distorted. 

Toward the cheerful home the children 
gather "as clouds, and as doves to their 
window;" while from the home which is 
the abode of discontent and strife and 
trouble, they fly forth as vultures to rend 
their prey. The class of men that disturb 
aud disorder and distress tho world are not 
those born and nurtured amid the hallowed 
influences of Christian homes; but rather 
those whose early life has been a scene of 
trouble and vexation, who have started 
wrong in the pilgrimage, and whose 
course is one of disaster to themselves and 
of trouble to those around them. 



Powder versus Hair-dye. 

It is inconsistent for a man to dye his 
hair and whiskers and then condemn a 
woman for using powder to improve her 
complexion. The latter is not as silly a 
weakness as tho former, for a greasy face 
is not desirable, while grey hairs are beau- 
tiful. It is not only grey hair that has to 
endure the stages of coloring from the nat- 
ural shade through bluish, purplish, 
Dolly Varden variegations, to the looked- 
for brown or black, but red hair, whiskers 
or mustache are often in penance and dis- 
gust under the barber's dye- brush and fan. 

Either powder or hair-dye are to be 
avoided, for powder injures the skin, and 
if a woman once commences its use, some- 
thing makes it hard to discontinue. 

That something has often been called, 
the clean, cool feeling powder imparts to 
the skin, but as cold water answers that 
purpose better and is not injurious, ob- 
viously there is a hidden reason beyond. 

Honesty reveals the secret, which is the 
certainity that powder temporarily im- 
proves the looks. Every women will look 
pretty if she can, so if the use of powder 
becomes a habit, it is as difficult to stop it, 
as by moral sausion to effect a reform in an 
old smoker, even if he knows his pipes 
and cigars make him as thin as a shad. 

However, for consistency's sake, let a 
man who uses hair-dye forever hold his 
peace about the vanities of women. — Elm 
Orion, 



Country Life Preferable. — Oh, this 
constant, never-ceasing whirl in the cur- 
rent of city life! Will it always be so! 
Will the whirl, and bustle, and confusion 
always have such an attraction ? As long 
as moths flutter around a candle, human 
moths will doubtless flutter around the 
light that the city extends. And yet how 
much sweeter and more attractive life in 
the country is! Especially is it to woman. 
In the country, whatever her circum- 
stances of fortune, woman finds that which 
is an imperative want of her nature — a re- 
fined home. In the city, if poor, she can- 
not escape or shield her children from the 
noisy, vulgar life swarming around her; 
the tenemennt lodging or the second-rate 
lodging-house only remain to her. But 
under a pure sky, in a balmy atmosphere, 
the humblest cottage nestling at the foot 
of the mountain, one under the shadow of 
one of our majestic elms, can be the fitted 
home, we will not say of a lady — the word 
•iated with vulgar pretensions— but 
of gentle-women. 

Aiujument in company is generally the 
worst sort of conversation, and in books 
the worst sort of reading. 



Y©d[iq F 0LKS ' Col dpi [I. 



The Old Grove School House. 

By Albeet A. Ware— Aged 14 Years. 

In a cozy corner, where the two roads met, 
Near the old grove woods that sloped to the sun, 

There, in the shade did the school hous< 
Where my earliest tasks In books begun. 

My seat looked ont on the grove woods* slope, 
Where the king cut s nestled like flecks of gold; 

And the breath of the old throve trees awoke 
A d' cam of romance, like tales of old. 

The robinB sang and I gazed unchecked, 

When tie v build their nests and reared their young 
Aud at noon, I climbed tie boughs bedi eked 

By the swinging nests which the robins hung. 

I'd go to the ]>ond, not far from the door, 
Sometimes to swim, tish acd sometimes to skitlo. 

The old bell would tingle. "Kec. no is o'er," 
And I'd run to school, lest 1 should be late. 

I learned lessons, ami conned my 1 

And dreamed many a day dream s. re] 
"Where is the old school house 00WT" Borne one asks, 

I shall never sec it again. I (reran. 



Among our Juvenile Exchanges. 

Here is the "LUtte Corporal" bright as 
a new dollar. For all he has traveled all 
the way from Chicago, ' 'orporal is all 
smiles, and seems to be ready for a good 
visit with any young lady or gentleman 
not over fourteen years of age. < 'orporal 
is a gentleman, a refined little fellow, with 
a heart as big as it can be, and a merry, 
pleasant faco for all his friends. 

Little " Bright Side," traveling compan- 
ion of Corj:orti/'s, is as attractive as over - 
its happy face and pleasant stories are as 
welcome as ever. ' 'orporal and Bright 
Side both come from Chicago; they seem 
to have had a good time on the overland 
route, for they arrived as neat and clean 
as if they had left Chicago the same day. 

Nursery, from Boston, has come, too, 
with all the latest and prettiest pictures 
she coujd find for the month — and she is 
ready to show them to all of her little Cal- 
ifornia friends, and will also take great de- 
light in explaining to them. Nursery has 
had a longer journey than Bright Stole, but 
seems to be as cheerful as auy of her com- 
panions. " Boys and Girls," and "Chil- 
dren's Hour," have some of the prettiest 
stories to tell you ever heard or read; it 
will be a pleasant pastime to meet them, 
and hear what delightful things they have 
to tell. 

Here is the "Schoolmate!" and who does 
not welcome so pleasant and beloved a 
Schoolmate^ Little poems, histories, and 
puzzles fill its pages, and we do not be- 
lieve there is a school-girl or boy in the 
United States who would not welcome the 
coming of this pleasant paper. 

As we look over this large pile of juvenile 
books and papers, we think of the children 
living in the Territories, far from cities 
and towns, who do not see a child's paper 
for months at a time, perhaps not at all; 
how eagerly they would read them if they 
could only see them. It shows our little 
readers how grateful they should be for 
the privilege of seeing aud reading these 
pretty books, while bright-eyed children 
far oft' in Montana, Wyoming, and Utah, 
seldom see them, and do not know what 
Beautiful pictures and stories are prepared 
for little readers every week and mouth. 

Age of Animals. 

A bear rarely exceeds twenty years ; a 
dog lives twenty years; a wolf twenty ; a 
fox sixteen. Lions are long-lived ; the 
celebrated Poinpey lived to the ago of 
seventy. The average of cats is fifteen; a 
squirrel or hare, seven or eight; rabbits 
seven ; elephants have been known to live 
to the age of four hundred years. 

When Alexander the Great had conquered 
Porus, King of Tndia, he took a large ele- 
phant which had fought valiantly for the 
king, and naming him Ajax, dedicated him 
to the sun, with the inscription: "Alexan- 
der, the snn of Jupiter, has dedicated Ajax 
to the sun." He was found with this in- 
scription three hundred and fifty years 
afterward. Pigs have been known to live 
to the age of thirty years; the rhinoceros 
to twenty. A horse has been known to live 
to the age of sixty-five, but the average is 
twenty-five to thirty. Camels sometimes 
live to the age of one hundred. Stags are 
long-lived. Sheep seldom exceed the age 
of ten, and cows live about fifteen years. 

Currier thinks it probable that whales 
sometimes live a thousand years. An 
eminent naturalist has the skeleton of a 
swan that attained the ago of two hundred. 
Pelicans are long-lived. A tortoise hos 
been known to live to the great age of one 
hundred and seven. 



A sour temper bites ngly lines into one's 
face like aquafortis. 






July 20, 1872. J 



43 



lOMESTIC 



L CONOMY. 



Whitewashing. 

So simple a thing as preparing a wash and 
putting it on walls and fences may not seem 
worth notice, yet we all know that the "Women 
folks" complain about bad work in whitewash- 
ing, and "men folks" as a rule, think the mat- 
ter so simple that they do not care to know 
whether there is science or "coarse hand" work 
done to produce a nice job of whitewashing. 
Now we advise all men who have at any time 
come across these troubles to cut from this 
column the following process, and when next 
they are called upon to attend to any white- 
washing, to observe it carefully. They will find 
a great burthen lifted from their minds from a 
trifling cause, and in a trifling operation, if they 
conform to a scientific instead of a blundering 
method of 

Doing Whitewashing. 

The best whitewash contains no quicklime at 
all, but is made of pure whiting, which is a soft 
kind of chalk, ground very fine, washed so as 
to separate all the coarse and gritty particles, 
and formed into lumps in the process of drying. 
Good whiting, beaten up with water so as to 
form a milky liquid free from lumps, and mixed 
with a little good strong size, forms a whitewash 
that cannot be rubbed off, and will give a very 
brilliant white surface. This is substantially 
the material known as Kalsomine, something 
old but never appreciated until it received a 
high sounding name. The whiting used to 
make this whitewash or kalsomine, is some- 
times called Spanish white, Paris white, etc., 
etc. They are all the same thing, and the only 
point is to select the finest and whitest material 
offered to you, and take it under any name the 
vendor chooses to sell it, provided he does not 
ask too much for it, for it is only whiting after 
all. Some receipts name Sulphate of Baryta, 
a beautiful white powder, as the only material 
for making kalsomine. It answers very well, 
but is not easily procured, and more than half 
the time common whiting is sold for it. The 
size for mixing with the whiting is most easily 
prepared from glue, and as it is necessary that 
the whitewash should be permanent and as lit- 
tle liable to decay as possible, we must select a 
good article of glue. Directions upon this point 
could not be easily followed by housekeepers; 
let us therefore advise them to go to a respect- 
able dealer and buy the best. Professional 
artists in the science of kalsomining, generally 
use the cheapest.andniost recipes direct the use of 
a cheap article, but it will be found that it is 
most judicious to use the very best. The better 
the glue is, the less liable is it to decay in damp 
weather, and thus create disease. Moreover, 
when it is good, less of it is required, and the 
less glue you use, the purer will be the color of 
your kalsomine. To prepare the glue, soak it 
in water over night — not any longer, however, 
or it will begin to decay. It will absorb water 
and swell up, but will not dissolve. Pour the 
water off, add a little fresh, and boil until it 
forms a thin fluid. Beware of burning it, and 
to avoid this, the glue is best melted in a tin 
pail, set in an iron pot which contains some 
water. The whiting having been mixed with 
boiling water, as previously directed, the melted 
glue is added, and the whole diluted with hot 
water until it is of the consistency of ordinary 
whitewash. A quarter of a pound of good glue 
to eight pounds of whiting, is a very good pro- 
portion. It should be applied while hot, with 
a common whitewash brush. Owing to the 
fact that in damp places glue easily decays and 
produces poisonous vapors, kalsomine should 
not be used in damp basements or cellars. Any 
color may be given to this material, and in Eu- 
rope many houses have the walls finished with 
light shades of pink, blue, green, euc, instead 
of paper, and the effect is very pleasing. 

When walls have been previously covered 
with successive coats of common whitewash it 
will be necessary either to remove this or "kill" 
the lime. After taking off all that will come 
away by scraping and washing, the wall should 
be washed with a solution of vitrol — two ounces 
dissolved in a pail of water. This will "kill" 
the lime; in other words the white vitrol will 
be decomposed, and the wall be coated with 
plaster of Paris and white zinc, to which the 
kalsomine will adhere very readily. If these 
precautions be not taken, the kalsomine will 
very probably peel off. — Manufacturer. 

Tomato Sauce. — Trie Melbourne Leader gives 
the following recipe : 

Take forty pounds of tomatoes, wipe clean, 
and boil or bake till soft ; then squeeze through 
a sieve that will retain the seeds and skins. 
Boil for an hour in order to get rid of some of 
the watery portion, and then add half a gallon 
of best brown vinegar, 1% lbs. salt, 2oz. cloves, 
3 oz. allspice, 2 oz. cayenne pepper, 3 ft), white 
sugar, 4 oz. garlic and 2 oz. olack pepper. 
Boil a sufficient time ; two hours will usually 
suffice, but the sauce will not be boiled enough 
until it has become tolerably thick, and all the 
watery appearance has gone. Bottle without 
straining into perfectly dry bottles, and cork 
them securely when cold. The garlic must be 
peeled, bruised and tied up in a bag; all the 
spice must be ground; the quantities may be 
increased or diminished according to taste. We 
have kept sauce made from this receipt three 
years. 



Dried Figs as Food. 

Chemists who have given the matter consider- 
ation are agreed as to the high nutritious quality 
of figs. 

The richness of the fruit in saccharine matter 
offers a material equal to the starch of wheaten 
bread in a directly soluble form, which is more 
congenial to the human system. On the other 
hand, the oily and nitrogenous compound in 
the dry fig do not rank nearly so high as in 
wheaten bread. But these deficiences of gluten 
(and oil), so essential agents to nutrition may 
be easily made up by meat; and by calling on 
the animal kingdom for more fat and nitrogen- 
ous food may get the greatest benefits from the 
fig family. 

The great facility which the climate of Cali- 
fornia affords for raising this nutritious fruit 
should encourage its more general use here. 
The people of every climate should accustom 
themselves to the more general use of such 
fruits as are suited best to such climates. The 
testimony of science, and the history and customs 
of many nations, both ancient and modern, 
teach us the economic and health giving nature 
of the fig as food. 

In the Bible, figs are mentioned as 
amongst the food of man, and the tree, by its 
abundant yield of fruit and its protecting shade, 
whilst giving place to many a beautiful simile, is 
also made the emblem of domestic felicity. In 
one passage we have figs mentioned as provision 
in war, and a famishing Egyptian in the routed 
Edomite camp was nourished and invigorated 
by the fig-cake and raisins given him by the 
Israelites. As there can be no doubt of the 
Israelites having an eye to the portability, as 
well as the nutritiousness of the life-sustaining 
provisions they carried with them in the war, 
the fact of dry figs and raisins having been 
amongst their most valued supplies would pro- 
claim such fruits well worthy of our serious at- 
tention. 

Nor have we many difficulties in the way. 
Nature has highly developed the fig tree in Cali- 
fornia, and thus gives us a broad hint of what 
we might do by way of more thoroughly econ- 
omizing its product; the fig is already grown 
extensively, but not as it deserves to be. 

The fig-tree with us requires but little culture, 
and an acre or so devoted to it on any farm 
would certainly prove a great acquisition of 
comfort, and a saving of money. 

The fig-tree is long-lived, specimens some 
hundreds of years of age being known even in 
Britain. It claims naturally drained land, hill 
sides, or artificial drainage as a leading feature 
of its sucessful establishment. For home con- 
sumption the fruit may be sun or stove dried, 
and when dry may be packed and pressed away 
in boxes or barrels. 



Summer Drinks. 

Ice water should be drank but sparingly. A 
most excellent substitute for it is pounded ice 
taken in small lumps into the mouth and al- 
lowed to dissolve upon the tongue. This will 
prove very refreshing and much nr.ore enduring 
in its effects. 

Lemonade is a simple and grateful beverage. 
To make it: Roll the lemons on something 
hard until they become soft; grate off the rinds, 
cut the lemons into slices and squeeze them in 
a pitcher (a new clothes-pin will answer for a 
squeezer in lieu of something better;) pour on 
the required quantity of water, and sweeten ac- 
cording to taste. The grated rinds, for the 
sake of the aroma, should be added too. After 
mixing thoroughly, set the pitcher aside for half 
an hour; then strain the liquor through a jelly 
strainer, and put in the ice. 

Travelers who find it inconvenient to use 
lemons can carry a box of lemon sugar prepared 
from citric acid and sugar, a little of which in a 
glass of ice-water will furnish quite a refreshing 
drink, and one that will help oftentimes to avert 
sick-headache and biliousness. Citric acid is 
obtained from the juice of lemons and limes. 

Perry is a delicious beverage made from 
cherries, and will keep a year or more. Take 
six pounds of cherries and bruise them; pour 
on a pint and a half of hot water, and boil for 
fifteen minutes; strain through a flannel bag, 
and add three pounds of sugar. Boil for half an 
hour more, or until the liquid will sink to the 
bottom of a cup of water (try it with a tea- 
spoonful of the liquid); then turn it into jelly 
cups and cover with paper dipped in the white 
of an egg. 

To prepare the drink: Put a spoonful of the 
jelly into a goblet of water, and let it stand 
about ten minutes; then stir it up and fill with 
pounded ice. Currants and raspberries made 
into "shrub" furnish a pleasant and cooling 
drink when mixed with ice-water. Poundod ice 
is also an agreeable addition to a saucer of 
strawberries, raspberries or currants. Pound 
it until it is almost as fine as snow, and spread 
it over the berries. With fruit it is also an ex- 
cellent substitute for cream. 

Water ices are always acceptable. Those 
made of lemon, orange, currants, strawberries, 
and pineapple, are much improved by adding 
the stiff beaten whites of four eggs to every two 
quarts of the liquid. Put it in just as it is 
turned into the freezer, and it will free/.e in a 
foam. — Scribners' for July. 



Silver Polish. — Very many, indeed most of 
the compounds sold by itinerant venders for 
silver polish, are not only worthless for silver- 
ing purposes ,but positively injurious, from the 
fact that they contain mercury. The following 
receipt will enable any person to give to a piece 
of brass or copper a thin coating of silver, and 
this without the aid of heat. Take of 
nitrate of silver, 30 grains; common salt, 30 
grains; cream of tartar, 3% drms. Grind to- 
gether thoroughly, and when you wish to apply 
it, moisten it with a little water, and rub on the 
article with a piece of buckskin or other soft 
leather. Remember, however, that the coating 
thus imparted is very thin, and will not bear 
much wear or hard usage. It is valuable for 
coating the scales of instruments like ther- 
mometers, as it gives a dead-white silver surface 
that shows the figures plainly, and when 
varnished with some corlorless varnish it lasts a 
long time. 



Geeen Potatoes. — The Food Journal gives 
its opinion on the use of green and air-exposed 
potatoes after the following style: "Even a 
short exposure to air and light spoils potatoes 
for food. The use of potatoes is a preventive 
against scurvy, if not an actual cure for it. 
Potatoes that have been exposed to the air, and 
have become green are unwholesome ; and new 
potatoes — unripe ones — have much to do with 
the prevalence of cholera and such like diseases 
during the summer months." 



Practical Receipts. 

Cbeam Pie. — 1 pint milk, 1 cup sugar, 2 
eggs, Yt cup flour. Flavor to taste. Equal to 
custard. 

Keep sweet oil in a cool place if you wish to 
retain its sweetness for any length of time in 
warm weather. The oil should be supplied to 
the castor daily, and all returned to the bottle 
that is not used. 

Tomato Custaed. — This is said to be a bene- 
ficial diet for consumptives. It is made by 
straining finely stewed tomatoes through a 
course seive, and adding two pints of milk and 
one pint of tomatoes, four eggs, one teaspoon- 
ful of sugar. Bake in small cups quickly. 

Feosting foe Cake. — Beat the white of an 
egg until you can turn the plate over without 
the egg running off, then add five heaping ta- 
blespoonfuls of pulverized sugar, and one of 
starch. This quantity will frost one small 
cake. Flavor to taste. 

Way to Cook Cheese.— Cut a quarter of a 
pound of cheese into small slices, and boil a 
minute in a teacupf ul of water ; beat one egg 
and tablespoouful of flour together, adding 
gradually one pint of milk, pour into the boil- 
ing chesse and stir, which after a minute's 
cooking is fit to serve for a supper relish. 

Black Cubeant Jelly. — To each pound of 
pickled fruit, allow one gill of water; set them 
on the fire in the preserving pan to scald, but 
do not let them boil; bruise them well with a 
silver fork or wooden spoon — take them off and 
squeeze them through a hair sieve; and to ev- 
ery pint of juice allow a pound of loaf or raw 
sugar; boil it ten minutes. 

Ham Toast. — Chop some ham (which has 
been previously dressed) very small, and to a 
large teaspoonful of it add an egg well baaten 
up, a small bit of butter, and a little cream. 
Have ready some neatly cut pieces of bread, 
about the size of a silver dollar, but a little 
thicker, fried in good butter; spread the mix- 
ture on these, and serve them on a napkin. 

To Make the Mock Ceeam. — Put one pint of 
milk over the fire, wet a tablespoonful of corn 
starch or maizena in a very little cold milk, add 
one egg, one large tablespoonful of white su- 
gar, one-fourth teaspoonful of salt, and a little 
lemon, rose water or nutmeg. When the milk 
is ready to boil, stir in the mixture and let it 
boil about two minutes, taking care that it does 
not burn on. Let it get cold before filling the 
tarts. Corn starch is so largely adulterated now 
that sometimes a tablespoonful may not be 
quite enough, but one trial will determine it. 

Lobster and Fish Salads. — A very nice and 
elegant dish may be made with all kinds of cold 
tish, and some kinds of shell-fish. The follow- 
ing way of dressing is for a small lobster-salad, 
and will do for all fish salads: Have the bowl 
half filled with any kind of salad-herb you like. 
Then break a lobster in two, open the tail, ex- 
tract the meat in one piece, break the claws, 
cut the meat of both in small slices, about a 
quarter of an inch thick; arraugo those taste- 
fully on the salad; take out all the soft part of 
the belly, mix it in a basin with a teaspoonful 
of salt, half a one of pepper, four of vinegar, 
four of oil; stir it well together, and pour on 
the salad; then cover it with two hard eggs, cut 
in slices, a few slices of cucumber, and, to vary, 
a few capers and some fillets of anchovy. 

Mutton Soup. — Cut a neck of mutton into 
four pieces, put it aside, take a slice of the 
gammon of bacon, and put it in a saucepan with 
a quart of peas, with enough of water to boil 
them ; let the peas boil to a pulp, and strain 
them through a cloth; put them aside, add 
enough water to that in which the bacon is to 
boil the mutton; slice three turnips, as many 
carrots, and boil for an hour slowly; add sweet 
herbs, onions, cabbage and lettuce, chopped 
small; stew a quarter of an hour longer, suffi- 
cient to cook the mutton, then take it out, take 
some fresh green peas, add them, with some 
chopped parsley, and the peas first boiled, t" 
the soup; Iput in a lump of butter rolled in 
flour, and stew till tbfl green peas are done. 




VllSCELL^EQtJs* 



The Bidwell Farm. 

The Northern Enterprise furnishes ,f;he 
following facts concerning the crops, etc., 
of this celebrated farm : The present crop 
covers an area of 2,800 acres 2,000 of which 
is sown in wheat and the residue in barley, 
oats and alfalfa. The kinds of wheat sown 
are the white bearded Chile, towzel, native 
of north France, patent-office, club and 
Sonora. Everything is looking in splen- 
did order, whole fields of grain present a 
perfect uniformity in Light, not a weed or 
mixture of any kind to be seen. The 
average yield will at least be 30 bushels to 
the acre, while some of the best of it will 
reach 50 bushels to the acre. Seven hun- 
dred tons of hay have been harvested and 
housed this season. Sixty acres of alfalfa 
were sown last year, from 12 acres of which 
on the 12th day of April 42 tons of hay 
were cut, and from the same piece of 
ground on the 10th day of June, 50 tons 
were taken off. There are 25 acres of most 
luxurious growth of timothy. The barley 
fields look very promising and will yield 
an average of 50 bushels. There are two 
vineyards upon the farm, the old and new. 
The old covers about 2G acres, is the 
growth of years, and bears fruit of the first 
order. The new covers an area of 150 
acres but lately planted, containing not 
less than seventy-five thousand vines, all 
looking thrifty, and a majority of which 
will bear fruit next year. They embrace 
almost every variety of foreign grape. 
The farm orchard embraces one hundred 
acres, and contains every variety of fruit. 
There are growing upon the rancb.30 acres 
of beans, the field so clean and nice that 
not a weed can be seen thro' its length and 
breadth. There are one thousand paper 
shell almond trees, and an intention to 
plant one thousand more next season. 
There are about eight acres of a nursery 
under charge of Mr. Carmichel, one of the 
most experienced orchardists of the State. 
The stock consists of one thousand head of 
cattle, among which are found one hundred 
and fifty head of choice two-year old 
heifers, two hundred head of horses, the 
best of the country. Twelve hundred head 
of hogs and thirty five hundred head of 
sheep. There is a dairy where ninety cows 
are milked, with the milk and butter from 
which the town is supplied. The machin- 
ery in use for purposes of cultivation, cost 
over five thousand dollars. 



Dreary Homes. — Of all the dreary 
places, deliver us from the dreary farm 
houses which so many peoplecall "home." 
Bars for a front gate; chickens wallowing 
before the door; pig pens elbowing the 
house in the rear; scraggy trees never 
cared for, or no trees at all; no flowering 
shrubs, no neatness, no trimness. And 
yet a lawn and trees, and a neat walk, and 
a pleasant porch, and a plain fence around, 
all do not cost a great deal. They can be 
secured little by little, at odd times and 
the expense hardly be felt. And if ever 
the time comes when it is best to sell the 
farm, fifty dollars so invested will often 
bring back five hundred. For a man is a 
brute who will not insensibly yield to a 
higher price for such a farm when he 
thinks of the pleasant surroundings it 
offers his wife and children. — Ex. 



New Fertilizer, — We were shown yes- 
terday by a gentleman in the suburbs some 
extraordinary small fruits which he had 
caused to attain a monstrous size by the use 
of a now fertilizer. Ho had a choice variety 
of strawberry plants, and by sprinkling a 
solution of the sulphate of iron over them, 
the berries grew to be nearly as large as 
peaches. His raspberries, many of which 
would make a bushel, and a dozen of which 
lie brought for our inspection, were simply 
wonderful in their proportions. The gentle- 
man informed us that the discovery of this 
new developer was accidental, and that 
beans sprinkled with it gain GO per cent, 
in size and quality, and pear trees are im- 
mensely benefitted. — OregQriifm- 

Home Attractions. — The best investment 
that a farmer can make for his children is 
that which surrounds their youth with I he 
rational delight of a beauteous, attractive 
homo. The dwelling may be small and 
rude, yet a few flowers will oinblemish, as 
choice fruit trees will enrich and gladden 
it; while grass and uliado are within reach 
of the humblest. Hardly any labor done 
on the farm is so profitable as that which 
makes the wife and the children proud of 
their home. 



44' 



»Jtr vc*»»w J» Jk JL w Jtu IjJ 4a> »gju JL» Jtr\«ir\j JtL> bb< 



[July 20, 1872. 



Stents & Inventions. 



Full List of U. S. Patents Issued 
Pacific Coast Inventors. 



to 



[From Official Reportr to DEWEY k CO., U. 8. and 

Forfjon Patent Agents, and Publishers op 

the Minino and Scientific Pbess.] 

fob the week endinn1 .tune 2jth. 

Machine Fok Sawing Staves. — Otto Osten, 
Tahoe City, Cal. 

Cover fob Pepper-Boxes. — Henry E. Thomas, 
Sail Francisco, Cal. 

Cabbtjbbtkb. — Augustus F. H. Brann, S. F. 

Money-Drawee. — Henry Unna, San Francisco. 

Ice-Machine. — David Boyle, San Francisco. 
Cal., assignor to himself and John W. Pear- 
son, same place. 

Trade-mark. 

Beverage. — Asher S. Taylor, San Francisco. 

Note. — Copies of U. S. and Foreign Patents furnished 
by Dewei & Co., In the shortest time possible (by tel- 
egraph or otherwise) at the lowest rates. All patent 
business for Pacific const inveutorB transacted with 
greater security and in much less time than by any other 
»goncy 



Improved Water Lifter. — Mr. Jno. A. Ball, 
of Grass Valley, Cal., the inventor of the Im- 
proved Water Lifter, recently illustrated in the 
Press, writes us from Sycamore, 111., where he is 
at present visiting, requesting us to state that 
the contracts which ho made before leaving this 
State to furnish his patent water lifters cannot 
possibly be filled by tin- time called for by the 
contract. He adds; "The machines are being 
made at St. Louis and will be shipped as soon 
as possible. The facilities for manufacturing 
here are such that I will be able to furnish the 
water lifters at a reduced price. The work is 
substantially done and with a tine finish." 

Thomas Butterfield <fc Son, importers and 
breeders of the Cashmere goat, and the Cots- 
wold, Lincoln, Leicester, Texel and Southdown 
sheep, Hollister, Monterey Co., Calfornia, are 
going to take 1,500 grade Cashmere goats to 
Oregon by rail and overland, from where they 
have orders for part of them already. They 
advertise in another column. 



More Fisheries. — Several parties are now 
examining points along the Trucke* and 
around Lake Tahoe with the view of establish, 
iug artificial fish ponds, and raising fish for 
market on a large scale. 



City P^aa ke t R^po^T' 



DOMESTIC PRODUCE AT WHOLESALE. 

]The prices given below are those for entire consignments 
tr.,111 first hands, unless otherwise specified.] 

San Fbancisco, Thurs.,A. m., July 18. 

FLOUR — The interior and local demand is 
reported good, with a fair inquiry for export. 
Sales embrace, 5,000 bbs. Cal. extra, 2,000 
Oregon extra, and 3,000 Cal. superfine, princi- 
pally lor export. We quote prices as follows: 

Superfine, $4.'25(a-1.5o; extra, in sacks, of 
196 lbs. $6.<&6.12%; Oregon brands, $5.25 
(a $6.00 in sacks of 1'Jti lbs. 

WHEAT — The market has been steady at 
unchanged rates since our last review. Sales 
aggregate 25,000 sacks ordinary to choice, at 
$1.50(0?$!. 75. The range for new is $1.60(w, 
51.55,and old, $1.65@1.V0 per 100 lbs. 

The latest Liverpool market quotations come 
through at 12s. 4d. per cental. 

BAKLEY — Market firm. Sales embrace 10.- 
OOU sacka, at $L05@1.10 for new, and $1.60 
@$1.60 for old. The range at close is , new 
leed $1.05(ai,1.15; old feed $1.50(<<<,1.G5; old 
brewing $1.50(0)1.00. 

OATS — Market is steady. Sales ordinary 
coast to choice bay, at $1.75@,1.88 per 100 tt>s. 
which is the extreme at close. 

CORN— Is quotable at $1.75@1.80 $ 100 Rs. 

CORNMEAl.— Is quotable at $2.0(V ~-j .76 
~& 100 lbs. from the mill. 

BUCKWHEAT— Is quiet at $1.75 per 100 lbs. 

11 YE— Is quiet at $1.75(0)4.80 per 100 lbs. 

STRAW — Quotable at o;j(gJ60c per bale. 

BRAN— Is selling at $20 per ton from the 
mill. 

MIDDLINGS— For feed, are now $30.00 per 
ton from mills. 

OIL CAKE MEAL— Is selling at $30 per ton 
from the mill. 

HAY — Receipts have been pretty free during 
the week. Quotable at close at $S(m*lt; per 
ton. 

HONEY— In the comb is selling at 12%@25; 
do. strained, VZljv^iic. per lb. 

POTATOES— There has been a pretty fair 
demand this week, but prices show a further 
decline. Sales of Bed at $1.28@1.50 per 100 
lbs.; Peach Blow $1.62; Carolina, $3 per 100 
lbs. 

WOOL.— Is still very quiet and prices are 
nominal. Sales for the wtek were about 100,- 
000 lbs., including 10,000 lbs. choice at 35%c. 
The range of prices is nominally 20@35c. lor 
all grades. 

TALLOW— Good quality of Cal. 8c. 

SEEDS— Flax 3c; Canary, 5@6c. Alfalfa, 
1C@20. 



PROVISIONS— California Bacon 12%@14c 
per tt>. ; Oregon, 13%@U_- Eastern do. 10@ 12 
for clear ana 14;aao for sugar-cured Break- 
fast; Cal. Hams 13@1 4; Eastern do, 15)/£@16c; 
California Smoked Beef, 13%@14c. per tt>. 

BEANS — The following are jobbing rates: 
Pea 13.75034.00; small White $8.75@4.00 ; 
Small Butter $3.25; large $3.75; Bayo, 6.96® 
5.50; Pink and Red, $5.25@»5.50. 

NUTS— California Almonds, 8@10c. for 
hard and 18@25 for soft shell; Peanuts, 6c. 
Pecan, 25c ^ &.; Hickory, 12c; Brazil, 15c; 
Chili Walnuts, 15c; French Almonds, 25 (w 
30c; Princess Almonds, 35@40c; Los An- 
geles Walnuts, 18c; Cocoa-nuts,$7.00 per 100. 

FRESH MEAT— We quote slaughterer's rates 
as follows: — 

BEEF— American, 1st quality, 8@1) "$> 8). 
do. 2d qualitv 6@7$ lb.; do. 3d do. 3(^5c. 

VEAL— Quotable at 7(5U0c 

MUTTON— GfeO^c. & ft. 

LAMB— Steady at 8@9c. 

PORK — Undressed grain-fed is quotable at 
5%@6%c dressed, grain-fed, 8 !£@9 4 c per lb. 
POULTRY— Live Turkeys, 25c f' lb.; 
dressed, 27c per lb.; Hens $9.00(o)9.50; 
Roosters, $6.00(a>7.50 per dozen ; Spring 
Chickens, $4.00(^4.50 ; Ducks, tame, $7.01% 
$8.00 perdoz. ; Geese,$12(« 15 \> dozen. 

DAIRY PRODUCTS— Fresh California But- 
ter, common to good in rolls, is 
at 25@30c, with a few choice lots at 32';; 
New firkin is quotable at 25(527 %c. 

CHEESE-New California, 10(«jl4c; Eastern 
is jobbing at 13@14c. "§, ft. 

Eggs — California fresh, are 42%@45o. V 
doz. 

LARD-California 12%@14; Oregon, none 
in market. Eastern in cases 14(ajl4%c; do 
in tcs. U%@42o. per lb. 

IRUIT. 
Tail. Oranges. M.. 35 WiH.40 0» Strawberries. rhst 

Caliiorniadu . . — if —I Blackberries. V" -1 (31 6 

Limes, ft M...... 12'i arriee — © 12 

AiistlnLcmoriH.M — — Whortleberries In a IS 

Oat. do ft M — % — Goosebertiw — 

Sicily, do, bx.. 14 U0<u 16 no 1 hemes. 



Bauanns.ftbunch 2 on i«i4 00 Apricots... 

Currants. '» '<> s IVurs. I.x. .. 

Apples, eating, ox I 25 til GUIFige 

Apples, cooking.. 
Pineapples ft oz. 
.Nectarines, ft lb.. 
Grapes, ft B> 



l.OO.u 



IS 
111 
.10 
o 

511 jd.O.l 



Apples. ft Ik 

1 ears, 'j» 

Peaches, ft ft... 
A prlii. is, r>- Ik.- 
Plums, %» B> 



ljPeaches 

8 i», 7 l'lu is. basket. 
7 '11 10 Oantaleupse, doz 
B \V;i[er:nelous,iloz 
I'HiEU FKL'IT 

Pitted, do ft ft 2 

9 « in Raisin", ft It. 

id (»u Bisck Fuss, ft a.... i) ma 

— — White, do I 

5 mo 

VKi.l.lAllI.KS. 

I 'ucumbers V box. 
Summer Sqsh.% boj 

Asparagus, % ft — lot — 

Tomatoes f boj E 

s rin.' Beans, f. ir. . 

Egg Plant 

2 % 5c 

Jkia 10 (al2.'i 



Cabbage, 'ft lb 

'■arlic,$ ft 

Rbpbarb* ft — ej I 

Green Peas 2'^fa> 3 

Sweet Peas — — 

l.reeii L'urn W doz.. 10 @25 
Blaarowiat s.|tiisii 
per ton $1»@ 1 

GENEHAL MtRCHANOISE. 
AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS 

ai-o in good supply and prices unchanged. 

BAGS AND BAGGING— Prices are as fol- 
lows: Burlap sacks n%@Yl% for jobbing lots; 
Flour sacks 9%(3 10c. for qrs. ami I 
for hlfs. Standard Gunnies are jobbing atflD(2 
21c; Wool 75(n ; S0c; Hessians 40 inch goods 
1 4c. per vard. 

BOOTS AND SHOES— Demand continues 
active for goods under this head and assort- 
ments are complete. 

BUILDING AND FENCING MATERIALS— 
The demand for lumber in the interior 
is light, and the city trade is light idso. The 
Coil says that an advance in cargo ratos for 
Redwood has been in contemplation for some 
time past, and at the last meeting of the Red- 
wood Lumber Association, it was decided that 
the new prices should go into operation on the 
1st of September. At that time all members of 
the Association will be required to advance 
rough cargoes £1, and dressed do $2.60. The 
rates will then be, f35 for Rustic, 932.50 for 
Surfaced, $32.50 for Rough Clear, $20 few 
Rough Merchantable, and other descriptions in 
proportion. Dealers say this action is prompted 
by the advance in wages, price of logs and in- 
crease in freights from the mill ports. Trade 
at the present time is dull, in fact, June, July 
and August are always the dullest months of 
the year. Receipts continue heavy, and a stock 
is being accumulated for the anticipated active 
lall trade. During the month of June the re- 
ceipts of Redwood were unusually heavy, ag- 
gregating 13,655,393 feet. Paget Sound Lum- 
ber is firm, though the continued scarcity of 
tonageand high rates of freight greatly curtails 
the export trade. Ship owners now de- 
mand $20 from this port to South Amer- 
ica, and $30 from the Sound, which is more 
than three times the rates paid a year ago. 
Dealers pay for cargoes of Oregon as follows : 
Rough $16@$17; do. surfaced at $28; Spruce 
$17@18; Redwood rough $16; refuse do. $12; 
dressed do. $30; refuse, do. $20. Rustic $32%; 
refuse do. $21%. Wholesale rates for various 
descriptions are as follows: Laths at $2.80 
@2.75 ; Shingles $2.50@2.75. Sugar Pine $35 
(0,45 ; Cedar $27%(oj37%. Pickets: Rough, 
$14 ; pointed, $16 ; dressed, $25. The follow- 
ing list of retail prices is continued by the 
Lumber Dealers' Exchange. 

Puget Sound Pine — 

Rough, V M $22 50 

Fencing and Stopping, Tfi M 

Fencing, second quality, ^ M 25 00 

Laths, V M a 00 

Fencing, V lineal foot ^c 

Redwood — 

Rough, ft M 22 50 

Bough refuse, ft M 17 00 

Rough Pickets, ft M Is (m 

Rough PicketB, pointed, ft M jii oo 

Fancy Pickets, ft M ao 00 

Siding, ft M -2:, 00 

Tongued and Grooved, surfaced, ft M :)7 50 

Do do refuse ft M 25 00 

Half-inch surfaced, ft M Bf U0 

Rustic ft M 40 00 

Batten ft lineal foot Jjc 

Shingles ft M 3 00 

Sugar Pine is jobbing at $55 for clear and $45 for 

second quality. 



COFFEE— Costa Rica 20%c; Guatemala 18c. 
Java 2Cc; Manilla, 10%; Rio 19%@20; 
Ground Coffee in cases 30c; Chiccory, 12%. 

Sl'K'ES— Allspice 14@15c Cloves 16@17c 
Cassia 35@36c Nutmegs $1.00@$1. 10. Whole 
Pepper 20c GroundSpices — Allspice $1.00 $ 
doz.; Cassia $1.50; Cloves $1.12%; Mustard 
$1.50; Ginger and Pepper, each $1.00@1.12 ^ 
doz.; Mace $1.50 ^ flx; Ginger 15c $, lb. 

FISH— We^ quote Pacific Dry Cod in bun- 
dles at 4%c@5%, Salmon inbbls. $6.00@,7.00, 
hf do, $3.50(g,4.50; Case Salmon, $2.50 for 2%- 
lb. cans, $2.25 for 2-lb. cans, and $1.75 for 1-fc. 
cans; Pickled Cod, $4.50 in hf bbls and $8 in 
bbls; Puget Sound Smoked Herring, 60@85c 
per box; Mackerel, No. 1 hf bbls, $8.00@9.00; 
extra, $9.SQ@10.00; in kits No. 1 $L75@2.16; 
do No. 2,$1.60@ 1.62Ji. Smoked SahnonJ 
7@7%c per ft). 

NAILS— Quotable at $G 25@'J.00 for assorted 
sizes. 

1'Al'ER— California Straw Wrapping, sells at 
$1.50(3 L.60, Eastern $1.60(2 1.80 %}ream. 

PAINTS— White Lead 1 n<« 12 %c; Whitening, 
2c; Chalk 2%c; Paris White 3c ; Ochre and 
Venetian Red each 3%; Red lead and Litharge 
each 10%@llc $ lb. 

RICE— Sales of China No. 1 at7@7^cand 
No. 2 at 6K@6%° ¥*. ,tj ; Siam, quotable at 5%@ 
6%c in mats; Carolina Table, lOfell; Hawaf- 
LOo per lb. 

SUGAR— We quote Cal. Cube at 13%c; Cir- 
cle A Crushed, 13c, and Granulated 12%c; 
GoMen 0. li; 2 c; Hawaiian Sialic, as ex- 
tremes %*, lb. 

SYRUP — Prices may bo given as follows: 
in bbls, 00 in hf bbls, and 66c iu kegs. 

SALT — California Bay sells at $6 
Carmen Island, in bulk, $14(n}15; Fine 
pool, $23.50 %», ton ; coarse, $18(2 19. 

SOAP — The prices for local brands are 5@ 
10c, and Castile, 13@13%c ^ lb. 

TEA -We quote as follows for bulk descrip- 
tions: Gunpowder and Imperial — Canton made 
nominal; common to fair, 40@fiOc; superior to 
line. 70@80c.; extra line to finest. 90@1.25. 
Young Hyson— Canton made, nominal; com- 
mon to fair, 40@50o; superior to fine. 90@70c. ; 
extra fine to finest, . OolOBg- 

Canton made, 20(« 25c. Amors— Common to 
fair, 30@45c; superior to tine, 66@66c; extra 
fine, 76(5 ^>o. Foochows — Common to fair, 
.: superior to fine, 60@60c.; extra tine, 
75c Souchong and Congou — Common to fair, 
.; superior to tine, 50@60c.: extra tine, 
75c. Japans— Oommon to fair, 30(3>35c. ; su- 
perior to tine, t0@45o. ; extra fiue to finest. 55 
(n,75c "r> lb. 



San Francisco Retail Market Rates. 



Butter. Oal fr. tb 28 
do Oregon, lb.. 

Honey, ,» 25 @ 30 

Ekps, perdoz... t. r > <■" GO 

lib is a -m 

Bugaf.or., 7 fc.l w a 

P.rown do.jttt @ 13 

Beet, do 12 ® 

Su,-:ar, Man. tb. 25 fa) 

Plums, dried. lb. 15 St 30 

Peaches, dried, * 20 (a) 30 

Wonl Sacks, new ($ 

Second-bnddo S2!^@ 85 

Wheat-sks, 22x36 13 % 



OglUT rToOH, July !S, 1872. 
MISC'KI.I.ANEOUS. 

Flour eto, or 10'i@ II 

do Hit 16 

Potato G'y Bags. 20 <* 21 

n.l-hnddo 12 @ 16 

Deer Skins, ^ ».. U ... 22 

Sheep ska, wl on GO M T. r > 

Sheep sks. j.lain. 13 

Goat skins, each. 2'. @ .VI 

Hi> Oal. Hides. ' 

.Salted do 

Dry Mex. Hides 
Salted do 



- fa) 9,'i 

io*@ in 



Oodiieh.dry, lb 

Live Oak Wood. ®10 00 

Tallow 8H® 10 



PRODUCE, ETC. 



Flonr,ex.flbbl..6 IKI «6 25 

Sllpeitini'. do.. 6 I'll @ 

Corn Meal. Illll tb.:i mi <*3 50 
Wheat, V 1i»i ff.s.j 4n 

Oats, %t lOO lbs... 1 60 (il IS 



IBarley, cwt 1 50 (3|1 <V> 

Beans, cwt 100 @5 00 

Dry Lima Beam f> lb 8 

Hay, fl ton 17 IK. 

Potatoes |t ctl 75c r,»l 00 



FRUITS, VEGETABLES. ETC. 




Apricots, lb 16 @ 18 

Pine Apples. (■...« 00 
Bananas, f) bnch SO (u)l 00 

Cantelenps 2.S (a) SO 

Watermelona 2S 
i 'al. Walnnts, lb. 
Cranberries, tf k 
Stran berries. . tt. 
Baapbeniee, tb. . 
i Iranberries, O,*, 

. lies" 

Qberries, e 1 lb... 
Orangea,* 10W..20 IN 

i 

Limes, per 1"" 2 00 
Fige, fresh, ¥ *■ 12 
Asparagus, wti.* ~ 
ArtichoKes, doz. 50 
Brussel's sprts, * 10 
Beets, ^ doz 

1'i.tatoeS.N'e" t'lb iHm 

PoUtoes, s«uet, # ci> 

Broccoli. %( doz..l 50 (w2 00 
('aulillower, t .. fail 50 

Cabbage, ft doz.. 1 (til 
Carrots, ?t doz... 15 @ 25 

POULTRY, GAME. FIS.U. MEATS. ETC. 



ft doz — ~:> 

Oneambera/I — 10 

Tomatoes, %t lb.. 4 

i bees, « doz lain 20 

Dried Herbs, b'h '25 

5 

(ireen Peas, |t lb 4 

Green Corn, doz. 15 

Lettuce, ft doz.. 12 

Horseradish. f* tb 

! B> 50 

Pumpkins. is> lb. 3 

Parsnips, tbnehs 20 

Parsley 

Pickles, » gal... 50 

Rhubarb. V St.. 8 

Radishes, t buns 10 

Summer Squash 3 

Marrowfat, do. 

Hubbard, do. . 

Dry Lima, shl... 6 

Spmaee, V bskt. 25 

Salsify, m bunch 12 

Turnips, ft doz.. 15 



Chickens, apiece 50 (qt\ 00 

Turkeys, ft lb.. fa) 30 

Ducks, wild, ft p @ 

Tame, do 1 50 <gfi 50 

Teal, * doz.... 

Geese, wild, pair @ 

Tame, ft pair. .2 H< 

Hens, each 75 fall 00 

Snipe, ft doz — tm 

Enplish.do fa) 



Duails, ft doz 
Pij 



iecons, dom. do3 CO (2*3 50 

Wild, do 2 00 (a) 

Hares, each ... 40 
Rabbits, tame 1 . 75 

Wild.do.fld/-l 75 
Beet, tend. V lb. I 

Corned, ft ».. 

Smoked, ft lb . 
Pork, rib, etc„ lb 

Chops, do, ft lb 
Veal, V B) 

Cutlet, do 

Mutton chops,* 

Leg, ftt> 

Lamp, ft lb 

Tongues, beef, ea 
Tangoes, pig, ea 
Bacon, Cal., ft lb 

Oregon, do 
Hams, Cal. f, lb. 
Hams, ( 'ress' s c 
* Per lb. t Per dozen. 




D'ffield 

Whittaker's . . 

Johnson's Or.. 
Flounder, f^ tb... 
Salmon. , 

Smoked, new,* 

Pickled, ft lb.. 
Rock Cod, $t lb . . 
Peroh, ■ water. lb 

Fresh water. tb 
Lake Big. Trout" 
Smelts. large ft lb 

Small do 

Silver Smelts... 

Soles, ft lb 

Herring) fresh.. 

Sin kil.perlOO 
Tomood, itt lb.... 
Terrapin. V doz.6 00 
Mackerel, p'k, ea 

Fresh, do — @ 

Sea Bass, ft »... — 

Halibut- — ® 

Sturgeon, ft ftt . . 4 % 
OysterB, %} 100... 1 00 @1 

Cheap, ft doz..l 90 §2 

Turbot 30 @ 

Crabs ft doz....l 0V % 

Soft Shell — « 

Shrimps 10 @ 

Prawns — & 

■ 8 % 

1 Per gallon. 



M 



State University.— The next term of the Prepara- 
tory Department will begin April 20th, 1872. 

Tho course of Btudy embraces the Ancient and the 
Modern Languages and the higher Mathematics, and is 
specially adapted to the University curriculum. 

Terms, $12 a term. GEORGE TAIT, Oakland. 

13v3bp-lf 



Wool Prices in New York. 

Brown's Circular, July, 1872. 
DOMESTIC FLEECES. 
York. Michigan, Indiana akl. Wisconsin. 
t'dSaxonyPl, r$ i Quarter-bid Fleece 

Saxony 11. ■•-,■,• it, „ ot Common Fleece .. .. 

•'.and Full-bid Merino .(ttfitot Combing Fleece 70l"75 

Half-bid Fleece 

Ohio, Pennsylvania and Virginia. 

Choice Set d Saxony Fl. ra I Quarter-bid Fleece h-lfiKS 

Saxony Fleece 70ts,7Sj Common Fleece 

Sand Full-bid Merino, if- ":> t 'ombing Fleece. . 
alf-bld Fleece 67@70l 

Iowa, Vkkmont and Illinois' 

V and Full-bid Merino 57@02 1 Quarter-bid Fleece 558.W 

Half bid Fleece 57 %6.' I Combing Fleece 65(*7 

'"III, KENTUCKV AM) T F.N NESS IX. 

Washed Fleece (3) il'nwashed Combing 

Unwashed Fleece 55@57 | Canada Fleece 

TUB-WASHED WOOL. 

Choice Btk.ssilnferiorand Burry StaH 

Fair 

PI I. LED WOOL. 

IT. V. City extra Pulled. .ft: ,1,7 Country extra Pulle.t 

N. V. I ity super Pulled .67f*72,( ountry super Pulled. .,s • -u 

N \ Ciej No. 1 Pulled . t •ountry No. 1 Pulleil 

Western super and ext 626)67|Canada l'ulled % 

CALIFORNIA. 



Spring Clip, fine 

Spring l 'lip. medium.. 



i ill Clip. Iwgds Ab'ry 
I itra Pulled 



Clip, lwgds Jt br.3H@42 Snpei 
" i Hip, A 1 27«:i:i|Low Pulled... 



Fall I ' 

TEXAS. 

Fine 45^551 Inferior 

Medium 4.V«)5.i Very Burry 

Low 3?«40l 

FOREIGN WOOLS. 

CapeofGeod Hope 42845 I Australian Clothing .. 

Bu s Ay res Mer A Mes. .35ta u Australian Combing., 
leo M. r,v M. . 



■ 8 

. <■ 



V<865 



Leather Market Report. 

[Corrected weekly by Dolliver fc Bro., No. 109 ! 

San Francisco. Thursday, July 1 
S. it.E LXATKKB.— The Eastern market is higher, i 
tanuers have advanced their prices here. We t 
below: 

City Tanned Leather, ft lb 

Santa Cruz Leather, ft lb 

Country Leather, ft ft 

St.. is i on Leather,^ lb 

French ..kins continue firm. All California s 
nd brin^' full prices. 

Jodot, 8 Kil perdoz $60 ( 

Jodot, 11 to 10 Kil., per doz 70 l 

eennd choice, 11 to 15 Kil. ft doz 60 ( 

Lomoine. Hi to 18 Kil , ft dnz 15 ( 

Levin, 12 and 13 Kil., perdoz 68 ( 

Corn, llian, 16 Kil., per doz 70 I 

Comedian. 12 to 14 Kil., perdoz 60 ( 

Ogerau Calf, f> doz 54 ( 

Sunon, 18 Kil., ft doz 65 ( 

Simon. 20 Kil.* doz 68 

Simon. 24 Kil. ft doz 72 ( 

Kob. it Calf, 7 and 8 Kil 35 1 

French Kips, ft lb 1 i 

California Kip, ft doz 60 

French Sheep, all colors, ft doz 15 ( 

Eastern Calf for Backs, ft lb II 

Sheep Roans for Topping, all colors, ft doz. ... 9 (i 

Sheep Roans for Linings, ft do/. 5 ." 

California Russett Sheep Linings 1 7 

Best Jodot Caif Boot Legs, ft pair 5 3 

Good French Calf Boot Legs, ft pair 4 .' 

French Calf Boot Legs, fa pair 4 ( 

Harness Leather, ft lb i 

lair Bridle Leather, ft doz IS t 

Skirting Leather, ft» i 

Welt Leather, » doz 30 (1 

I'.utt Leather, ft font 1 

Wax Side Leather.* foot 1 



i 1 25 
13 00 
10 m 
5 50 



I72M 

so'oo 



San Francisco Metal Market. 



rKICKS FOK INVOIClf . 

/oW.i.-iv j*icM rult from ten to fifteen per cent, higher than (Ac 
following quotation*. 

Tin R9DAI. July 18, 1872. 

Scotch Pig Iron,* ton $60 00 @ 65 00 

White Pig. ft ton 80 00 @ 55 00 

Relined Bar, bad assort ment, fs lb ... — 04ii 

Refined Bar, good assortment, ft fa —05 

\"o. 1 tot — 0ibi($ 

Plate, No. 5 to 9 —06 

Sheet, No. 10 to 13 — 08 

Sheet. No. 14 to 20 — 08 

. No. M to 27 — 

Horse Shoes 7 50 

Nail Rod 10 

Norway Iron 8 

Rolled Iron .■> ■ ■ ■ • • • • ■ • 5 

(itli.r Irons for Blacksmiths, Miners, etc. 6 @ 6 
Copper.— _ _ 

Sheathing, J lb — 40 @— 45 

Sheathing. Yellow •• — M 8 — 33 

Sheathing, Old Yellow — 12 & - 121* 

Composition Nails — 28 — 30 

t '.imposition Bolts — 28 — 30 

Tin Plates.— 

Plates, Charcoal. IX f, box 19 00 19 50 

Plates. I C Charcoal 17 00 17 50 

Roofing Plates 16 00 16 50 

Banca Tin. Slabs, » lb — 45 — 50 

LnglishCast.ft ft — 15 — 16 

Drill 15 16 

FlatBar 17 18 

Plough Points 175 

Russia (for mould boards) 12X 

Ql-ICKSII.VER.— ft lb — 85 

Li w.-Pig.ftft --05* -06 

Sheet — 10 

Pipe — 9 —10 

Bar MS -07 

Zinc. -Sheets, ft lb — 11 - IT, 

BoUAX.-Refined —28 - 30 

Borax, crude — b 



MBS8BS. P. Blanchard's Sons givo due credit, 
for their large sales to a very liberal use of 
printers' ink. We agree with them, but must 
add that even printers' iuk will not make a 
permanent success of a poor thing. They make 
"the best " Churn. 



Moss Rose ! 
The exquisite and delicate fragrance exhaled by this 
li.v.-ly tl.wer, forms part of the rich clouds of sweet in- 
cense thrown np by the celebrated perfume, Murray k 
Lanman's Florida Water, the only fragrant water 
suited alike for the handkerchief, the toilet and the 
both. s..ld by all druggists. 661 



"A Slight Cold," Coughs.— Few are aware 

of the importance of checking a cough or "ojobt 
cold" which would yield to a mild remedy, if nee],., t 
ed, often attacks the lungs. " Brown's Bronchial Tro- 
ches" give sure and almost immediate relief. 



■fiL# 

2ns. 



TH0S. BUTTERFIELD & SON, 

Breeders and Importers of tho 

Cotswold, Lincoln, Leicester 

Texel and South Down 

SlIKKl*. 

ALSO, THE ANGORA COAT. 



Now offer for sale the Pure Bred and High Grades. 
We have a good lot of Bucks of crosses between the 
Cotswold and South Down, between the Lincoln end 
Leicester, and the Lincoln and Merino. 

THOS. BUTTElil II 1.1. A: SON. 

3v4-10t Hollister, Monterey County, Cal. 



July 20, 1872.J 



45 



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Thresher's Guide and Farm- 
er's Friend — Just 
Published. 

Written by D. Hollihan, a practical thresher for over 
fifteen years. 

It contains facts and hints of great value to both 
threshers and farmers. A small book worth many times 
its cost to those specially interested, who thresh or em- 
ploy threshers. 

CONTENTS. 
Beater, care of; Belt Protector, Hollihan's (Illus- 
trated); Belts, Management of; Cracking of Grain; Cyl- 
inder, How to balance; Cylinder, Movement of; Cylin- 
der, Motion of; Engineer's Duty; Geared or Belt Ma- 
chines; Gears, Management of; General Management; 
Horse Powers; Horse Power, Moving a; Introductory 
Remarks; Machines; Machines, Management of; Ma- 
chines, Moving them; Management, General; Bake, 
Speed of ; Shoe, the; Shoe, Improved; Shoe, What it 
is; Sieve, New Jointed (Illustrated) ; Stacking Wheat; 
Steam Powers . 

Published and for sale, wholesale and retail, by 
DEWEY St CO., at this office. Single copies, in flexible 
cloth, $1. In extra binding, $1.50. Post free. 



Agricultural and Industrial 

BOOKS*. 

For Sale at this Office. 

American Manures, and Farmers' and Planters' 
Guide — comprising a description of the elements and 
composition of plants and. soils — the theory and prac- 
tice of composting — the value of stable manure and 
waste products, etc., etc.; also chemical analysis of 
the principal manufactured fertilizers — their assumed 
and real value — and a full expose of the frauds prac- 
tised'upon purchasers. By Wm. H, Bruckner, Ph. D., 
and J. B. Chynoweth. Price $2, post paid. Address 
Dewet & Co., this office. 

The Fruits and Fruit Trees of America, or 

the Culture, Propagation, and Management, in the Gar- 
den and Orchard, of Fruit Trees generally, with descrip- 
tions of all the finest varieties of Fruit, Native and 
Foreign, cultivated in this country. By A. J Downing. 
Illustrated; 1098 pages; 1869. The best authority, and 
only complete work. Price, in cloth and gilt, $5, post 
paid, by Dewey & Co., this office 
New American Farm Book — originally by R. L. 

Allen; revised by Lewis F. Allen, 1871. Embracing in- 
formation on all general subjectB pertaining to Farming 
and all branches of Husbandry— a wide range, yet vory 
fully and ably treated . 5*26 pages. Price $3, post paid. 
Address Dewey & Co., this office. 
Harris (Joseph) on the Pig. Breeding, Bear- 
ing, Management and Improvement. Illus., ^W pages, 
1870. Interesting to all readers; instructive and full of 
hints to raisers. Price $2, post paid from this office. 

Cranberry Culture, by a Practical Grower in 
N. J., Joseph J. White. A special treatise of 126 pages, 
Post paid from this office, $1.(5. 

Farm Implements and Farm Machinery, and 

the principles of their construction and use. With simple 
and practical explanations of the Laws of Motion and 
Force as applied on the Farm; by John .J. Thomas; 287 
illustrations and 302 pages. Sold by Dewey «fc Co., post- 
paid, for $1.75. 

Ten Acres Enough: A practical experience, 

showing how a very small farm may be made to keep a 
very large family, with extensive and nrolltable experi- 
ence in the cultivation of the smaller Iruits. Tenth 
edition, 1871. Price, post free, $1.50, at this office. 

Cotton Culture; by J. B. Symon; with an ad- 
ditional chapter on Cotton Seed and its uses. 190Ipages, 
1863. Pnce, post tree, $1.75, at this office. 

How Crops Grow: by Johnson; A treatise on 

the chemical composition, structure and life of the plant, 
for all students of agriculture; with illustration and 
analysis. 394nages; 1868. Post free from this office, $2.50. 

American Grape Growers' Guide; by Win. 

Chorlton (N. Y.) 204 pages, 1852. Post free, $1, from this 
office. 
American Fish Culture, embracing all the de- 
tails of artificial breeding and rearing of 'I rout, and the 
culture of other fishes: by Thad. Norris. Illustrated, ;:04 
pages, 1868. Post free from this office, $2.50. 

How Crops Feed; Johnson, 1870. On the At- 
mosphere and the Soil as related to the nutrition of agri- 
cultural plants. Illustrated. 375 pages. Post free from 
this office, $2 50. 

Bandall's Sheep Husbandry, illustrated, with a 
treatise on the Diseases of Sheep, Prevention and Cure 
Post free from this office, cloth edition, $2. 





ATWOOD & BOD-WELL, 

Nos. 211 and 213 Mission Street, SAN FRANCISCO. 

MANUFACTURERS OF THE 

EXCELSIOR AND GOLDEN STATE WINDMILLS, 

WINDMILL BRASS PUMPS, WATER TANKS, ETC. 
Also, the Little Giant and Excelsior Sweep Horse Powers — more exten- 
sively used and giving better satisfaction than any 
other Powers in the State. 



Trees, Bulbs, Hedge Plants, Seeds, Fruit 
ana Flower Plates. Catalogues, 20c. F. K. PHUSNIX, 
Blooiuington Nursery, 111. 2v4-lCt 



We are the Largest Manufacturers of Pumping Machinery 
on the Pacific Coast. 

N. B. — We have made the manufacture of Windmills a specialty the past ten years. 
Duringthe last five years we have manufactured and put in operation a greater number of Mills than any other 
firm in the State ; and we believe that in the last two or three years, more than any other two firms; which fact 
is the best proof in the world of the superiority of our machines. We guarantee all our work, and we have 

NEVER FAILED TO FULFILL OUB GUARANTEES. 4v2-lam3m 




TUSTIN'S PATENT 

FIRST PREMIUM WINDMILLS 

ARE THE MOST POPDLAR 
Of any on the Pacific Coast. 

State and County Rights for sile. 
Send for a Descriptive Circular containing Price List 
and all other particulars, postage free. 

TTJSTIN'S ECLIPSE HORSEPOWER 



Exirelsa. 





DEcoiiomy. 



Is now the favorite of this State, and sells three to one of any other make. 

Manufactory, corner of Market and Beale streets San Fbancisco. 

"W. I. TU8TIN, Inventor and. Patentee, 

selG-lani3m And Pioneer Windmill Manufacturer of the Pacific Coast. 




Three slics, warranted to clean from 60 to 200 bushels 
per hour, according to size. Prices, $40, $50 and $75. 

First Premiums at California State Fairs in 1870 and 
1871. Warranted to sepurate Mustard Seed, Cheat, Bar- 
ley and Oats, from Wheat. Cleans the Morning Glory 
Seed from Alfalfa. 

Circulars mailed on application. Address 

NASH, MILLER & CO., 
Sole Proprietors and Manufacturers, Sacramento, Cal. 

N. B. — All the Nash & Cutts Steam Separators are 
fully warranted. 3v4-15t 




IRON AXLE 



Treadwell&Co. 



DPR.ICES : 

Thimble Skein, 3 inch, $100; 35* inch, $105; 3H 
inch, $110; 3?i inch, $1J5; 4 inch. $125— includ- 
ing in each case wagon gearing complete, with whif- 
fletrees, neck yoke and stay chains. 

Beds. Brakes, Seats, etc., $40 to $50, complete, 
according to style. 

We invite the attention of buyers to the superior work- 
manship and finish of the justly celebrated Wagons. 
They are known throughout the West, and have long 
taken the lead of all otherB; and although but recently 
introduced to the California farmer, have given the 
most complete satisfaction. There is no factory in the 
United States where greater care is given to the selection 
of material used than that of Winchester & Partridge, 
the builders of these Wagons, in Wisconsin. The timber 
is of the choicest selection, and the iron used, the best 
that can be obtained. The manufacturers say: "A 
thorough system of inspectiou is strictly adhered to, so 
that we are prepared to warrant each part to be perfect; 
if defective, it will be replaced without charge." We 
claim by actual test a saving of fifteen teb cent, in 
draft over any other Wagon offered for sale. 
This ease of draft has been accomplished after years of 
close study, and on strictly scientific principles, and is a 
secret known only to ourselves. 

Knowing that a wagon to be popular in California, 
must be a good one, and desiring to bring out for our 
trade not only the best Farm Wagon in the country, 
but one also that could be sold at a popular price, we 
sought among the largest manufactures of the West, 
and finally selected " The Whitewater" as the Wagon 
before all others for the California trade. The manu- 
facturers of these Wagons are among the oldest and 
largest in the United States, having been established in 
1847, and their Wagons may be found in all parts of the 
country. 

We are prepared to furnish Wagon Beds, Brakes and 
Seats, in any Btyle to suit customers and the trade. Our 
California Rack Bed is far superior to any in the mar- 
ket. The side pieces are made of 2x6 oak; the bed is 14 
feet long, and the spring seat 4 feet from box— giving 
ample room to load sacks, wood, etc., without interfer- 
ing with the driver. Our California Roller Brake can 
be used with or without box. These beds, as well as 
the "Whitewater" running-gears, are made expressly 
for our own trade, and are peculiarly adapted to Cali- 
fornia ubb. The brakes have hardwood bars, and 
the seats hardwood standards; the beds are nicely 
proportioned, well framed and bolted together, painted 
inside and outside, neatly Btriped and ornamented, and 
well varnished. The wheels of the "Whitewater" are 
extra heavy, with slope-shouldered or wedge-shaped 
spokes, in large hubs and deep felloes, wide and heavy 
tires riveted on through every joint. The axles to our 
Thimble-Skein- Wagons are made largo and strong, 
and of thoboughly seasoned hickory. 

If you want a Wagon, and want a good one, at a low 
price, give the "Whitewater" a trial. 

TREAD WELL & CO., 



WONDERFUL AUTOMATON 
COW MILKER. 

Will Milk any Cow in Two to Four Minutes. 
TVO LABOR! 

Can be used by a child of 12 years. A 11 you have to 
do is to hold the pail and LET THE MILK RUN. 
Right for sale. Retail prico $5. 
Address or apply to 

W. WARNER HENRY, 
2v4.1m 421 Clay street, San Francisco. 



THE CALIFORNIA 
Safety Gas Lamp. 

This New Gas Lamp takes the 
place of the Candle, the Coal Oil 
Lamp and Coal Gas, and costs only 

One-Half Cent per Hour. 

Any person who will take the 
trouble to examine this Lamp care- 
fully, will see that it will not ex- 

J'!,ol»K. 

The flame is as white and brilliant 

ag coal gas, and produces neither 

Smoke nor Smell. No CIilvnky is 

RSQUXSED. 

It makes its own gas as fast as it is required, and when 

the light is blown out the gas ceases to be generated. 

One Burner is Equal to Six Candles. 

This Lamp burns Kenned Petroleum, Gasolii" . Dan 

fiM'Ui'h on or Taylor's Safety fluid, oil expresi i> pre 

pared for the Lamp furnished by the undersigned in 

quantities to suit. WIESTER & CO., 

17 New Montgomery street, Grand Hotel, s. F. 




SEED WHEAT. 



If you want clean Wheat, buy "HUNTER'S IM- 
PROVED GRAIN SEPARATOR." It separate all the 
Chess, Mustard, Barley, Oats, etc., from the Wheat, and 
does its work rapidly. Send lor deBcriptivo circular. 
WIESTER & CO., 

3v4-3m 17 New Montgomery street, S. F. 



Lushers Patent Vegetable Cutter. 

AN EXCELLENT ARTICLE FOR DAILY USE IN 
THE KITCHEN. 

It is made of 
the best material , 
the metal being 
equal to that, of 
mowing scythes. 
The outside is 
tinned, which 
prevents coloring 
or rusting. 

The knives are 
sharpened by 
cold bainmcrinc, 
and have overy 
quality which 
makes a good 
cutting edge. 
They need do 
sharpening; for slicing fruits and vegetables, simply, 
will carry a keen edge tor many years. 

They are easily kept, clean, as they' arc made all in one 
piece, and are perfectly smooth, with no wood, screws, 
wires, cavities, etc., to catch dirt. A clean, bright BUT- 
face is preserved by just rinsing the knife In water alter 
uting it. They aro nice, convenient and durable. All 
Kinds of greens and vegetables can be cut with them 
Cnbbages, Potatoes, Apples, Pears, Rutabagas, Turnips, 
OaiTOte, Beets, Cucumbers. Radishes, Onions, etc. Six 
si Ices are thrown on" at every stroko of the hand. 

One Gutter sent (Postago or Expressago Free) to any 
ad'.dress for $1.50. 

Address WIESTER & CO., 

up 17 Now Montgomery street, S. F. 




2v4tf 



San Francisco, 

General Agents for the Pacific States. 



MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS 

AND 

PACIFIC EUEAL PRESS 
steam: 

BOOK AND JOB PRINTN6 OFFICE, 

No. 414 Clay Street, 

Below Sansome, - - - San Francisco. 

SPAULDINC & BARTO, 

PROPRIETORS. 

EVERY VARIETY OF 

PRINTING, 

FOR 

Business Men, Corporations, 

PAHMEHS, 

AND ALL 

Branches of Industry? 

EXECUTED in the 

BEST MANNER, 
AT R EASO NAB IE PR I C E S . 

20,000 COPIES ORDERED, 

IN ADVANCE OF PUBLICATION, of the Splendid New 
Church Music Book called 

THE STANDARD, 

Thus giving tho brightest prospect that it will be 

THE BANNER BOOK OF THE SEASON. 

Tli© ««ita,nclai-<l 

Has 400 pages filled with new and fresh music. It in- 
cludes an Elementary Course of the h»st charaoter, with 
Interesting exercise*, times and easy glees for practice, 
a fine collection of Metrical Times, and au extra choice 
list of Beutenoes] Ho*eU« and Anthems for chorus 

Practice. 

The Standard Bearers, 

Or, in Other WOTflB, lis authors, whose brilliant repu- 
tation :is Church Music, Composers will boar it on to 
triumphant success, aro 

Mr. L. O. F.MERWN, of Boston, and 
■ II U. I'Al.MI'.ll, of Chicago, 

Men universally known among lovers of Sacred Music. 

THE STANDARD is Ready. Send on your 
,>r,liTs. 

Price $1.(50. Per doz., $13.50. Specimens sent, for 
the present, poet free, for J1.25. Specimen pages free 
on application. 

OLIVER DITSON & CO., Bobtou. 
I C. H. DITSON & CO., New York. 



43 



ife; *£&! J» tfe " A W 



Ji Jtv Jcjo O 



[July 20, 1872. 




IMPORTANT TO FARMERS. 



It will be to the Interest of the Fanners of California 
to know that D. M. Osborne & Co., of Auburn, N. Y., 
ui:tmiiacturers of tho 

KIRBY REAPING & MOWING MACHINES 

Have established an office on the corner of Clay and Da- 
ts.Ssn Francisco, for the sale of their Celebrated 
Machines. The KIRBY COMBINED is a machine that 
has been favorably known on this coast for the last ten 
years. Its performance as a reaper or mower, as a 
hand-rake or self-rake machine, has never been ex- 
celled; and while it has kept up with all the late im- 
provements, we present it this year with the new BAL- 
TIMORE SELF-RAKE, which has proved itself to be 
all that can be required in that line. 




We would call especial attention to the two-wheeled 
kikby mowkk, a late invention of thro- years successful 
test. It embraces several new features which no other 
two-wheeled Mower has ever yet attained, and which 
gives it several advantages which no other machine of 
its kind possesses, among which are, 

1st — A jointed pitman, which allows the knife or 
cutter-bar to wobk on any angle without extba strain 

OB FRICTION. 

2d— It can be run with a stiff or limber pole, as 

DESIRED. 

3d — The points of the yards or fingers can be made to 
pick at any angle to suit the condition of grass or ground. 

4th— The driver's seat is also a lever to command the 
heel of the Cutter-bar, and also to change the pick of 
the guards. 

6th— A new device of the Pitman, expressly designed 
for California, by which it will take upUaown w.ir. 
thus preventing shake or jar and the breaking of the 
knives . 

There are other points of advantage we will omit to 
mention, but which can be readily seen by the Farmer 
on investigation. 

We design to have local agencies at all the principal 
points of trade in the State, where tin- Farmer iau inves- 
tigate the merits of the Machines before purchasing 
elsewhere. 

D. M. OSBORNE & CO. 
Corner Clay and Davis streets, San Francisco. 

By OMAR JEWELL, Manager. 18v3-3m 



Hill's Patent Eureka 




The following are some of the reasons whj these 
Plows, are entitled to preference ovr any other Plow 
in use. They are made of the best material, and ever}' 
Plow warranted. They are of light draught, easily 
adapted to any depth, and are very easily handled. 

They will plow any kind of soil, and leave the ground 
In perfect order. 

FIRST PREMIUMS I 

These Plows have taken First Premiums at the State 
Fair, at the Northern Distrfti Fair, at the Upper Sacra- 
mento Valley Fair, and the State Agricultural Society 
Premium of $10 for the best Gang Plow, after a fair test 
and competitiou with the leading Plows of the State. 

Champion Deep-Tilling Stubble Plow, 

Took tho First Premium over all competitors at the 

State Fair, 1871. It furrows 14 in. deep and 24 wide. 

This Gang Plow combines durability with cheapness, 
being made entirely of iron by experienced workmen, of 
the best material. Over three hundred are now in use, 
and all have given entire satisfaction. 

Manufactured and for sale at Marysville by 

HILL & KNATJGH, 
And also by most leading Agricultural Dealers in the 

State. Send at once for Circulars, prices, etc. 21v3 



MATTESON & WILLIAMSONS 




Took the Premium over all at the great Plowing 
Match in Stockton, in 1870. 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who 
have been long in tho business and know what is re 
quired in tho construction of Gang Plows. It is quickly 
adjusted. Sufficient play is given so that the tongue will 
pass over cradle knolls without changing the working 
position of the shares. It is so constructed that the 
wheels themselves govern the action of the Plow cor- 
rectly. It has various poiuts of superiority, and can be 
relied upon as the Best and Most Desirable Gang Plow 
lu the world. Send for circular to 

MATTtSON & WILLIAMSON, 

14v2-3m Stockton, Cal. 

A. New JTiriii. 

JEWELL & FLINT, General Commisston 
Merchants, and Sacramento Agents for Walter A. 
Wood's Harvesting Machines, No. 39 Front street, be- 
tween J and E, Sacramento. O. B. JEWELL, 

16v3-3m T. B. FLINT. 



BRIGHT UNION SAFETY LAMP. 



A CALIFORNIA INVENTION. 



n 





The -BRIGHT UNION 1 
and Patentee, 

lvitf 



Patented May 30, 1871. le the Best and Safest Lamp ever 
put in the market, for the following reasons : 

1st.— The I-amp is constructed with two tubes, as will be 
seen in cut, the mitnide one (D) intended only for the attach- 
ment of the burner, and the inside owe ((J) to contain oil and 
receive the wick. As there is do connection between these 
tubes, it will l>e evioVut that there i* no possibility of column 
nicaung any heat to the oil ; and as long hs the oil in a Lamp 
can lie kept perfectly cool, there is, of course, no chance for un 
explosion. 

This Lamp is the only one ever invented in which this result 
lias been secured. 

2d.— When the burner is attached to the Lamp it wi I be 
seen that there 
is no opportu- 
nity for the oil 
to escape >huuiil 
the Lamp be 
overturned, 
and in case any 
accident sho'ld 
occur the II nr-t 
consequ u nee s 
that could en- 
sue w ouM he 
tho breaking »i 
a chimney or 
shade. From 
these facts it 
will be evident 
that those who 

adopt tlds Lamp will secure them«elves against the possibilit 
ot hre or explosion arising from the use of kerosene oil. 

3d.— The Lamp la strongly and well made, attractive in ap- 
pearance, and something entirely new and novel. It will burn 
kerosene adapted to any burner. With all of these advantages 
it combines cheapness, and from present indications it is des- 
tined to become very popular. 

4ih— The tube to which the burner Is attached <T» is free 
from the tube of the oil (C').and a space for air, passing from 
the lower end. between the tube of the burner and the tube of 
the oil, keeps it always cool. 

6th.— The burner is the cause of generating the gas in a 
Lamp. It can- 
not do it in this 
Lamp, as the 
burner is set on 
a tube which 
contains no oil, 
consequently it 
cannot make 
any gas. 

fith— Tn case 
of accident, the 
Lamp failing or 
thrown o\«r. by 
which many ox- 
plosions occur, 
is the cause of 
the oil ru.'hing 
to the (tame, in 
this Lamp it is 
not so; it can 
be throw n over and cannot send the oil tothe name ; it will run 
from it, so the: e j s no danger of catching lire. 



This Lamp can be filled from the fount, on the top of 
which is a screw. 

This Lamp can lie attached to any Chandelier or Bracke t 
made. 

State and County Rights for Sale. Agents "Wanted. 
and all Trimmings can be Lad by addressing the Manufacturer 

I. L. MERRELL, 

No. 148 J Street, Sacramento. 




Farm Wagons. 




JACKSON MICHIGAN WAGONS are kn^wn to be 
the t> st FARM and TEAM Wapnns sold ou the P.vriFic 
C"ast. Bead far Certificates. The 

JACKSON WAGON 

Received the FIRST PUKMII'M. 1871, at the State Fair, 
Michigan, over the Btadebaker and all others. 

Important Improvements have been made in our 
Wagons now arriving. Our large Two-horse and F<>ur- 
horse Wagons have hevTier tires, broader ami deeper 
felloes, and extra iron braces, making them the 

llcst and Mo«t Coniplel*- 

FARM and TEAM WAGONS ev. r sold en this coast. We 
sell gearing only, or fitted up with California Hacks and 
Brakes, Spring Seat, etc., or with Eastern double side- 
OOI bodies. Persons ordering will get Wagons at SAME 
PRICES as if here— Waiuiantj:i> perfect and complete tn 
every respect. Baying strictly for cash and in large 
quantities (twelve car loads "ii the way), we are enabled 
to sell, Wholesale or Retail, at very Low Mess. 
N. B.--Waju;\mki> bob Three Yeajis. 



Patronize Home Industry— Buy California- 
Made Fruit Jars. 



•l7\3eow3ra 



J. D. ARTHUR & SON.. 

Corner California and Davis streets, 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



THE CELEBRATED 

"H. H. H." Horse Medicine 

Is truly a Scientific Preparation. Having adopted the 
RUBBER COKK, it can safely be kept for months with- 
out losing any of its healing properties. 

No Farmer, Teamster, Liveryman or 

STOCK DEALER should be without it. It will remove 
Calous Lumps, Splints, Wind Galls and Spavins. 
Sweeny, Stin* Joints and Contracted Leaders readilj 
yield to its penetrating qualities. 
COLIC has lost its sting. The 

H. H. II. 

"Will Cure in Fifteen Minutes. 
It is sold everywhere on the Coast. 

WILLIAMS & MOORE, Proprietors 
4v3-fim Stockton, Cal. 




M.BO 

F.>r sale by Crockery Dealers generally throughout the 
city and Interior. 

JOHN TAYLOR & Co., 
Agents Pacific Glass Works, 513 and r>14 Washington St 

18v-4-.'im BAN FKANCISCU. 



SAVE $40! WHY PAY $80? 

THE IMPROVED 

Home Shuttle Sewing Machine. 

PRICE $40. 

This has no superior as a Family Machine. It uses a 
Shuttle and Straight Needle and two threads. It makes 
tlic I. nek stitch (alike on both sides). It is simple, 
easy to understand, and light to run. Send for a Circu- 
lar. Agents wanted in every town. 

E. W. HAINES, General Asrent, 

17 New Montgomery street, Grand Hotel Building, 
San Francisco. 



STUDEBAKER WAGONS 




Have become 

The Standard Wagons of the Pacific Coast. 

Fob Quality, 

durability, 

Lu.nr Running, 

Good Proportion, 

and excellent styi k, 
Tlioj- Have i»o Peer. 
Iron A ilk, 

Thimble Skkix, 

Header and 

Spring Wagons, 
Of all sizes, with beavt ttbes rlvited on, always ou 
hand and sold for $100 to $1 65. 

Having established a Manufactory to build Waoons, 
Beds. Brakes and Seats, I am better prepared thau 
ever to furnish 

Just the Kinrlw of Wag-ons Needed, 
As I ma'je a specialty of the wagon trade. 

The attention of Dk.aif.rs Is especially requested. 
Send for Circular and Price List. 

lt',v:i-:im E. E. AMES, General Agent. 

Factory and Depot, J17 and 218 K stn*t, Sacramento. 



Thimble-Skein Farm Wagons. 




JUST RECEIVED FROM 
THE CELEBRATED ZTJFELT & CO., 

Sheboygan Falls, Wis., established in 1850. Also the 

Celebrated La Belle Wagon, 

Manufactured by FARNSWORTH, WOODWABD & CO., 
At Fon du Lac, Wis. 

Prick List of either of the above named Wagons. 



3 in Thimble Skein.. $120 
3!< " •' •• .. 125 
3>» " " - .. 130 

4 •' " " .. 140 
Above prices Include Box 

and Top-Box, Spring-Scat, 
Brake, Double and Slngle- 
Trees, Stay Chains, Neck- 
yoke and Wrench. Racks 
with California Brakes, in 
lieu of Boxes. $5 additional. 

All sizes of Wagons with Boxes, Brakes and Spring 
Seats, or without. All Wagons are manufactured to my 
order for this coast, and are warranted for two years in 
any climate, and will be delivered on board of any boat 
or railroad cars free of expense to the purchaser. 

DAVID r>. MILLER'S, 

IMPORTER AND MANUFACTURER, 

715 Market street, near Third San Francisco. 

19v4-9ra 



3 In Running Gear. .$'.M) 
3K " " "... M 
3* " " " ...1U0 
4 ' ...110 



Above prices include 
Double auil Singl.-Tnis, 
Stay Chains, Neck-Yoke 
and Wrench. 




FIRST PREMIUM AWARDED at the State Fair of 
1870; also First Premium at Mechanics' Fair, San Fran- 
cisco, 1871; and Silver Medal and First Premium for 
best Farm Wagon, and First Premium for the best im- 
proved Thimble Skein at State Fair, 1871. Also State 
Fair GOLD MEDAL for 1871. 

E. SOULE. 



ap22-3m 



Corner Tenth »nd I streets, 
Sacramento, Cal. 



THRESHING AND REAPING 
Lubricating Oil. 

We invite attention to this superior Lubricator, spe- 
cially for all out door machinery exposed to the dust 
and dry air of a California climate. Being of Heavier 
Gravity than Sperm, a less quantity Is needed. It 
neither gums or becomes thick and sticky, like tho ordi- 
nary machine oil in common use, with a saving of from 
15 to 25 per cent, in reduced friction, and at a cost 50 
per cent, less than the best Lard Oil. 

W. STRINOER & CO., 

20v4-3m 424 Davis street, SAN FRANCISCO. 



WI LCOX»H 

IMPROVED STEAM WATER LIFTER, 

With neither Engine, Piston, or Plunger. 

The most Simple , Durable, and In al 
respects the most Economical ot all 
Steam Pumps. Uses the same steam 
twice instead of once. Any person can 
S?f? run it. They are used on the Central 
£' '|£ and Western Pacific R. R. from Oakland 
j;|*a to Ogden. They are used for Water 
WorkaT Mining, Irrigation, and ail other ordinary pump- 
ing Send for Descriptive Circular and Price List. Ad- 
dress ALLEN WILCOX, No. 21 Fremont street, San 
Francisco. l«V2-3m 




July 20, 1872.J 



47 



Important to Wool Growers. 




PURE BLOODED 

FRENCH MERINO RAMS 

FOR SALE BY ROBERT BLACOW, 
Of Centerville, Alameda County, Cal. 

These Rams are guaranteed to be pure blooded French 
Merino, and I would respectfully call attention to them 
from those who desire to see or purchase the best and 
purest of stock. 16v3-6m 




LANDRUM & RODG-ERS, 

IMPORTEBS AND DEALEES IN 

Cotswold Sheep and An- 
gora Goats. 

A large lot of Angora Goats and Cotswold Sheep for 
sale. Also 100 Southdown and Cotswold graded Bams, 
and Angora graded Bucks up to 31-32. 

All of the above will be sold on reasonable terms and 
delivered on the cars at Watsonville free of charge. 

We are expecting a large lot of Goats from the East. 

LANDRUM & RODGERS, 
Watsonville, Santa Cruz Co., Cal. 



Address 
2v4-3m 



FULL BLOODED STOCK FOR SALE. 



Tbe undersigned has perfected arrangements to re- 
ceive consignments of the Best Bred Stock from Europe 
and the Eastern States, consisting of Short-homed 
Durham, Devon and Alderney Cattle; Cotswold, Span- 
ish Merino and Silesian Sheep; Angora Goats; Berk- 
shire and Essex Swine. All of which will be sold on 
reasonable terms, and pedigrees guaranteed. Persons 
living in Utah or Nevada, by giving timely notice, may 
have stock delivered on their way westward, thereby 
saving the cost of freight back. 

26v3-tf ROBERT BECK. 



CASHMERE GOATS FOR SALE. 

150 Head Half Breeds. 
50 Head Five-Eighths Breeds. 
150 Head Three-Quarter Breeds. 
150 Head Seven-Eighths Breeds. 
60 Head Fifteen Sixteenths Breeds. 
Two Full-Blood Bucks of the celebrated Hornless 
Stock. The whole band will be sold for $2,500 cash if 
applied for soon. 
july6-2t A. RIKER, 

Salinas City, Monterey County, Cal. 



WATT & IVCLENNAN, 

WOOL COMMISSION MERCHANTS, 

C25 Sansome s'reet, corner Jackson, SAN FRANCISCO. 

Receive Consignments of Wool, Sheep 
Skins, Hides, etc. Liberal advances made to 
consignors. Keep on hand the best quality of 
Wool Sacks, Twines, and other supplies. 
10v3-3iu 

TEN HEAD OF THOROUGHBRED 
DURHAMS FOR SALE. 

All Superior Animals, 

For particulars inquire of 

lv4-4t E. S. HOLDEN, Stockton. 



THE PATENT 

Novelty Mill and Grain Separator 




Is one of the gr atest improvements of the age for 
cleaning and separating grain, while It combines all the 
essential qualities of a First-class Fanning Mill. It also 
far excels anything that has been invented for the sepa- 
ration of grain. It has been thoroughly tested on all 
the different kinds of Mixed Grain. It takes out Mus- 
tard, Grass Seeds, Barley and Oats, and makes two dis- 
tinct qualities of wheat if desired. 
For further information apply to R. STONE, 

lv4-3m 422 Battery street, San Francisco. 



MOWER unci REAPER 

SECTIONS 

On hand and made to order at Lowest Prices by the 

PACIFIC FILE WORKS, 

53 Beale Street, S. F. 



The California Powder Works 

No. 814 tAHFOBMl STEERT, 

SAN FRANCISCO. 
Manufacturers and have constantly on hand 
SPORTING, 

MTNIIVG, 

And. I5T-.ASTTTVO 

POWDER, 

Of SUPERIOR QUALITY, FRESH FROM THE 
MILLS. It being constantly received and transported 
into the interior, is delivered to the consumer within a 
few days of the time of its manufacture, and is in every 
way superior to any other Powder in Market. 

We have been awarded successively 

Three Gold Medals 

By the MECHANICS' INSTITUTE and the STATE AG- 
RICULTURAL SOCIETY for the superiority of our 
products over all others. 
We also call attention to out 

HERCULES POWDER, 

Which combines all the force of other strong explosives 
now in use, and the lifting force of the best blastieg 
powder, thus making it vastly superior to any other 
pompound now in use. 

A circular containing a full description of this Pow- 
der can be obtained on application to our Office. 

16v20-3m JOHN F. LOHSE, Secretary. 



FAIRBANK'S. 




THE UNITED STATES 

»TA]NDA.Rr>. 

6,000 to 40,000 Pounds Capacity. 

THE SAME SCALE IS USED FOR WEIGHING 
CATTLE, HOGS, ETC. 

Scalea of every kind. Address 

FAIRBANKS & HUTCHINSON, 

126 California street, San Francisco. 

Agents for Miles' Alarm Monet Drawers. 
17v3-eowbp6m 



0. P. SHEFFIELD. N, W. SPAUXDING. J. PATTERSON. 




Pacific Saw Manufacturing Co., 



17 and 19 Fremont Street, San Francisco. 

REAPING AND MOWING MACHINE SECTIONS 
made to order— Three Dollars per Dozen. SAWS oi every 
I description on hand and made to order. All work war- 
ranted. Uvii-tf 
15v3-3m 



New FILES on hand. 



Old FILES Re-Cut. 



To Parties About Building. 



m 



%m 




W 
tttT:iI 




tion. Address 
5-v24-sa 



^ A person who is 

^s. competent to prepare 

§ plans and tako charge 

=3 of the construction of 

1 Dwellings, Mills, Bridg- 

| es, or other architec- 

Egl§ tural improvements, 

^mr- 'Will make favorable 

;g3j engagements with per- 

~^lf sonsor corporation^ in 

the city or the interior. 

Has had full experience 

^ on this coast, and can 

injure good satisfac- 

EDW. W. TIFFT, 
No. 6Q6 Jessie street, San Francisco 



CO-OPERATIVE MARBLE WORKS. 

JOHN DANIEL, & CO., 

Manufacturers of and Dealers in 

Monuments, Headstones, Tombs, J 

MANTEL PIECES, ETC., 

421 Pine street, between Montgomery and 1 

Kearny, San Francisco. 

21v2-ly 



WARNER & SILSBY 

Manufacture all sizes of 

Bed and Sofa Springs, ^ 

Which they offer to the trade at 
reduced prices; also tho cele- 
brated Obermann Self- 
Fastening: Bed Spring-. 

Any nian can make bis own Spring Bed with them 
by attaching them to the slats of any bedstead. 

642 Mission Street, above New Montgomery, San 
Francisco. 23v3-6mbp 



THE EAGLE HAY PRESS. 




Eagle Hay Press, 

THE INVENTION OF J. A. McGILLIVRAL, OF LLLI- 

NOIS, TO WHOM LETTERS PATENT WERE 

ISSUED JANUARY 10th, 18B5, 

AND JULY 24th, 1866. 

Several years were devoted by the patentee to the per- 
fection of this powerful press, and its unprecedented 
sale in the East induces the proprietors to introduce it 
into California and the Pacific States. 

All who have seen or used these Presses pronounce 
them superior to anything used heretoftrre. The power 
is applied by means of two levers, and it will be seen 
the power increases in ratio to the resistance; as the 
levers approach a horizontal position the power can 
scarcely be estimated. It is not only a powerful Press, 
but has the advantage of being Cheap, and also Simple, 
therefore not liable to get out of order. 

Three men with one horse can bale from Ten to Fif- 
teen Tons per Day, each bale weighing 250 to 300 lbs. It 
obviates all necessity by beating the hay before press- 
ing. On account of its great power, it is well adapted 
for pressing Hydes, Rags, Wool or Cotton. When a bale 
is pressed and fastened, tbe follower runs down of its 
own weight, and the bales can be taken out on either 
side. 

These Presses are now manufactured in San Francisco 
by the 

Himball Oar and Carriage 

MANUFACTURING COMPANY, 
Who are the proprietors on the Pacific Coast, and will 
endeavor to have a supply constantly on hand. 
Every Press made by them is WARRANTED to give 
satisfaction. Agents wanted. 



PRICE, $250. 



Endless Chain Elevator, 

FOR RAISING WATER FROM WELLS. 

BALL & CKARY, Patentees. 




Tho inventor claims that his ELEVATOR excels an.v 
other apparatus that has ever been brought betore the 
public for the purpose of raisins water from wells. Its 
chief merits are: First— The water is obtained from the 
well in a purer and colder state, for the reason that it. is 
drawn from near the bottom. Second— It is operated with 
the least difficulty, particularly in lifting a certain amount 
of water from any depth in a given tame, as compared with 
an.v other mode. Third— It. obviates all necessity for going 
down into the well in putting in the machinery, or for re- 
pairing the same, as such labor can be performed at the 
surface. Fourth — It can be easily taken out of one well 
and transferred to another. Fifth— It is less liable to ret 
out of repaii — but when repairs are necessary they can be 
easily made by an.v one; the action made by the Endless 
Chain and buckets keeps the well properly ventilated; 
there is no possibility for tho person operating it [nor for a 
child] to fall into the well. 

For circulars and particulars address 



2v4tf 



JOHN A. BALL, 

Grass Valley, Nevada Co.,;Cal. 



AVER ILL'S 

CHEMICAL PAINT 

Of any desired Shade or Color, 

Mixed ready for application, and sold by tho gallon. 

It is Cheaper, Handsomer, moro Durable and Elastic 
than the best, of any other Paint. 

Office, corner Fourth and Townsend streets, San 
Francisco. Send for sample card and price list. 

15v23-3m HELY k JEWELL, Agents. 



CHINESE SERVANTS AND LABORERS 
of all kinds furnished at the shortest notice by apply- 
ing to WOLF It CO., 510 Pine Street, San Francisco. 
13v24-3m 



1857. 



187 



SEEDS. 

X£5 Years Established. 

W. R. STRONG, 

8 and 10 J street SACRAMENTO 

Garden, 

Flower, 

Field, 

Fruit, 

Tree and Shrub, 
Grass and Clover Seeds, 
Fresh, Pure and True to Name. 

Seeds forwarded by mail to any part of the United 
StateB at 8 cents per pound. 

My anuual catalogue is ready and will be forwarded 
on application FREE. 

ALFALFA. 
50,000 pounds California Alfalfa, grown by J. Wil- 
coxson and otherB of the most careful and reliable pro- 
ducers. 

Kentucky Blue Grass, Red Top Timothy, Red and 
White Clover, Mesquit or Gramma Grass, etc. 
Seed Potatoes. 
Early Rose, Braze Prolific, Climax, Excelsior and 
other of the best tested varieties. An Eastern Agricul- 
turist offers $1,000 for a potato superior to the Excel- 
sior in good qualities. 

W R. STRONG, 
16v3-3m 8 and 10 J Street, Sacramento. 



THE OLD 



Maple Leaf Nursery. 



Has constant- 
varieties of 
ORNAMENT- 
GREEN and 
SHRUBS; also 
ment of Choice 
merous to 
Green House 
ers and Bulbs, 




ly on hand all 
FRUIT AND 
AL EVER. 
DECIDUOUS 
a large assort- 
ROSESIoonu- 
mention. 
Plants, Flow- 
Garden, Grass 



and Flower Seeds of all kinds, are for sale by 

L. M. NEWSOM, Proprietor, 
12v3-tf Washington street, Brooklyn. Cal. 



H. K. 0UMMING8. 

1868. 



J. M. MAXWELL 
1871. 



HENRY K. CUMMINGS & CO., 

Wholesale Fruit and Produce Commission 
House, 

ESTABLISHED 1858. 

115 and 417 Davis street, cor. of Oregon, San Francisco. 

Our business being exclusively Commission, we have 

jo interests that will conflict with those of the producer. 

4v23-ly 



GEORGE HUGHES, 
FRUIT, PRODUCE, 

And General Commission Merchant, 

313 and 315 Washing-ton street, 
Between Front and Battery SAN FRANCISCO. 

HOUSE ESTABLISHED IN 1850. 
14v3-6m 



THE 




*» 



Will sew everything needed in a family, from 
the heaviest to the lightest fabric. 

IT DOES MORE WORK, 

mo it i : itrs'ns of work, 

and isirnr.it work. 

Than any other machine. 

If there is a Florence Sewing Ma- 
chine wilhin one thousand miles of 
San Francisco not working •well and 
giving entire satisfaction, if I am in- 
formed of it, it will bo attended to 
without expense of any kind to the 
owner. 

SAMUEL HILL, Agent, 

19 New Montgomery Street, 
Grand Hotel Building, San Francisco. 

Send for Circular* and sample* of 
the work. Active Agents wunted in 
•very place. 



Wanted, Agents! 

$100 to $250 per month, everywhere, male and 
female, to Introduco the Latest improved, most Simple 
and perfect 

Shuttle Sewing Machine 

Ever invented. We challenge the world to competo 
with it. Prico only $18, and fully warranted for five 
years, making the Elastic Lock Stitch, alike on both 
sides. The same as all the high priced Shuttle ma- 
chines. Also, tho celebrated and latest improved 

Common Sense Family Sewinir Machine. 
Price only $15, and fully warranted for five years. 
These machines will Stitch, Hem, Full, Tuck, Quilt, 
Cord, Bind, Braid and Embroider in a most superior 
manner, and arc warranted to do all work that can be 
done on any high priced machine in the world. For 
Circulars and terms, address S. WYNKOOP & CO. 205*, 
Uldge Avenue, or P. O. Box 2720, Philadelphia, Pa. 

22v3-3m 



48 



[July 20, 1872. 



The Pacific Rural Press. 

The Pacific Ritual Press is now in its fourth 
volume. Its columns contain a large amount 
of original information upon the different 
branches of husbandry on this coast. Its great 
variety of contents is properly systeniized for 
the convenience of the reader, and ably pre- 
pared in pleasing language and style. Each 
number contains something of rare interest to 
every member of the household. 

The state of this new field of agriculture, so 
different from all others; the new and improved 
methods of farming necessary here; and the 
absence of any published record of farming and 
rural experience on this coast, form a com- 
bination of circumstances which render a really 
good journal of greater importance to farmers 
here than are similar issues to farmers in any 
other part of the world. 

The Pacific Rural Press has been heartily 
received and well patronized, and its liberal 
success enables us to improve and enrich its 
columns from month to month. 

Its reading and advertising matter is entirely 
chaste. All farmers should subscribe without 
delay. Every household should enjoy its richly 
tilled pages. 

Subscription, in advance, $4 a year. Single 
copies 10 cts. Four single copies, of late dates, 
sent postpaid for 25 cts. Address 

DEWEY & CO., 
Publishers, No. 338 Montgomery street, S. F. 



ONE DOLLAB A YEAR 

— FOB THE — 

PACIFIC COAST 

Jpitantilii ptctoi[. 



This is & new 16-paco monthly newspaper, of Bpecial in- 
formation for wholesale and retail tradesmen. It will also 
contain reading of interest and importance to all business 
and professional men on the coast. 

OUR TABLE OF CONTENTS 
Will comprise Fall Prices Current and Monthly Review of 
the Wholesale Markets; Diagrams of the Fluctuations of 
the Produce Markets; Rates of Freight and Passenger 
Fares— corrected monthly; Illustrations and bketchea of 
Prominent Men anil Building*: Editorials on Manufactur- 
ing and Industrial Progress; Department* containing ap- 
propriate reading matter and reviews for various branches 
of trade, including "Grocery and Provision;" "Dry Goods;" 
"Trades and Manufactures," etc., etc. 

Our tirst issue for May consists of 24 pages, embracing 
FORTY-FIVE OOLOMNS of important r.ading matter- 
mostly original and by first-class writers, Sample copies, 
post paid. 10 cttf. Yearly subscription, in advance, $1. Sub- 
scribers to the Mmis'i and Scientific Pit ess or the Pa- 
cific Rural Pbbbs will be supplied at half price. 

Published by MURRAY, DEWEY & CO., 
At the Publishing office of tne Mining and Scientific Press 

and Pacific Rural Press. San Francisco. 



DEWEY & CO., 

American and Foreign 




No. 338 Montgomery St., 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

Patents Obtained Promptly. 

Caveats Filed Expeditiously. 

Patent Reissues Taken Out. 

Patents Secured in Foreign Lands. 

Assignments Made and Recorded in Legal Form. 

Copies of Patents and Assignments Procured. 

Examinations of Patents made here and at 
Washington. 

Examinations made of Assignments Recorded 
in Washington. 

Examinations Ordered and Reported by Tele- 
graph. 

Rejected Cases taken up and Patents Obtained. 

Interferences Prosecuted. 

Opinions Rendered regarding the Validity of 
Patents and Assignments. 

Every Legitimate Branch of Patent Agency Bus- 
iness promptly and thoroughly conducted. 
Illustrated Circulars Free. 

DEWEY tL CO., 

Mining and Scientific Press, S. F. 



GENTS WANTED to canvass 



every town on the Pacific Coast fortho Mining and 
Scientific Peess, Pacific Rural. Pbess, and the 
Pacific Coast Mercantile Directob. Experienced 
canvassers preferred. Oood men can make large wa- 
ges, besides learning much and improving their talents. 



Attention, Owners of Horses. 

The ZINC COLLAR PAD is 
guaranteed to cube the worst 
case of raw and innauinl sure 
| neck in Ten Days, anil work 
tbe norM every day, or mouey 
refunded; and will not chafe 
or wear the mane off of the 
n-'i-k. Fur sale by Saddlery, 
Hardware Lbtablishmciit* and Harness Makers. Manu- 
factured by the ZINC COLLAR PAD CO., Buchanan, 
Michigan. ;;\l-4t 




"W AIXTJEU. 

A Dairy or Stock Ranch, of about Three Hundred 
Acres; part good rich bottom land, and part hills, with 
good water, and within two or three, hours, by railroad 
or steamboat, of Oakland. Price must bo moderate. 
H. M. AMES, 



Address 
3v4-lm 



P. O. Box 40, Oakland. 



BLAKE'S PATENT STEAM PUMP. 

These Pumps have been tested, »rd found to be indispntsblr without an equal wherever tnea. They have been Bold 
in the Pacific States now for upwards of 4 years, and we are willing every one in use may i»e referred to; every Pump will 
speak for itself. They are constructed in the tnoM simple style, and built in the rooBt thorough manner— especially 

lculated f<>r simplicity, durability and power. Some of the advantages of the Blake Pump may be summed up as fol 



lows: It is positive under any 
pressure. May be ran slow or 
last, as may be desired. Will 
discharge more water than any 
others of the same dimensions. 
Has no leaky joints, the steam 
part bein»; (fcft in ono en: ire 
piece. The steam valve is per- 
fectly balanced, is cushioned at 
each end, and slides with the 
greatest facility, having no cams 
nor complex Rotary Arrange- 
ments to get out of order. Will 
start at any point of tbe stroke, 
and will discharge all the wa er 
of condensation. The Pump 
has no cr* iik or fly- wheel, there- 
by saving a considerable item 
of expense to the burchaaer. 
Having no dead points, it there- 
tore needs no watching, and i* 
consequently ready to atari 
without usinga starting bar or 
any hand-work whatever. The 
Blake Pump ia extensively u»ed 
id** and "" 



Hand lower 



in Hotels; for Mining and rire 
purposes: in Breweries. Tan- 
neries, Sugar Houses, Factor- 
ies, Mills, ijiiundrie*, and as 
Boiler FeederB,wherevex ste m 
is employed. In fact, wherever 
water or other liquids are de- 
sired to be raised in Urge or 
sm * 1 1 f l nanti t ies, or against 
heavy or light pressu e, it is the 
cheapest and best Pump that 
can be Died. It is offered to the 
public as the mo^t perfect inde- 
pendent steam Pump ever in 
vented, forty diilerent sixes 
are made, capable of Utrowing 
from 1.000 to •200.000 gallon* an 
hour, and adapted to any class 
of work that may be required. 
Kvei\ rump will be warranted 
to perform the work required 
of it by the purchaser, or it may 
be returned, and the money will 
b- cheerfully refunded. The 
Blake Pump was awardeda Sil- 
ver Medal at the Exhibition of 
ramenbo. u bi hog the best Steam Pump on Exhibition. The 
l Mining Pump* t.o water works and deep mines, and will be 




on R&llroad-i and steamboats. 

Mechanics' Institute, San Francisco, and State Fair at 

agents have recently imported several of the lar^. 

pieced to refer parties to them; we claim for it. th;it it is the moet simple and durable, and ooneequenUjF the beet 

eiteam Pump ever built. For sale by TRKADWKLL A CO.. Machinery Depot, old stand. Market, head of Front Street, 

San I lanctsco, who will be pleased to send circulars to any address, or show its advantages to parties calling on them. 



THE GIANT POWDER COMPANY 

Are now manufacturing besides the famous regular 

GIANT POWDER, A. NO. S GIANT POWDER, 

Somewhat slower in its Explosion, which we recommend for 

XiAJPfS. BLASTING, COAL 511\i:s, 

AND FOR ALL SUCH WORK WHERE THE ROOK IS NOT VERY {HARD 

It is fully as safe as the other and evolves neither smoke nor noxious fumes when exploded. 
Price. 50 Cents per round. 

The sales of both grades increase very fast, which is the best proof of th ir superiority over other explosives. 
20v22-3ml6p 



BANDMANN, NIELSEN & CO., 

General Agents, No. 210 Front Street. 



Abstracts of Title 

TO 

LANDS 

IN 

ANY COUNTY IN CALIFORNIA, 

MADE WITH 

Care, Accuracy, Completeness, Dispatch, 

INCLUDING 

Proceedings in the United States Land Offices 
of the Bespective Districts. 

THE UNITED STATES COURTS. 

The United States Surveyor-General's Office. 

STATE LAND OFFICE. 



Affording all necessary information as to any parcel 
of land from the date of its first segregation out of the 
public domain to the present time. 

Complete Abstracts of the RecordB of Solano and 
Marin Counties. 



WM. H. J. BROOKS, 

SEARCHER OF RECORDS, 

621 Clay Street, 



Mv3 lam3m 



SAN FRANCISCO. 



B M. CHAMBEBLIN & CO., 

COMMISSION 

Merchants 

AND DEALERS IN 

Flour, Grain, 

WOOXa, 

Hides, Butter, 
Eggs, Etc., Etc. 

N. B. — Office of 
the Oil Cake Meal 
Co. 

SEEDS of all kinds advised and furnished by appli- 
cation. 

228 Clay Street, near Front. 

•^v3-3m 




WILLCOX & GIBBS 

IMPROVED NOISELESS 

Family Sewing Machine 

IS THE BEST IN THE MARKET. 

It Is the Most Simple, 

Easy to run (a child can operate it) , not liable to get out 
of order, sews the heaviest or lightest goods, and 
is remarkable for the great variety, perfec- 
tion and durability of its work. 

It is the only Machine 

Making the triple-threided Beam, with the twisted looj 
stitch, the strongest and most elastic made. 

The Willcox & Gibbs 

Received the only honorable mention and strong recom. 
mendation at the last Stockton Agricultural Fair. 

Its Work Received the First Premium 

At the San Francisco Mechanics' Institute Fair, 1871. 

Don't Fall to Examine. 

»- PERFECT SATISFACTION GUARANTEED. 

Other Machines taken in part payment. 
Call on or address 

WILLCOX & GIBBS S. M. CO., 

113 Post Street, S. F. 
J2v2-9m 



GLEN FLORA 

Stock Breeding Association. 

Successors to C. C. 4 R. H. Parka, Waukecan. III. Or- 
ganized tinder the laws of the State of Illinois. 

Importers and Breeders of 

SHORT-HORNED CATTLE 

Thoroughbred and Trotting Horses, Cotswold 

Sheep, Improved Berkshirrs, and 

Pure-Bred Poultry in Great 

'v arietios 

Stock nf all kinds for sale at reasonable prices. Send for 
Catalogue giving full description. Address 

C. C. PARKS, Pres't., 

13v3-tf WAl'KECAN, ILL. 



Every 

Description of 

Fanning i 



Machiner y 



St. Augustine's College, Benicia, Cal. 

l'.NGLISH AND CLASSICAL BOARDING SCHOOL. 
Boys prepared for the Universities or for Business. 

Healthy location. New and large Buildings. Military 
discipline. First grade Teachers. 

References in Kau Francisco: Right Rev. Bishop Kip, 
Rev. Drs.Lathrop and Tymau, and numerous patrons. 

Trinity Term for 1872 begins August 1st. 

For Catalogues, giving particulars, apply to 

lv4-f,t REV. W. P. TUCKER, Rector, Bi-nicia. 



GOOD CABLE SCREW WIRE 

Boots and Shoes 

LAST AS LONG AGAIN AS ANT OTHER 
KIND. 



FOR THE HARVEST OF '72. INCLUDING HOAD LEY'S 
Portable Engines, Russell's Threshers, Haines' Headers, 
Wood'B Prize Mowers, Ball's and McCormick's Reapers 
Kirby's Mowers and Reapers, Header-Wagons, Btude- 
'bakcr Farm Wagons. Horse-Powers, Trucks, Hay- 
FresscB, Horee-Rakes, Scythes, Snaths, Rakes, Cradles, 
Forks, Cultivators, Hay Cutters, etc., etc., all at less 
than invoice cost, at the old Farmers' Agricultural 
Warehouse and Machine Depot of 

TREADWELL & CO., 
Market, cor. Fremont St., San Francisco. 

V3-1KD 



VINE GROWERS, ATTENTION. 

There will be a meeting of the California Vine Grow- 
ers and Wine and Brandy Manufacturers Association at 
Sacramento on Thursday, the 18th of July, inst., at I 
o'ciock p. m., for the transaction of business of import- 
ance connected with the Association and the Wine and 
Brandy interest generally. 

All parties imerested are invited to attend. 

By order of the Board, 
julfi-tt I. N. HOAG, Secretary. 




' Purchasers please say advertised in Pacific Rural Press. 



FRESH GARDEN SEEDS. 

ALSO, 

Grass and Clover Seeds. 

ALFALFA. 

Trees, Plants, Roots, Etc., 

For Sale at Wholesale or Retail by 

GEO. F. HILVENTEK, 

No. 317 Washington Street, 

•9" Send for a Catalogue. 

GUANO. 

100 Barrels Guano for Sale, 

In quantities to suit purchasers. 
6v2-ly-16p GEO. F. SILVESTER. 



OAKLAND POULTRY YARDS, 

Corner Sixteenth and Castro Streets. 

SEASON OP 1872. 

Eggs for Hatching from Pure Bred Poultry 

Carefully packed in handled boxes with elastic 

bottoms, and guaranteed to carry safely 

to any part of the country. 




Seud Stamp for Circular to 

GEO. B. BAYLEY, 

Importer and Breeder of 
CHOICE POULTRY. 

P. O. Box 659, San Francisco. 

EGGS FOB HATCHING 

FROM 

THE FINEST BRED FOWLS IN AMERICA. 

Twelve First Premiums 

At the Sacramento State Fair. 

LtoHT Brahmas, Seven Different Strains; 
Dans Bk.ui.ma8. Imported from England and Ireland; 
Houdanb. direct from France; 
La Fleche, direct from France; 

SILVER Sl'A.NClLKll HaMBURGHS, 

(Said to laj 240 Eggs per year) 

Golden Polandb, Non-Setters and Fine Layers; 
Silver Polam>b, Non-Setters and Fine Layers; 
White Cochins, 
Burr Cochins, 
Duck Winoed Bantams, 

i;.'LDKN SEABRIOHT BaNTAMS, 

Japanese Bantams, 

Hjcathwood Gases, Finest in the World 

Also, I>l8;eoris. 

Pout, rs. Carriers, Nuns, Priests, Magpies, Rufne-N". . k.- 1 
Black-Tailed Turbits, Fantails; and Mada- 
gascar and Lop-Eared Rabbits. 

PIGS. 

China and Chester Whites; the Largest and Best bred in 
America. 

Eggs and Fowla for Sale. 

Apply to THOS. E. FLNLEY, Managor, 

California Stock and Poultry Association. 

Office— No. 113 Leidosdorff street. 

Yards— Cor. Laguna and Washington streets. 

Av3-3m-lGp 



IS". GILMORE, 

Importer and Breeder of 

Angora or Cashmere 
GOATS 

— or — 

PURE BLOOE 



ALL 



— AND — 

(iKADEM. 



For sale In lots to suit purchasers. Location, fou 
miles from Railroad Station, connecting with all part 
of tbe State. For particulars address 



6v3.tf 



N. GILMORE. 
El Dorado, El Dorado county. 




Volume IV.] 



SAN FRANCISCO, SATURDAY, JULY 27, 1872. 



[Number 4. 



Steam Plowing. 

A great deal has been said arid written on the 
subject of steam plowing in the United States; 
and engines, some to draw the plows by direct 
traction, others stationary on the sides of the 
field to be plowed, have been pnt to use, some 
drawing three plows, others five, and others 
again have attempted with as many as eight, 
and yet it is a fact that with all the skill usually 
attached to American ingenuity, we have fallen 
far behind the English in our efforts to success- 
fully cultivate the land by steam plowing. 

Fowler's steam plow has been at work suc- 
cessfully for years in England and France, and 
the Pacha of Egypt has as many as four hun- 
dred in steady employment during the plowing 
season. Land of the same quality, side by 
side, the one plowed by steam yields forty 
bushels per acre, the other by horses, yielding 
but twenty bushels. The cost of plowing by 
steam is one-third less than with horses, even 
in Europe where the plowman's wages are but 
forty cents a day. 

Plowing by Contract. 

There are establishments in England that 
employ 1,200 men each in the manufacture of 
steam plowing apparatus ; and there are orga- 
nized companies who hire out their steam ma- 
chines or do work by contract, and there are 
said to be over five hundred steam plows thus 
held for hire, and parties contract to do plow- 
ing from eight to twelve inches deep, for $1 
and $1.15 per acre, and plowing from thirty to 
forty acres per day. 

It is not surprising therefore that 
Americans should be making continued 
efforts in the direction of some invention 
that shall equal if not greatly excel the 
present English steam plow. An inven- 
tion has been put to practical test within 
the past three years in California, on 
the principle of revolving cutters, that 
seemed to promise favorable results, but 
we have not heard of its recent trials or 
performances. And now Mr. Alexander 
Campbell, of Yolo Co., submits an in- 
vention of his, both as regards peculiari- 
ty of engine and its attachment to plows, 
that seems to merit careful consideration 
and a full trial, and we are pleased to 
learn that the ' 'Reclamation Fund Com- 
mission" of which G. G. W. Morgan is 
the active efficient Secretary, has taken 
the matter in hand. It has also been 
brought to the notice of the Sacramento Farm- 
ers' Club as follows: 

Engines for Plowing. 

In response to an invitation extended by the 
Sacramento Farmers' Club, Alexander Camp- 
bell of Washington, Yolo county, resubmitted 
his drawings and also the description of his 
steam-plowing, ditching and traction engines: 
"These engines are capable of cultivating 
from thirty to sixty acres per day of ten hours, 
from seven to twelve inches in depth, or of cut- 
ting one mile of ditching per hour, three feet 
wide at the top, one foot at the bottom, by two 
and one-half feet in depth. They may be made 
available at a moment's notice for any ordinary 
work, such as threshing, pumping} sawing, 
hoisting, or as a traction engine. They are 
fitted with Campbell's compound windlass, ex- 
pansion frames, telescopic hoisting crane, etc. 
This windlass has a clip-drum, enabling one 
engine to be used when wanted, independent 
of any other, for plowing, etc. The expansion 
frames take all strain entirely off the boilers, 
thereby greatly reducing the wear and tear. 
The cylinders are steam jacketed, and all the 
gearing and working parts are made of cast 
steel, insuring the greatest strength and light- 
ness. No other system of steam cultivation 



can compare with this for thoroughness of 
work, less wear and tear, and economy of ex- 
penses for work alone. The best traction en- 
gine known to the public is manufactured by 
Avling & Porter, of Rochester, England. Their 
six horse-power engine has an indicated power 
of thirty-eight horses, and weighs 11,704 
pounds. Eighty-three pounds is the tractive 
power of a horse at four miles an hour. 

Power Required 
To pull a ton over soft, sandy or gravelly 
ground requires a strain of 210 pounds. To 
plow a furrow eight inches deep by ten inches 
in breadth it requires a strain of 303 pounds . 



The illustration we present of engine, and 
field work being performed, were engraved at 
the Rural Press and patent agency office, 338 
Montgomery street, San Francisco. 

Where the Rain Comes From. 

There has been a great deal said of the effect 
of forests upon the rainfall of countries. We 
doubt very much the correctness of attributing 
the lack of rain in California during the sum- 
mer months to the absence of forests. No ex- 
tent of forest will ever bring us rain in summer, 




IMPROVED STEAM PLOWING ENGINE. 



This power would pull five plows in a gang at 
four miles an hour. This, deducting say fifteen 
per cent, for stoppages, will give 1 75-100 acres 
per hour, or 17 24-100 acres per day of 10 
hours, at a cost of 1,900 pounds of coal and 
two skilled men's wages. This assuming five 
pounds of coal per horse-power per hour. 
This shows a consumption of 1,160 pounds for 
actual work done and 750 for propelling the 
engine. Supposing this engine to be fitted 



so long as the climate is controlled by the great 
ocean wind currents that sweep down the coast 
from the northern seas, or overland from the 
same direction. 

Those from the ocean come laden with mois- 
ture almost to complete saturation, and they 
clothe the western slope of the coast range of 
mountains north of the central portion of the 




THIS DESIGN SHOWS THE ENGINES AT WORK. 



with a 'clip -drum,' the friction of the rope 
does not waste one-tenth of the engine power; 
thus we should have 34 2-10 horse-power for 
actual use instead of 23 2-10. Cost of direct 
traction — 2,000 pounds of coal, $10; two men, 
$8 — $18 for 17% acres. Stationary traction — 
2,000 pounds of coal, $10; two men, $8; two 
boys, $3— $21 for 27% acres. Thus direct 
traction will cost about $1 per acre, while the 
rope traction will cost seventy-six cents per 
acre." 

After the reading of the above and the ex- 
planation of the drawings by Campbell, I. N. 
Hoag offered the following, which was unani- 
mously adopted : 

" Whereas, Alexander Campbell has exhib- 
ited to the Club drawings of a steam-plowing 
apparatus, an improvement on the English 
system of plowing by stationary engines, and 
explained the advantages of stationary engine- 
power over direct traction ; and whereas we are 
fully satisfied that the productiveness of our 
soil can be greatly increased by deeper and 
more thorough cultivation, therefore, 

"Resolved, That we regard Campbell's im- 
provement a valuable one, and wo would be 
glad to see the plow introduced in our State 
generally, and hope capitalists who are inter- 
ested in tho agricultural improvement of our 
State will not hesitate to furnish the necessary 
means to accomplish this object. ' ' 



State with forests of timber; but the forests do 
not saturate the winds with moisture, nor do 
they bring rain. 

We get our rain in winter, not because we 
have more trees and foilage then, than in sum- 
mer; our rains are not the product of any 
country's forests; but they are brought to us 
by wind currents from afar, that come upon us 
laden with moisture obtained from some other 
source than our forests. We believe tho south- 
east winds of winter bring us, but do not create 
here, the moisture that gathered into rain de- 
luge mountain and plain. If the Sierras re- 
ceive a heavier rain or snow-fall than do the 
plains below either in summer or winter, it is 
not becauso they are more densely timbered, 
but becauso of their altitude condensing the 
waters of the clouds into rain and snow. 

Forests, timber belts and hedges exert a modi- 
fying influence on the winds of any country, 
and their growth should be encouraged; we 
want them for the timber, fire wood and their 
luxurious shade; but let us plant them because 
wo want them for othor purposes than rain pro- 
ducers. 



The Wheat Crop of California. 

In the southern counties of California , har- 
vesting commenced as early as the 15th of 
June, with a fair yield of grain of an excellent 
quality. Gradually the harvest extended to- 
ward the more central portions of the State, 
with everywhere a satisfactory yield, till at last 
the power of the harvesters can be said to have 
fairly settled down upon the great interior val- 
leys, about the 10th of July. 

From that time to the present, probably more 
wheat has been garnered in from the great 
acreage of California, than was ever before in 
the same length of time in any other one State 
of the Union. And now, after more than two 
months of hay and barley harvest, and a full 
month of continuous wheat harvest, still the 
work goes bravely on, and will for a month to 
come. 

And now just to jog the memories of a few of 
our Eastern States' grain growers, not to tan- 
talize them at all, we would here remark, that 
not a day's rain has occurred during the whole 
of this grand harvest time, nor one cloudy day, 
nor do we expect one till next September. 
And further, that the straw is as bright as 
though gilded with pale gold, and the grain so 
solid, that in many sections of the State it will 
turn the scale at sixty-four pounds to the 
bushel. 

Already in the season the spectacle is pre- 
sented to the world, of a State so profoundly 
weighed down by her surplus wheat crop that 
all the means of transportation, by teams, 
navigable rivers and long lines of rail 
roads, are entirely inadequate to its re- 
moval to the sea-board; nor does the 
world send us ships enough to bear it to 
foreign markets. 

As a consequence there are not buy- 
ers of wheat enough in the State to re- 
lieve the immediate wants of producers. 
Very many who from the effect of short 
crops of preceding years were in some- 
what straightened circumstances, now find 
themselves obliged to submit to what, 
ever low figure is the ruling one of the 
season; and the " shipping ring," hav- 
- ing control of the entire marine fleet of 

transportation, hold the price of wheat 
in their own hands, greatly to the loss of 
the producer who may be forced to real- 
ize. 

It is not that we advise the wheat 
grower to hold on for a rise, for we never do 
this; our mission being to give to the producer 
as near as we can, the exact condition - of the 
world's markets, and the causes and reasons 
which in our opinion may affect prices, and 
then let every ono act upon their own judgment 
in tho matters of time and price. But when 
we see a successful effort to control the entire 
handling and transportation of our wheat crop, 
and those who do it sot their own value upon 
it, with never a thought of counciling with 
tho producer, wo are apt to believe it will in- 
ure more to the benefit of the " ring " than to 
tho man of toil. 

For once we are ourselves the possessors of 
a wealth of wheat, which instead of benefitting 
those who have labored to produce it, will go, or 
the largest share of the profit it yields, into the 
hands of tho monopolizers of its transportation 
to the world's principal markets. 

A Connecticut editor says: " Our early peas 
came up in two days after they were planted 
this year. Anybody's will, if the hens are al- 
lowed to run in the garden." 



50 



[July ay, 1872. 



Correspondence. 



Alfalfa— Its History and Value. 

Editors Rural Press: — A late number 
of the Rural contains an interesting arti- 
cle from a correspondent, suggesting the 
importance of cultivating alfalfa for pas- 
turing sheep. Your excellent editorials 
have also been calling attention to this 
useful plant. It may interest your cor- 
respondent and other readers, as it has the 
writer, to. see what was thought in early 
times of the worth and mode of culture of 
this most valuable pasture plant. Allow 
me to send you an extract from the work 
of an English Botanist, who wrote about 
it more than forty years ago. The article 
contains many useful suggestions, which 
may be of value to those who wish to cul- 
tivate it. By way of introduction, we will 
mention that the "alfalfa as we know it in 
California, by its Spanish name, is exactly 
the same as the plant known in England as 
Lucern, and in France, as Burgundy hay, 
(Foin de Bourgogne) . Its Botanical name 
is Medicago Satira. 

This writer says of al-fal-fa, "It is a 
deep rooting perennial plant, sending up 
numerous small and tall clover-like shoots 
with blue or violet spikes of flowers. It is 
highly extolled by the Roman writers; it 
is also of unknown antiquity in old Spain, 
Italy, and the south of France; is much 
grown in Persia and Peru, and mown in 
both countries all the year round. It is 
mentioned by Hartlits, Blythe and other 
early writers, and was tried by Lisle; but 
it excited little attention till after the pub- 
lication of Hart's Essays in 1757. But 
though it has been so much extolled, it 
has yet found no great reception in this 
country," (England). "If any good reason 
can be given for this, it is that lucern is a 
less hardy plant than red clover, requires 
three or four years before it comes to its full 
growth, and is for these and other reasons 
ill adapted to enter into general rotations. 
When the climate and soil suit, perhaps a 
field of it may be advantageously sown, to 
afford early cutting, or food for young or 
sick animals, for which it is said to be well 
adapted; but though it will produce good 
crops for eight or ten years, yet from the 
time the farmer must wait till this crop 
attains its perfection, and from the care 
requisite to keep it from grass and weeds, 
we do not think it is ever likely to come 
into general culture. 

The soil for lucern must be dry, friable, 
inclining to sand, and with a subsoil not 
inferior to the surface; unless the soil be 
good and deep, it is in vain to attempt to 
cultivate lucern. 

The preparation of the soil consists in 
deep plowing and minute pulverization; 
and, in our opinion, the shortest way to 
effect this is to trench it over by the spade 
two or three feet in depth, burying a good 
coat of manure, in the middle, or at least 
one foot from the surface. This is the 
practice in Guernsey, where lucern is 
highly prized. 

The climate for lucern, as we have al- 
ready hinted, must be warm and dry; it has 
been grown in Scotland and Ireland, and 
might probably do well in the southern 
counties of the latter country, but in the 
former it has not been found to answer 
the commendations of its admirers. 

The season most proper for sowing lu- 
cern, is as early as can be done in the 
spring months, as in this way the plants 
may be fully established before the season 
becomes too hot * * * The manner of 
sowing lucern is either broadcast or in 
drills, and either with or without an ac- 
companying crop of grain for the first 
year. Broad-cast and a very thin crop of 
barley or other spring grain, is generally, 
and, in our opinion, very properly pre- 
ferred. 

The quantity of seed, when the broad- 
cast method is adopted, is said to be from 
fifteen to twenty pounds per acre, and from 
eight to twelve if drilled. The seed is 
paler, larger and dearer than that of 
clover; it is generally imported from Hol- 
land, and great care should be had to pro- 
cure it plump and perlectly new, as two 
years old seed does not come up freely. 
The same depth of covering as for clover 
will answer. The after-culture of lucern, 
sown broadcast, consists in harrowing, to 
destroy grass and other weeds, rolling af- 
ter the harrowing to smooth the soil for 
the scythe, and such occasional top-dress- 
ings of manure as the state of the plants 
may seem to require. The top-dressings 
given to lucern may be either of the saline 



or mixed manures. Ashes are greatly es- 
teemed and also gypsum and liquid ma- 
nure of any kind. 

Lucern frequently attains a sufficient 
growth for the scythe, towards the end of 
April, or beginning of the following 
month; and in soils that aro favorable for 
its culture, will be in a state of readiness 
for a second cutting in the course of a 
month or six weeks longer, being capable 
of undergoing the same operation at near- 
ly similar distances of time during the 
whole of the summer season. 

The application of lucern is also the 
same as clover. The principal and most 
advantageous practice, in the application 
of lucern, is the soiling of horses, neat 
cattle and hogs; but as a dry fodder it is 
also capable of affording much assistance, 
and as an early food for ewes and lambs 
may be of great value in particular cases, 
whether in a green or dried state. 

The produce of lucern, cut three times 
in a season, has been stated at from three 
to five and even eight tons per acre. In 
soiling, one acre is sufficient for three 
or four cows during the soiling season, and 
a quarter of an acre, if the soil be good, 
for all sorts of large stock for the same 
period, or half an acre on a moderate soil. 
To save seed the lucern may be treated 
precisely as the red clover, and it is much 
easier threshed, the grains being contained 
in small pods, which easily separate under 
the flail, or a threshing machine or a clover 
mill." 

The views of this writer show how well 
the hot, dry air and sandy soil of Califor- 
nia are suited to the luxuriant growth of 
lucern, or, as we call it, alfalfa. 

Turlock, July 18, 1871. J. w. a. w. 

Los Angeles County. 

Editors Rural Press. — Passing north- 
west from the "Riocon" in San Bernardino 
County, we come to the Chino Ranch, 
eight leagues in extent; occupied by Jas. 
W. Waters and others as a stock ranch; 
the former having between five and six 
thousand cattle and sheep, and the others 
about three thousand. Crossing this 
ranch brings us into Los Angeles County, 
at St. Jose Creek and the little hamlet of 
Spadsa, a very productive place, occupied 
principally as a range for sheep and other 
stock by Louis Philips and the Rorbideaux; 
but portions are highly cultivated and well 
watered. Mr. Rorbideaux having the 
Pecan, Persimon, Hickory, Pawpaw and 
other trees of the Mississippi Vally, to- 
gether with a choice selection of tropical 
and other fruit trees. 

Following down the San Jose Creek 
ten miles brings us to the Rowland and 
Workman tracts, containing 48,790 acres 
of the richest lands in Los Angeles County. 
There are 40,000 vines of the Mission grape 
on this tract with some of the finest olive 
trees to be found in the state. These 
people appear to be patricians in the truest 
sense, surrounding themselves with sub- 
stantial evidences of thrift and refinement, 
These gentlemen, Rowland and Workman, 
are old friends, and the real pioneers of 
this country, having been in friendly rela- 
tions, upon this coast for fifty years, first 
in Mexico then in California. 

Passing westward six miles brings us to 
the San Gabriel river and the "Monte." 
This last is a vast thicket of willow, alder 
and nettles; with settlers interspersed, 
some of whom have been in undisputed 
occupancy for sixteen years, yet those legal 
gymnasts and jugglers, the lawyers, find 
room for operation, in extending the 
interminable "grant" incubus over it. 
Grapes and Vineyards. 

In this vicinity close to the base of the 
mountains, is a vineyard that may well 
challenge comparison. It is five years old, 
has 50,000 vines on a high bench of gravel 
soil, that has not been irrigated, and 
averaged six pounds of grapes to the vine, 
close pruned last year. This vineyard be- 
longs to Mr. B. S. Eaton, who is also a 
successful propagator of orange and other 
trees; but thinks the vine preeminently 
the crop for Southern California. His 
wines have a beautiful bouquet and fine 
tint without "Doctoring." In this con- 
nection it may be well to mention a shrewd 
observation of another viae grower of 
this county, when questioned upon irrigat- 
ing his vines; ''w r hat do I want to put 
water on them now for? I should only 
have to carry it out, in the wood pruned 
away, next spring; if any irrigation is 
done let it be done in the fall or winter 
after the grapes are gathered." 

One other suggestion from the same 



source about the variety of grapes best for 
all purposes. After seventeen years of 
experience, the kind of grape preferred, 
as being found both hardy and prolific, 
in fact, having all the best qualities of the 
Mission, with a more desirable flavor, and 
smaller seeds, is the Black Burgundy; next 
in flavor, the Black Malvoise. One thousand 
vines, (close pruned) producing four hun- 
dred dollars worth of grapes, and some 
Rieslings, five years old, (close pruned,) 
gave, with the same cultivation, thirty 
pounds to the vine. 

In fact, some of the much lauded vines, 
in the same yard, such as the Muscat of 
Alexandria and others, fell far behind the 
former in intrinsic value. This is disinter- 
es ed, as the propagator has vines to sell. 
From present evidence, the three varieties 
named at first, with one other, and in the 
following order, are considered as the most 
desirable for general cultivation. Black 
Burgundy, Riesling, Black Malvoise and 
Royal Muscatel. Of course every one will 
have their favorites, but what is desirable 
to know, is what varieties are best, regard- 
less of any favoritisms or speculative 
bias. 

Tropical Fruits. 

Although the vine is without doubt the 
staple to be replied upon in Southern 
California, yet the semi-tropical fruits; de- 
mand a large share of attention. I am not 
prepared to say what the exact extent of 
the area is, upon which to rely for orange 
production; but it is more limited than 
many would have believed, and probably 
will not exceed one hundred thousand acres 
in this county, and probably not more 
than that amount in both the counties 
south of this. The orange must have 
water without stint; and the area sufficient- 
ly free from frost, which is well watered, 
does not, we opine, exceed the above figures 
in the three counties included. 

Preparations are perfected for supply- 
ing just the kinds of semi-tropical and 
other fruit trees which are desired. No 
matter how great the demand, as evidenced 
by a glance through the nurseries of Thos. 
A. Garey and others in this vicinity. This 
gentleman has on his grounds, 36,000 
orange and lemon trees, from 1 to 5 years 
old; 50,000 each of walnut and peach of 
the same age, (the peach are partly for 
almond grafts) , with apple, pear and grape 
in good variety. 

Several hundred thousand orange and 
lemon trees in seed-beds intended for 
grafting were not cuonted, as this experi- 
enced horticulturist, does not consider a 
tree at all sure to live and do well, unless 
it is removed and the tap root cut, to make 
it throw out lateral roots; while many 
nursery men sell trees from the seed beds 
that have never been transplanted, one in 
five of which are not likely to live or do 
well. Among other choice varieties in this 
nursery, we noticed the Chinese Mandarin 
orange — a dwarf, bearing at five years — 
and the Sicily blood orange. I counted care- 
fully grafts of the orange on lemon stocks, 
and found about two- out of three only had 
lived. Before closing, it may be well to 
record the fact that vines here are found 
to increase in productiveness up to 70 years 
at least, as some of that age produce here 
a gallon of wine, and a diminished quan- 
tity from 65 year-old vines on the same 
ground, and less on 60 year-old vines. 
F. M. Shaw. 

Los Angeles, July 7, 1872. 

Snuffles in Sheep. 

On the 26th of June, we received a letter 
post marked Sacramento, which reads as 
follows: 

Editors Rural: — Can you let me know 
through your valuable paper how I can 
cure a few choice sheep who have a fearful 
sneezing and discharge from the nostrils. 
A neighbor advised me to rub Stockholm 
tar up their nostrils, I have done so several 
times, but with no good results. I have 
been told they have got the snuffles, but I 
am not posted. A few lines on the subject 
from you will never be forgotten. 

T. c. w. 

We were desired to send notice by letter 
which we did, but now after fifteen days it 
has been returned to us unopened. Another 
request from a different source, asks for 
like information, so we give the copy of 
the letter as sent to T. C. W. 

Dear Sir. — Your sheep have doubtless 
got the disease known to sheep growers as 
the " snuffles." All high bred English 
mutton or the long wooled sheep are more 
or less subject to it, in this country; and 
it usually makes its appearance after sud- 
den changes of weather from heat to cold, 



or cold to heat. It is rarely, but some- 
times accompanied by a cough, as well as 
the sneezing; but in any event it is better 
to give no medicine or make any appli- 
cation whatever. It is seldom fatal, per- 
haps never. 

The best treatment— as you probably find 
they have not so good an appetite as be- 
fore the attack — is to give them for a few 
days, a plenty of good nourishing food, 
green grass or alfalfa, with clear, pure 
water for drink, and give them good shelter 
from the sun in the middle of the day, but 
not in a close stable or barn , the open air 
with the shade of trees, or a covered shed 
open at the sides all round is best. 

Give them a little extra care for a few 
days, and your animals will be all right. 
Give them all the salt they will eat. 



I 



ATENTS & INVENTIONS. 



Full List of U. S. Patents Issued to 
Pacific Coast Inventors. 

[From Official Reports to DEWEY k CO., V. 8. and 

Foreign Patent Agents, and Publishers of 

the Mining and Scientific Press.] 

fob the week ending .tcxt 2nd. 
Fence-Panel Adjuster.. — Francis M. Banous, 

Yreka, Cal. 
Self-Acting Expansion Rail and Chalk. — 

William Close, Sacramento, Cal. 
Medical Compound for the Teeth. — John 

Condon Hassi 11, Nevada City, Cal. 
Method of Elevating the Mercury in Amal- 
gamating Apparatus. — Ottokar Hoffman, 

Ellsworth, Nev. 
Ore Concentrator. — Morgan Hungerford, S. 

F., Cal. 
Furnace for Roasting Ore. — Richard F. Knox 

and Joseph Osborn, S. F., Cal. 
Metallic Packing for Stationary Joints. — 

Ira J. Saunders, Davisville, Cal. 
Can for Liquids.— Andrew V. Smith, S. F. Cal. 
Medical Compound for Coughs, Colds, etc. — 

John Willey, Oakland, Cal. 

Note.— Copies of U. 8. and Foreign Patents furnished 
by Dewey & Co., in the shortest time poB6ible(by tel- 
egraph or otherwise) at the loweBt rates. All patent 
business for Pacific coast inventors transacted with 
greater security and in much less time than by any other 
agency 



Coal. 

The production of Coal in California is 
being prosecuted with vigor. The product 
of the Mount Diablo mines for the past six 
months shows a marked increase over the 
same time last year, as will be seen by the 
following statement : 

1871. 1872. 

January, tons 9,332 14,671 

February 8,832 13,010 

March..." 10,508 16,030 

April 9,157 13,062 

Mhv 11.468 14,778 

June 11,177 12,289 

Totals 60,474 84,446 

At least 90 per cent, of the product at these 
mines finds its way to this city, where it is 
chiefly used for steam purposes. These 
mines are the only ones worked in the 
State to any extent. Our other Pacific 
coast supplies come from Oregon, Washing- 
ton Territory, Utah and British Columbia. 
The mines in Oregon and Washington 
Territory from which we obtain supplies 
are at Coos Bay, Bellingham Bay and 
Seattle. The receipts from these sources 
for the six months compare as follows : 

1871. 1872. 

January, tons 3,994 8,790 

February 4,867 1,404 

March 2,010 8,455 

April 6,018 3,877 

May 4,768 4,497 

June 1,371 1,887 

Totals 27,423 20,410 

The decrease receipts from these mines is 
easily explained. There was a stoppage of 
several weeks at the Seattle mine to com- 
plete railroad to the water. There have 
been no receipts from the Bellingham Bay 
mine, on account of a fire in the early 
months of the year, and the repairs subse- 
quently needed. A vessel was recently 
sent there to load, and it is reported that 
the mine is now all right. Most of the 
receipts of coast descriptions for the past 
six months have therefore come from the 
Coos Bay mines. Hereafter it is expected 
that the Bellingham Bay and Seattle mines 
will furnish their usual supplies. The 
Rocky Mountain mine in Utah has sent us 
771 tons Coal in the past six months all by 
railroad. — Bulletin. 



July 27, 1872.J 



^iifii au&ax vmmj 



51 



iCiENTiFic Progress. 



Vegetable Physiology. 

Some interesting researches have lately been 
made into the character and movements of the 
chlorophyl grains in the cells of leaves. Sachs 
was the first to discover that the chlorophyl or 
green substance of leaves were less intense under 
the direct sunlight than under diffused daylight. 
This discovery lead to the further fact that, in 
the movement of the grains of chlorophyl, they 
group themselves during the day (but only 
under the action of the more refrangible solar 
rays) upon the more illuminated horizontal cell 
walls, and withdraw at night to the perpen- 
dicular walls. The direct sun'ight causes the 
same movement of the green particles that 
darkness does. 

In the action of light in assimilation, in the 
decomposition of carbonic acid and in the for- 
mation of chlorophyl, all the researches go to 
confirm the generally received view that such 
phenomena are dependent solely upon luminous 
intensity, and that the most refrangible rays 
are most efficient. It is jfound that in plants 
where 

White light decomposes 100 parts of carhonic acid, 

Red and orange " 32.1 "■ " •' 

Yellow " 46.1 " " 

Green " 15.0 " " " 

Blue,indigo,violet " 7.6 " " " 

As to the phenomena which result from the 
absence of light, Kraus has studied the differ- 
ence between stems and leaves when subject to 
the bleaching effect of the direct rays of the 
sun, and has found that the limbs of leaves un- 
dergo complete arrest of development in dark- 
ness, while the space between the joints of 
stems elongate much beyond their normal 
dimensions. The blade of the leaf completes 
its growth, after coming into the light solely 
from the materi ils which it assimilates into 
starch or its equivlent. Starch in older times 
is of no use to it. In darkness none of this is' 
produced, and so its growth is arrested. 

The Spring Period of the Maple. 

Schrceder has devoted much attention to the 
successive phases presented in the develop- 
ment of vegetation from the ascent of the sap 
at the moment when the expanded leaves begin 
to decompose carbonic acid. 

The maple, under the latitude of Breslau, 
"weeps" for about a month; the sap rises 
gradually to a certain level, when it descends 
again by degrees, in proportion as the develop- 
ment advances. Holes pierced in the trunk, at 
different hights, enabled this sap to be col- 
lected daily; and very numerous analyses keep 
us informed of the smallest variation in its 
composition. It always contains sugar, a 
transitory product of the transformation of the 
starch accumulated in the tissues during the 
preceding summer, and destined to become re- 
transformed when it reaches the buds. The 
proportion is but slight, at the first awakening 
of vegetation; it increases gradually up to a 
certain maximum, in proportion as the vital 
phenomena acquire more intensity; and, finally, 
it diminishes when the young organs, approach- 
ing the term of their development, are on the 
verge of sufficing for themselves. These facts 
are perfectly in accordance with such a theory 
of growth as has been established by the re- 
searches of modern observers. The albumen 
and the mineral salts and their dissemination 
in the sap, at different hights at the same mo- 
ment, and at different periods, is exactly gov- 
erned by the different phases of development. 

The Microscopic Examination of the Bud. 

The different substances which are called 
upon to assist in the development of the young 
leaf are traced by means of the microscope and 
re-agents from cell to cell. Two, especially, 
give origin to detailed observations, namely 
starch and tannin. The dissemination of the 
former in the different tissues, its transporta- 
tion through the starchy layers of the fibro- 
vascular bundles, its disappearance toward the 
point of vegetation, at the surface of which it 
speedily reappears as cellulose — all these differ- 
ent phases have been carefully studied and fol- 
lowed up. As to tannin, it is developed in all 
the cells of the bud; and when once it has 
made is appearance it persists there, without 
appreciable change. Its function has greatly 
embarrassed M. Schroeder, as he was unable to 
recognize in it any of the characters of an ex- 
crementitial product, properly so called. The 
fact that it is constantly to be found in the 
youngest tissues (in which life is most intense), 
seems to indicate that it is a sort of final pro- 
duct, charged with a still unknown office in the 
life of the cell. If the true chemical nature of 
this substance were better known, the solution 
of the problem would, perhaps, become easier. 

The above has been condensed from a com- 
munication in the July number of the American 
Journal of Science. 

An Enobmous Ruby. — Prof. Sheppard, of 
Amherst College has recently made a valuable 
addition to his splendid cabinet of minerals. 
This addition consists of a fuby of enormous 
size — the largest in the world— weighing 316 
pounds! It was discovered in one of the South- 
ern States, and was about to be taken to Europe 
when the Professor secured it by an offer of 
$300. Cheap enough. 



ECHANICAL 



& 



ROGRESS, 



Steam in its Fickle Moods. 

A writer in the Railway Review says : The 
notion prevails that a sound steam boiler, well 
supplied with water, will never burst at any 
reasonable pressure. Unfortunately engineers 
act upon this hypothesis, and still more unfor- 
tunate is it, that when not to do so, and wliy is 
almost impossible of demonstration. Facts, 
well known to every practical engineer, show 
that every little while a boiler which, under 
apparently identically the same circumstances 
in every particular, on one day makes steam 
enough, on the very next day will not, and can 
not be made to generate enough for more than 
light duty. Train dispatchers occasionally find 
their trains thrown into confusion from unex- 
pected delays, and upon careful inquiry into 
the cause, are informed that for some unex- 
plained and mysterious reason, the engine men 
cannot make steam enough to do their ordina- 
ry work. 

Again every little while a boiler explodes, for 
which no possible cause can be assigned. And 
not only this, but such like " acts of God, " 
very often follow each in quick succession for 
short periods. Three were reported on one 
day, within the past year and only a hundred 
or so miles apart. In short, it seems to be 
conceded that steam, in boilers, may be gener- 
ated in greater volumes in the same given time 
(and that, too, very quickly) on some days 
than upon others; and hence it is reasonable 
to conclude that what would be prudent 
management of a boiler at one time, might be 
very imprudent at another. 

To ascertain this accurately is certainly a de- 
sideratum. It may be that the condition of 
the atmosphere has something to do with the 
abnormal eccentricities of steam boilers. A 
close watch of barometric changes at those times 
when the generation of steam is found difficult, 
electro-metric observations — as far as instru- 
ments are perfected for that purpose — in short, 
a search into " iEther " by competent scien- 
enfific analysts, might, possibly, reveal their 
causes and supply the engineer with means of 
knowing when danger threatens, just as our 
seamen are warned and protected by the storm 
signals which have been found so beneficial. 

As yet, whatever investigations, if any have 
been made in this direction with reference to 
such an end, are not made known. Probably 
very little inquiry has been had; owing, per- 
haps, to the fact that so few of our practical, 
mechanical engineers are scientific men. Many, 
indeed the great majority, ares killful in manip- 
ulating their engine and faithful and fear- 
less in the discharge of duty. But these men 
who are the very ones to know, and who do 
know, when strange phenomena are manifested, 
are not the ones to search for causes. They are 
not educated to the point where such investi- 
gations are possible for, or interesting -to them 
to make. Their knowledge ends with their 
experience of the facts. 

We indulge the hope that our meteorologists 
may take this subject under serious considera- 
tion, with a view of ascertaining what are the 
indications of the atmosphere on those occa- 
sions so unfavorable to the generation of steam ; 
the great obstacle being, after all, that they can 
not know of them at the precise time. 

In this connection it is naturally suggested, 
as we have repeatedly urged upon the attention- 
of railway managers and others interested in 
the employment of steam, that our practical 
engineers should be afforded a good education- 
al institution, where preliminary training 
would beget a taste for, and supply the means 
of making scientific researches, with the view 
to elucidating many just such phenomena as 
we hint at. And we have faith to believe that 
the day is near when they and their laws and 
operating causes will be fully understood, and 
men will wonder how this knowledge could 
have been dispensed with so long with so few 
disasters. 

Indelible Ink for Zino Labels. — A New 
York correspondent of the Gardener's Monthly 
in relation to making zinc labels, lately in- 
quired for in the Western Rural, says : First 
let the label oxidize a little by dipping it in 
water for a day or two before using, and then 
write with a common lead pencil. We have 
seen labels in use for twelve years so written, 
as "black as ink," and with all the appearance 
of lasting for half a century. This plan was 
discovered, we believe, by Col. Wilder, and 
was first communicated by Mr. E. V. Pettico- 
las, of Cincinnati. 



The Pacific Coast and San Francisco. 

The future greatness of San Francisco 
will depend mainly upon the thrift and 
general prosperity of the interior, and the 
development of its vast resources. The 
physical conformation of the State, with 
its two great interior valleys and system 
of rivers, naturally make a large part of 
California directly tributary to San Fran- 
cisco in the disposition of its already large 
and rapidly increasing commerce The 



coast range of mountains completely shut- 
ting in this commerce from the sea, at all 
central points except at the Golden Gate, 
gives to San Francisco an advantage of 
position hardly equalled by any other sea 
port in the world. 

Now with this great advantage in her 
hands, San Francisco, that has been built 
up in a great measure by the power and 
quickening impulses of vast streams of 
gold - and agricultural products, wrought 
from the hard rocks and soils by the will 
and nerve of a mining and rural popula- 
tion, should now in turn lend a helping 
hand, in aid of a continuance of these 
tributary streams of wealth. 

Agriculture and Mining. 

The great agricultural interest is ham- 
pered in its progress by the want of more 
railroads, and San Francisco should help 
build them. Innumerable mines of un- 
told wealth, yet lie undeveloped in all the 
vast ranges of the Sierras, and the money 
of San Francisco should be freely given 
to unfold their riches, or to the building 
of roads, making them accessible, that the 
very riches they contain may be in turn 
more easily poured into the lap of the mis- 
tress of the commerce of the Pacific seas. 

Tbe iron we are consuming year by year, 
at the cost of millions of dollars, should be 
wrought out of our own mines by San 
Francisco capital, keeping our money at 
home and giving employment to thousands 
now here, and to thousands more who 
stand ready to come whenever capital will 
give them the work to do. 

The Power of San Francisco. 

San Francisco by the great vote she 
wields, now carries a moral power for good 
or evil to the yet undeveloped interior, 
that should be felt on the side of right and 
justice. She should use her vote and her 
influence in the advancement of educa- 
tion, liberally allowing the public school 
moneys to find their way among the val- 
leys, among the mines and recesses of the 
mountains, until their population shall be 
as renowned for intelligence as are they of 
Switzerland. 

We want her power for good, but not in 
aid of another gigantic lottery by which 
to wring out the last dollar from an al- 
ready purse depleted people. San Fran- 
ciscans are able by their influence to 
break up, instead of building up, monopo- 
lies and " rings " for crushing the strug- 
gling energies of a people, who have to a 
great extent given them or contributed to 
the wealth and power they now possess; and 
San Francisco should lead in doing it. 
Low Freights and Fares. 

They should aid in establishing a system 
of low freights and low fares, that the pro- 
duce of the interior can be placed on ship- 
board for exportation without absorbing 
the entire profit of culture and produc- 
tion. Give us a free port, inviting the 
merchant fleets of the world to our shores, 
if needs be, that we may have transporta- 
tion at something less than absolutely 
ruinous rates. Give us low fares that all 
may visit now and then the seat of so much 
wealth and power. 

It is simply strange that the people of 
San Francisco while talking through a 
committee of one hundred on the subject 
of a trans-continental railroad, by which 
San Francisco is to be particularly bene- 
fitted, cannot see the need of a strong and 
earnest competition or opposition transit 
line of communication by rail or steamer 
between the bay city and interior places. 
Not an opposition to be bought offor trifled 
with, but one that would assure to the 
people of the interior a passage to and 
from San Francisco at a moderate cost. 

Relative Conditions Changed. 

In the strange, wild days of '49, the 
mining counties with their teeming popu- 
lation of gold seekers, swayed the destinies 
of the State, controlled the election of her 
officers and held a taut rein upon the "cow 
counties" and their cities. El Dorado 
county alone, giving a larger vote than 
the city of San Francisco; and giving rise 
to prejudices and jealousies not altogether 
unfounded, which engendered a bitterness 
of feeling. 

But time has wrought its changes, and 
now the "cow counties" rule, whilst San 
Francisco alone, casts a full third of the 
entire vote of the State. "With the growth 
of her power, should be the throwing off 
of old prejudices against the interior, and 
in its stead should be exercised a mag- 
nanimity in keeping with her great and 
unprecedented prosperity. 

A New Class of People. 
San Franciscans should throw off some of 
their exclusiveness; minglo more with 



the people of the interior; see how gr* 
they differ, the men and merchants oi 
present, from thoso of '49; visit theij 
their homes; enter with spirit into tho 
enterprises that are projected for the 
general good of the people; give them 
banks, where money can be had on good 
security at a reasonable rate of interest; or 
take a hand in some of the vast schemes 
for irrigating the otherwise half productive 
lands of the great valleys, that cannot but 
serve to enrich alike the prosecutors, 
country and the city; loan a part of your 
great wealth, for the building upof manu- 
factories, and to responsible young men, 
who are ready to engage for a term of 
years, in the breeding and rearing of sheep 
and the Cashmere goat, throughout the 
length and breath <f the great western 
watershed of the Sierras. 

Then let our successful Metropolitan 
merchants reach out their hands in aid of the 
interior, and find pleasure in investing their 
earnings on this coast instead of retiring 
to what they term their (Eastern) "homes." 
By so doing, they will soon find the false 
prejudice of the interior broken down, and 
agenuine satisfaction awarded to them, and 
to their everlasting memory. 

The time is not distant when this city 
will extend for miles over the entire penin- 
sular. But this cannot occur until the un- 
called for animosity existing between the 
Bay City and interior are blotted out. Not 
until her vast fields at her back become an 
empire beaming with life throughout, with 
a population numbering from a million 
upwards, of the most intelligent and pro- 
gressive people on the face of the earth — a 
chosen population, as it were, from the 
four quarters of the globe. 

Notable Examples. 

Do what Chicago has done; cause rail- 
roads to radiate from the city in every 
direction in which there is land, to hold 
them up, and if there is no land build 
bridges, make a foundation of something, 
so that the great northern half of the State 
can get to the city without being obliged 
to swim, or go a hundred miles out of the 
way to get there on land. 

If you hav'nt enough of good water to 
drink, go to work and get it, there is 
enough in Lake Tahoe; and if the water 
of your rivers don't run the right way to 
suit your convenience, do again as the 
Chicagoans have done, turn it round and 
make it run the other waj. Have some 
"snap," and let the result of it be seen in 
the increased facilities for communication 
with the interior; and not let another little 
trio of Sacramento country merchants turn 
a "Dutch Flat swindle" into a grand trans- 
continental railway right before your eyes, 
without taking a dollar of the stock except 
what is wrung out of you by the nerve, 
effort, influence, and good sense of a few 
comprehensive minds. 

A Single Exception. 

San Francisco does present one notable 
instance of enterprise and thoughtfulness 
in reference to the wants of the interior. 
It is found in the vast scheme, now in the 
process of accomplishment, for the recla- 
mation of the half submerged lands and 
islands at the confluence of the Sacra- 
mento and San Joaquin rivers. But there 
should be more men in San Francisco, 
with their largo wealth, ready to embark 
in other great and paying enterprises, as 
were the men of the Reclamation Com- 
pany. 

There should be found men readv to 
assist in bringing out new machinery 'and 
appliances for levee building, ditching 
and steam plowing; helping the poor but 
intelligent and scientific inventor, at least 
to the bread he needs, while putting the 
conceptions of his hard worked brain into 
practical shape for the good of mankind. 

Steamship Lines. 

It is not time yet or becoming in San 
Francisco to rest upon her laurels of already 
accumulated wealth; it is too early in the 
history of the world's progress for her to 
do so now, just as new and vast fields 
of promising enterprise are opening to her 
embrace. She should let the world see 
that she is able to hold the powor she has 
herself created over the commerce of the 
seas, and which is yet entirely within her 
grasp. 

San Francisco is able to thread the Pacific 
with steamship lines connecting her with 
Japan, China, Australia and the Islands of 
the great Pacific seas, and should do it. 
Should make the entire coast from Panama 
to Behring Straits, and from thence to the 
Amoor, and on to the lower coast line of 
Hindostan, and then sweeping round the 
great archipelago of the Pacific, make all 
tributary to the queen city of the sunset 
shore, and center within her golden portals 
the wealth and commerce of the world. 



52 



[July 27, 1872. 



p^RffflE£\s ifi CoU^cil. 



Napa County Farmers' Club. 

Club met pursuant to adjournment, Presi- 
dent Fisher in the chair. 

Question for discussion being called, Mr. 
Gridley said: He should give his best thoughts 
to the Club, and be careful in their expression 
because "what is written remains." He might 
differ with others on some points, but his views 
were the result of years of study and experi- 
ment. He believed the time is coming when 
we shaU be obliged to ship our grain in bulk, 
and to reduce the cost of marketing otherwise, 
or we should not be able to compete with other 
grain producing countries. It is to the interest 
of buyers in Liverpool and other foreign ports 
to help us in this matter. California grain is 
always in demand in Liverpool at the highest 
figure, because of its superior quality, and be- 
cause of its fitness to mix with dryer grains. 
We may not be able to accomplish all we hope, 
but we may, at least, if we will, ship direct, and 
get clear of speculating middlemen. That 
grain may be shipped in bulk had been demon- 
strated. 

Mr. Sawyer said: He regarded these Clubs 
of importance, not so much for what one 
might accomplish alone, but that each one 
would form part of a general organization that 
should extend over the State, enabling the en- 
tire farming community of the State to act in 
concert. It is a fact that Friedlander is char- 
tering all the ships to arrive, and taking the 
grain market into his own hands. Farmers, 
whose produce must be sold, must take just 
what he chooses to pay. When we shall have 
brought about a general organization, we may 
be independent of Friedlander or anybody else. 
We can then make arrangements and do our 
own shipping as well as he. Moreover, we can 
down the sack monopoly. Grain may be ship- 
ped in bulk; — the only difficulty is in fitting 
vessels for it, and he had learned from conver- 
sation with a sea captain that the cost would 
not exceed $250 per vessel, and that the lumber 
used could be selected with reference to the 
market for which she was bound, and disposed 
of at a profit. The sack monopoly has us by 
the ears now, and the insurance men are help- 
ing it to hold us, by charging exorbitant 
rates on grain shipped in bulk. To overcome 
this combination of monopolies the farmers 
must unite in a general organization, which 
will be as strong as all others together. 

Mr. Saul said : The question naturally takes 
a wide range. There is work to do, and many 
things to be considered before our object shall 
have been accomplished. The men who are 
interested in these speculations at the farmers' 
expense, are not going to give up without a 
struggle; they must be made to do it. He 
heartily endorsed the suggestion of a general 
organization, and saw no difficulty in the way. 
Every other interest — the shoemakers, painters, 
etc. — has its clubs and its unions, and by thus 
uniting their strength they were enabled to 
accomplish something. Why not the farmers? 
True they have agricultural societies, and such 
things, but these do not get hold of vital ques- 
tions. He hoped that by correspondence with 
other clubs a general meeting might be had, by 
which a better understanding could be reached 
by the farmers of the State. He spoke of this 
as a part of the sack question, because such an 
organization would enable us to do something 
to the point. The farming interest must be 
made more prominent through the press, and 
receive more attention from Legislatures. 
There is now a larger fleet headed for San Fran- 
cisco than ever arrived there before in six months, 
and perhaps a larger quantity of grain directed 
to the same port. There is also, it is well 
known, a deficiency in the European market; so 
that, but for the pressure brought to bear by 
the San Francisco "ring," our grain would be 
shipped at reasonable rates, and bring good 
prices. The time is coming, and is not far dis- 
tant, when avenues will be opened up by which 
we may dispose of our produce without any 
such interference. There is talk of the Steam 
Navigation Company, for want of other business, 
taking shipments of grain. If they do, they 
will probably ship in bulk, as it is much more 
convenient, especially in handling across the 
Isthmus. A general organization of the farmers 
will encourage and hasten this great reform. 

Mr. Van Bever thought the ideas advanced 
were good, but so far they were only theory. 
We want practice. We must have knowledge 
which can come only by trying the experiment. 
A number of fanners should unite and load a 
vessel, or several vessels, and compare results. 
It might not pay the first time, but the trial will 
show us what is wanting to make it pay. He 
approved of the plan suggested for a general 
organization. We ought, as a Club, to make 
an effort te increase our numbers. 

Mr. Trubody approved of what had been said. 
It appeared that the farmers had remained in- 
active until they were completely hemmed in 
by monopolies. On account of the diversity of 
their interests, and their being situated so wide 
apart, it is difficult to unite them on anything, 
yet he hoped that this was about to be done. 
He agreed with Mr. Van B. on the importance 
of increasing our members. Numbers represent 
capital and influence. 

Mr. Fisher said : If sacks were really neces- 
sary, he should urge the establishment of a 
factory in our midst; but they are not necessary, 



and they must be dispensed with. If farmers 
would maintain their independence, they must 
by all possible means, keep competing markets 
open for their produce. In this State our soil 
is deteriorating, and the cost of marketing is 
growing on us. Agriculture and manufacturing 
go hand in hand, as the only permanent sources 
to wealth. He would encourage factories, that 
we might cut off useless costs and keep our 
money at home. 

Minutes read and adopted, and club adjourned. 
W. A. Fisheb, President. 

G. W. Hennino, Secretary. 



San Jose Farmers' Club and Protective 
Association. 

[Reported for the Pacific Rural Press.) 

The Club met at 1 :30 p. m. Mr. Jesse Hob- 
son was elected President pro tern. The Secre- 
tary read a letter from Mr. L. J. Burrell, a 
member of the Club, who is at present in San 
Diego county. He speaks in the highest terms 
of the adaptability of that county for fruit- 
growing, and says there is considerable good 
land that can be had as homesteads or pre- 
emptions. He advises those looking for small 
homes to go that way. 

Mr. Ware, from the Committee on Sacks, re- 
ported that there was a decline in prices and 
advised all who could to wait awhile, as sacks 
would yet probably fall ten per cent. He ad- 
vised farmers not having more than a hundred 
and sixty acres to put on an extra clipper wagon 
and stack their grain where they wanted their 
straw stacked and clear their fields at once. 
Then they could immediately pasture their 
stock on the stubble and the finer and more 
valuable part of the straw would not be lost in 
hauling together. Also, they need not then be 
in any hurry about thrashing, the grain might 
sweat in the stack, which would improve the 
quality. 

Mr. Dubois called the attention of the Club 
to his improvement on the mowing machine, 
and requested that the Club appoint a Commit- 
tee to examine the same in operation. It clears 
the cut grass away from that left standing. He 
promised the members of the Club' the right to 
use his patent without charge. On motion, 
Messrs Erkson, Lee and Herring were appointed 
a committee to examine and report on Mr. 
Dubois' patent. 

The Secretary read from the Pacific Rural 
Pbbss of the 'iiith the resolutions adopted by 
tin Napa County Farmer's Club and the ac- 
companying remarks. Mr. Ware thought them 
remarkably good and hoped that this Club 
would unanimously endorse the same, which 
he moved. After a short discussion the resolu- 
tions were endorsed. 

The question of silk was laid over till some 
future time when Mr. Neuman can be present. 
The San Jose" and Alviso Railroad is the subject 
for discussion at the next regular meeting. 

San Jose", July 20th, 1872. 

The Farmer. 

In a speech made to the San Joaquin county 
Farmers' Club, as reported by the Republican 
of the 15th, Mr. Smyth, one of the leading 
grain growers of the valley, pointed to the fact 
that the farmer was the only class of the great 
commonwealth who took no steps toward se- 
curing the enactment of laws for his own pro- 
tection. This is true. The farmer is the vic- 
tim of cliques, rings and speculators everywhere. 
The gentleman we have named referred to the 
f>0,000 tax gatherers who were wandering over 
the land like lice or locusts, eating up and de- 
stroying the fruit of the farmers' toil; he dwelt 
upon the evils of laws enacted by Congress, and 
called attention to one of the last acts of the 
session just adjourned, by which the tariff on 
sacks was so increased that the advance will 
cost the farmers of San Joaquin Valley, for this 
season alone, the enormous sum of $300,000. 
These statements can not be gainsaid. It is un- 
fortunately only too true that during the last 
decade the tendency of our Government has 
been to aid capital and oppress labor. Within 
the period mentioned those who have made and 
administered the laws have done more to build 
up monopolies, form vast capital combinations, 
and lay the foundation of a moneyed aristoc- 
racy, than was accomplished in that direction 
during all the previous years of our national exis- 
tence. During this period aU legislation seems 
to have been unfriendly to the producer and 
consumer and designed in the interest of the 
middlemen — those dealers who buy from the 
one to sell to the other. The farmer seems to 
be regarded as the legitimate game of less hon- 
est but more politic men. The farmer is made 
to pay the full rate of taxation on his property, 
while the capitalist does not pay one-tenth 
of the amount he owes the State and county. 
The farmer is often doubly taxed; the capitalist 
never half taxed. The farmer is the dupe of 
everybody, and he is himself to blame for it. 
Taken on a voting basis the proportion of those 
who till the soil in the United States is as two 
to one against all other occupations. In other 
words, the farmer comprises two-thirds of our 
voting population. It is this fact which impels 
us to say that if the farmer is injured by legisla- 
tion adverse to his interest it is his own fault. 
A farmer's lobby is about the only lobby never 
heard of in a State Legislature, and they take 
no interest in the selection of the men who go 



to the Legislature and to Congress. Virtually 
one-third rules two-thirds — the minority makes 
the laws. The farmer must defend hinisclf. 
He is a master of the situation if he will only 
arouse himself to action. There should be a 
farmer's club in every county, and every farmer 
should be an active member of his county 
club. Banks have directors who meet and 
confer as to how to make the most of their 
money; merchants have chambers of commerce; 
mechanics have unions; political organizations 
have central committees. Each studies and 
plans for the best interests of the corporation 
or organization to which they belong. But the 
farmer is unrepresented anywhere; he acts 
without method or system, and of course he is 
plucked by everybody. When the farmer learns 
to throw away political prejudice and resolves 
to vote for men of principle in place of the 
tools of capital; when he learns to utilize the 
power he is now worse than throwing away, in 
a manner calculated to insure the greatest good 
to the greatest number; when he resolves that 
he will no longer lend his vote for the advance- 
ment of men whoso strongest characteristic is 
venality, then, and only then, will he have 
learned to be good to himself. 

San Joaquin Farmers' Club. 

The Farmers' Club met in regular weekly 
session last Saturday afternoon, 13th inst., Dr. 
E. S. Holden, President, in the chair. Mr. 
Hitchcock, chairman of the 

Committee on Taxation, 
Reported that it was impossible to do anything 
at present, as the Board of Supervisors were 
sitting as a Board of Equalization and could 
not let the committee have the documents at 
present. Kierski thought it was too late to do 
anything about the matter now, as the County 
Assessor had rendered his report to the State 
Board of Equalization. The President differed 
from Mr. Kierski and thought that the County 
Board of Equalization had power to reduce or 
raise the assessment of property if the evi- 
dence was adduced to warrant it. The subject 
of "Fertilization" was, on motion, laid over 
for one week, as all present manifested a desire 
to continue the discussion on taxation. Mr. 
Smyth said that his property was taxed for its 
full value, that is, what it is worth, improve- 
ments and all, and the improvements are 
taxed separately and in addition. He called 
that 

Double Taxation, 
And he made an eloquent appeal to the farm- 
ers to stand up and resist such taxation. Capt. 
Ketchum said that he had been taxed for land 
to which he had no good title, the same as he 
had been taxed on land to which his title was 
good. One member said that he understood 
that some of the Deputy Assessors of San 
Francisco had taken the assessment roll of last 
year and assessed property in their districts 
the same as it was assessed last year. The 
President said that the committee appointed to 
wait upon the State Board of Equalization 
would ascertain if such was the case, and would 
regulate the matter if so; Mr. Smyth said that 
the 

Duty on Sacks, 
Imposed by Congress at the last session, was a 
direct tax on the farmers of California of 
$300,000, and rather than submit to such 
a burden he would come out "flat footed" in 
favor of 

Free Trade. 

Captain Ketchum said he was not in favor of 
Free Trade, but would like to see establish- 
ments for manufacturing sacks here at home, 
and that manufacturers ought to be protected 
113- a slight duty to enable them to compete suc- 
cessfully with foreign work and goods. He 
called the attention of the Club to the exorbit- 
ant 

Freight Charges on Grain 
To foreign ports — over $30 per ton. He said 
this was owing to one man having control of 
all the vessels in port and on their way. Mr. 
Phelps said that the high rates asked by ship- 
pers was caused in a great measure by the ex- 
orbitant harbor and wharf dues, and other in- 
cidental expenses incurred by vessels coming 
into the harbor of San Francisco. If a vessel 
lays there any great length of time, the expen- 
ses literally eat her up, and the owners of the 
vessels are obliged to charge high rates to ena- 
ble them to hold their own. He thought that 
the harbor dues and wharfage of San Francisco, 
and of Stockton, also, ought to be abolished, 
as they work great injury to the farmers gener- 
ally and to all other interests in the State, and 
are certainly a great restriction on commerce. 
This has been the means of driving the great 
whaling fleet of the Pacific to the Sandwich 
Islands, whereby the farmers of this State have 
lost hundreds of thousands of dollars. He 
thought the farmers ought to 

Organize Societies. 
In all the counties of the State and co-operate 
with each other, and by that means tbey could 
easily remedy existing evils. They could con- 
trol the grain market, and the sack Market, 
and consequently the shipping. If it is neces- 
sary to have a "lling" let it be a "Farmers' 
Ring" 

Harvesting Machinery. 

Mr. Kerrick, agent for the "Vibrator," said 
that he had a machine ready fdr the past two 
weeks for some other machine to come along 



and enter into a contest. He said he was, with 
a « 'Vibrator," threshing at the rate of fifteen 
hundred bushels of wheat per day and was sav- 
ing it all. He had plenty of grain at his place 
to thresh, and if any other machine would come 
and thresh against his, he would pay them the 
regular price for threshing. (It was considered 
by the Club that the "Vibrator" was still a lit- 
tle ahead. ) George W. Sperry called the atten- 
tion of the Club to a new portable steam engine 
for threshing, or for road work. The engine 
would be at work on his farm on Tuesday next, 
16th instant, and he invited all to go and' see it 
in operation. 

Subject for Discussion. 

Mr. Smyth moved that "Free Trade" be made 
the subject of discussion at the next meeting. 
The motion was carried. On motion the 
adjourned. 

Quite a number of citizens visited the Club 
rooms during the session, and all seemed to be 
much interested in the proceedings. 

Sacramento Farmers' Club. 

The club met on Saturday, at the usual time 
and place, President Baker in the chair. 

Communications. 

The Secretary read a communication from G. 
W. Henning, Secretary of the Napa County 
Farmers' Club, inclosing the pn 
and resolutions, passed by said clut on the 
13th instant: 

[The resolutions were published on page 37 
of Rural Press, last week. — Ed.] 

After some remarks by different members, all 
approving the idea contained in the Napa reso- 
lutions, P. H. Murphy offered the following, 
which was unanimously adopted : 

Resotot <!, That we fully approveof the propo- 
sitions contained in the preamble and resolu- 
tions of the Napa County Club, and for tfie 
purpose of bringing about definite action and 
practical results from the plan proposed, this 
club would suggest to the other farmers' clubs 
of the State; that there be a general mectiug of 
delegates from such clubs during the coming 
State Fair at Sacramento, say on the evening of 
Monday the 22d day of September. That eat h 
club send at least five delegates to represent it 
in such meeting, and the Secretary be instructed 
to communicate this proposition to all the fann- 
ers' clubs of the State and request their favora- 
ble action in the premises^ 

The Secretary also read a communication 
from the Santa Cruz Farmers' Club, forwarding 
the report of their committee on the questions 
suggested by the Sacramento club as to the ef- 
fect of the long wet season of last winter on the 
crops, and especially on the fruit trees and fruit. 
The report states: First — That the grain had 
been materially injured on the low spots by 
water standing on it. Second — By producing 
foreign matter, such as cockle, cheat, smut, and 
other foreign weeds. Third— By fouling the 
soil generally and producing fine 
forming a sod on the surface. Fourth — By pre- 
venting the farmers from getting in their crops 
n to insure a good yield. The report 
also states that some of the fruit trees have Dei 11 
injured by the water standing around the roots 
and causing some of the roots to die and decay. 
The committee recommended thorough drainage 
of all land subject to such low places where 
water may accumulate and stand, and of all or- 
chards, as the bestpreventitive from injury from 
long wet winters like the last. 

Co-Operative Store. 

This subject being called, elicited b 
deal of discussion by a large number of the 
members, some advancing the idea that it would 
require at least a capital of from $50,000 to $75,- 
000, and that such an enterprise would ha vi to 
compete with the heaviest houses in town, which 
would combine to break it up. Others take lt 
very different view, and claim that a co- opera- 
tive store should be orgauizt d, not with an idea 
of making money, but simply to save for the 
stockholders the profit that the traders now 
make oft" of their puchases; that the stockhold- 
ers should be sufficiently numerous to furnish 
a good run of custom to the store; and that 
just enough profit should bo charged on all 
goods handled to pay the rent of a building and 
the salary of a business man, and other inci- 
dental expenses, such as freight, drayage, etc.; 
that when a co-operative store was properly 
managed and its business confined to those in- 
terest* d in it, no competition or combination 
could bo brought bear so as to affect it. That 
it was simply a plan to save the consumer the 
usual profits of the trader and secure him 
against unusual profits extorted from him by 
"rings" and "corners" and combinations of 
capitalists, and as long as its business was con- 
fined to its proper limits and purposes, then! 
could be no chance for breaking it up. The 
Latter view prevailed with the club, and on 
motion, a committee of seven members was 
appointed to procure a constitution or 
rules for the organization and management of 
such a store. The committee consists of I. N. 
Hoag, E. F. Aiken, C. W. Hoit, A. S. Green- 
law, J. R. Johnson, W. B. Manlove and P. H. 
Murphy, and they agreed to meet at the rooms 
of the club on Saturday next at 12 o'clock m. 
for consultation. 

Fruit Depot and Shipping Agency. 

The committee appointed at the last meeting 
to digest a plan for the establishment of a fruit 
depot, decided to call a meeting on Saturday 
next at 10 o'clock a. m. 



Solomon was undoubtedly right in saying 
that a double-minded man is unstable in all his 
ways. 



July 27, 1872.J 



53 



^cdLflJ^L fl@YES. 



CONTRA COSTA COUNTY. 

Gazette, July 20: Antioch Correspon- 
dence. — The good Lord has blessed this 
end of the county this season in bread 
crops— good health. We feel very much 
comforted and disposed to crow. You 
cannot get tule potatoes straight, or stur- 
geon on the half shell now, unless by 
special request at Carman's. Last year if 
we got anything else we owe for it yet. 
Grain crops are fair. They could have 
been better, but they beat nothing so 
much, that we think we have done well. 
The Point of Timber and Eden Plain sec- 
tions have yielded about fifteen sacks to 
the acre; near around Antioch about ten, 
as far as heard from. Some pieces has 
turned off as high as twenty sacks, on the 
east side of Marsh Creek and immediate- 
ly about Point of Timber, but the average 
per acre is not higher than I have stated, 
and it is of a fair quality— a little sunken 
by those hot days in a few places only. 
It is now coming in at a pretty lively gait, 
and stacking up on the wharves as it did 
three years ago. But the sales are com- 
pulsory so far— the price having fallen so 
below expectations that those only will 
sell who are compelled to. 

Unfortunately for our farmers, they are 
so in debt to the local merchants that many 
of their crops will be absorbed in old 
debts, and the next season will have to be 
provided for in scant and credit. But 
"Hope, the anchor of the soul, both sure 
and steadfast," comes in with a consolation 
even to this class. The deep moisture is 
abundant, and will not so evaporate in the 
season as to require so much rain for even 
better crops another year than this, and 
so we hope to get another deal with a small 
rain-fall if it so must happen — say 12 to 15 
inches. The lack of tonnage at a living 
rate to the farmers to move their crops to 
market, seems to be the trouble about 
prices, which time and competition will 
have to regulate. But little barley was 
sown, and all of it will be wanted for local 
needs. 

Johnson &, Spaulding, of Benecia, have 
about 100 acres planted in castor beans on 
the Marsh Grant, and they are now from 
eighteen inches to four feet high, and 
flowering in promise of a paying yield. The 
owners anticipate a return of sixty dollars 
per acre. The cost of producing and gath- 
ering is a little greater than Indian corn. 
EL DORADO. 

Democrat, July 20: The Fruit Harvest. 
The road across the summit is now open 
and in fine condition. "Wagons conveying 
tons of apples and pears of the early spe- 
cies are almost daily passing through the 
city en route for the Nevada market. The 
peach crop, effected by the late frosts, will 
not be so abundant as it would otherwise 
have been, but fruits of all other kinds 
grow in the foothills will not be less in 
quantity, but rather more than last season. 
That one man after a spasmodic effort of a 
few months, should have sold outand emi- 
grated from these parts is no reasonable 
evidence that our climate and soil are not 
adapted to agricultural purposes. There 
are hundreds, on the contrary, who are 
successfully engaged in the production of 
fruits, grains and vegetables, better than 
which no part of the coast can boast. Let 
any one make a tour of inspection among 
the ranches of El Dorado county, at this 
season, and "seeing will be believing" 
that our assertion is true. 

The Soap-weed Trade. — Allusion has 
been made in previous issues of this paper 
to a new and profitable resource of our 
county. We have reference to the large 
quantities of soap-weed which of late has 
been utilized in the business of upholster- 
ing, etc., and which abounds in great 
quantities in the northern and northeast- 
ern parts of El Dorado county. Tons of 
it are being gathered, and pass through 
this city almost daily to market. It is 
said to be far superior to pulu in the con- 
struction of matresses. Our enterprising 
and live business man, L. Landecker, has 
thirty-two men now engaged in gathering 
it, with an increase of ten more to be put 
on during the coming week. Parties in 
San Francisco not long since contracted 
with him for the delivery of 400,000fts — 
280,000 lbs of which has been delivered. 
They have now ordered all that can be ob- 
tained. 
LOS ANGELES. 

., July 13: Sale of Catalina 
Island. —The largest land sale ever effect- 
ed in this county was made on the 19th of 
this month as appears from the records 
at the County Clerk's office. The property 
disposed of in the indenture, which is an 
agreement to convey within twelvemonths 
from its date on payment of consideration, 



embraces the whole of Catalina Island, 
opposite San Pedro bay. The consider- 
ation for which Mr. James Lick, of Santa 
Clara, has agreed to convey this island, is 
§1,250,000, the largest sum ever paid for 
any piece of property within this county. 
Gov. John G. Downey, Don John Foster 
and Max Strobel are the purchasers. This 
island is now used for grazing, affording a 
fine pasturage for thousands of sheep. The 
prospective value of the island consists 
of its undeveloped mineral deposits, among 
which there are numerous veins of argen- 
tiferous galena of great richness. It also 
contains some of the most valuable depos- 
its of copper ore on this coast. All these 
mineral deposits will sooner or later be 
worked, enriching the adventurers and 
benefitting the entire country. 

MONTEREY. 

Argus, July 20: Some Potatoes. — Mr. 
F. D. Hall, near town, on the lower Salinas 
stage road, has a fine field of potatoes as 
we remember to have ever seen. It is 
one hundred and ten acres in extent, and 
the plants look splendidly, promising an 
enormous yield of this favorite fruit. Mr. 
Hall's success is owing solely to the exer- 
cise of a little hard sense. Knowing that 
the same kind of seed sown in the same 
kind of soil year after year, is bound to 
deteriorate, he went to the trouble and ex- 
pense of procuring fresh seed from Hum- 
boldt; and the result of his shrewdness 
has surpassed his expectations. In all of 
which lies a moral which our farmers 
would do well to ponder over. 

Aptos ranch, Santa Cruz county, has 
been sold for $80,000 to the San Francisco 
Sugar Refinery. Beet sugar is to be man- 
ufactured on the ranch. 

NAPA. 

Register, July 20: Angora Goats. — On 
Thursday evening one hundred Angora 
ewes passed through town on their way to 
the ranch of their purchaser, Mr. S. 
Wing. The goats were raised by ex-Gov. 
Andrews near Stockton, who is quite ex- 
tensively engaged in the business. We 
examined some shed hair from a goat of 
this herd, that is almost equal to the pure, 
full-blood. It was about eight inches long, 
and felted almost as solidly as a woven 
fabric. Such hair sells readily in the 
market for from $1.10 to $1.15 per ft. 
These animals being so easily kept, so free 
from disease, and yielding so abundantly, 
about 8 ft s. per head, are certainly very 
profitably. We congratulate Mr. Wing on 
his investment. 

Wheat Prospect. — Mr. Chapman, whose 
thresher has been running in the vicinity 
of Oakville, reports the yield very light, 
the average being over ten or twelve 
bushels per acre. From other parties we 
learn that the yield in the lower end of the 
valley, and in this vicinity is somewhat 
better, but will not average above 16 to 18 
bushels. 
SANTA BARBARA. 

Press, July 20: Hillside Farms. — Only 
a few of our more sagacious farmers have 
learned the value, nay, rather the superi- 
ority of our rocky foothills for many agri- 
cultural purposes. Indeed, lands quite 
up on the mountain side, apparently utter- 
ly worthless, are found to be exceedingly 
fertile and particularly adapted to a valu- 
able class of productions. It is impossi- 
ble to convey to those who have not in- 
vestigated this matter any adequate con- 
ception of the undeveloped wealth and 
luxury which lie untouched on our moun- 
tain side and our foothills. Then, too, for 
rosy health and delightful scenery, these 
picturesque locations exceed all others, in 
a region justly celebrated for its climate 
and scenery. 

Not Irrigated. — It is hard to impress 
upon the people at a distance that no one 
pretends to irrigate crops and trees in this 
part of the State. Cultivation is found to 
be ample for everything unless it be oranges 
and lemons. This saves a great expense 
and prevents fever and ague entirely, to 
which people are always subject in parts of 
the State where irrigation is practiced . 

Sugar Cane. — The Sandwich Island 
Sugar Cane on Capt. J. Mayhew's farm on 
the mesa or high land west of town a mile 
and a half, isnow two years old, with finely 
formed canes, and bids fair to prove 
perfectly adapted to this soil and climate. 
It is easily propogated from cuttings and 
cultivated as conveniently as corn or po- 
tatoes. 

SONOMA. 

Flag. July 18. — Tall Timothy.— Bobert 
Finley brought to this office a few days 
since some specimens of timothy grass 
grown on his ranch on Bussian River 
about six miles below this place, which 
measured five feet and ten inches in bight, 
the head measuring thirteen inches. Mr. 
Finley is well satisfied with the experi 



ment of raising timothy. He sowed a 
piece of bottom land to this grass one 
year last December, cut a very fair crop of 
hay last year and has now a very heavy 
crop ready to cut. He thinks it superior 
to alfalfa or mesquit grass for hay and a 
much better dressing for impoverished 
land. 

Isaac Long, of Big Plain, is also success- 
fully raising timothy. There appears to 
be no reason why our farmers genei-ally 
may not make the production of timothy 
hay an important feature of their industry, 
and at the same time give their land a 
needed rest. 
SAN JOAOUTN. 

Argus July 20: The Cotton Fly. — The 
ravages of the fly in our Merced cotton 
fields this season have proved quite seri- 
ous, though we are pleased to learn from 
Col. Strong that these pests are not so 
numerous or destructive to the young 
squares and buds as they were earlier in 
the season. The weather so far this season 
has been unfavorable; the nights being 
rather cool at times for the successful fruit- 
ing of the plant, consequently the stalks 
are not so full of balls as they should be, 
though competent judges express the opin- 
ion that if the weather is favorable through- 
out the month of August a bale to the acre 
can be picked from Col. Strong's planta- 
tion. 

A field on Lewis creek, Tulare county, 
of 440 acres, yielded 15,080 bushels of 
grain. The field had no fence, and the 
ground was not irrigated. 

Independent, July 22: Wheat Shipments. 
During the week ending last Saturday, J. 
D. Peters made the following shipments 
of wheat: Per railroad to Sacramento, 110 
tons; per railroad to Oakland, 790 tons; 
by vessel to San Francisco, 1,131 tons. 
During the same period Thomas A. Craw- 
ford, who ships for Smith & Crow, sent 
away 566 tons, by sailing vessels to San 
Francisco. 

River Steamers.— The steamers Har- 
riet, Clara, Belle and Fresno, from the 
San Joaquin river, arrived Saturday even- 
iug each with a cargo of wheat. A large 
proportion of the wheat is for storage in 
the city. 

Large Barn. — John Southerland is hav- 
ing a large barn erected at his slaughter 
house, a short distance north from the 
city. The building is fifty feet wide and 
two hundred feet long, and around the en- 
tire building there is to be a shed ten feet 
in width. 

Up River Freight. — The large barge 
Aliso loaded last Saturday with an assorted 
cargo of merchandise, for farmers along 
the upper San Joaquin. 
YOLO. 

Grain Movements and Prices. — Wheat 
comes in very slowly considering the 
quantity raised in this vicinity, but the 
scarcity of laborers and threshing ma- 
chines prevent the farmers from getting 
their grain ready for market. The price 
too, is discouragingly low. Messrs. 
Thomas <fe Hunt, the principal dealers, 
are paying $1.30 for clean wheat. They 
have now at the depot awaiting the slow 
movements of trains, about 500 tons, and 
next week they expect to have 1,000 ready 
for shipment. Their warehouse is filling 
up slowly. 

Good Wheat. — Leonard Babcock, of 
Hungry Hollow, sold to E. H. Eastham, of 
the Cacheville Mills, one thousand sacks 
as fine wheat as is raised in Yolo county, 
realizing a good price therefor. Mr. Bab- 
cock is one of those first-class farmers who 
understands his business. He takes great 
pains to sow pure seed, and has his grain 
well screened in threshing, so that there 
is nothing but wheat left. 
YUBA. 

Appeal, July 21: Among the Farmers. — 
Yesterday we took a ride in the country, 
along the Feather river or Oroville road, 
as far as the Bit House, in company with 
Frank Blue, the proprietor. The grain 
fields have been shorn of their golden treas- 
ures, which is now piled in huge stacks 
awaiting the thresher. Within a circle of 
three miles we saw three threshers at work, 
and there seems plenty of work for twice 
as many more in the neighborhood we vis- 
ited. We first went to the ranch worked 
by Joe Elliott, where we found the thresh- 
er of Genella & Ruple at work. Mr. Elli- 
ott has thirty stacks of white Chili wheat 
and seven of barley, cut from 340 acres. 
About forty acres was not harvested, the 
water standing en it long enough to de- 
stroy the crop. From the remaining 300 
acres he will harvest upwards of 5,000 
bushels of wheat, besides the barley. The 
wheat is of excellent quality, large, heavy 
and entirely clean, free of weeds, chess, etc. 

On General Row's place the threshers 
were at work in the morning, but closed 



their labors at noon and started for a< 
farm. The General's foreman coula 
enlighten us regarding the yield or the 
number of acres planted, as he does not 
yet speak much only in his mother 
tongue— Chinese. The bottom lands along 
here are covered with corn, which promises 
a heavy yield. 

Mr. Van Vranken, whose farm lies 
adjoining the General's, has over a hundred 
acres planted in this grain, and it is as fine 
a crop as a farmer would wish to have. It 
stands from ten to fourteen feet high, and 
it is estimated that the yield will be from 
eighty to one hundred bushels per acre. 
It is now in bloom, with the ears hand- 
somely formed and " silked." 

We next went to the harvest field of 
Danville and Bliss, where Graham's 
thresher was in operation. This gentle- 
man, unable to obtain civilized help, 
employs a gang of Chinamen on the stacks 
to provide straw for his machine. He does 
not find them profitable at all. One good 
white man is worth three of such Celestials 
as we saw pitching on the stacks. He is 
paying them $2 per day and they are al- 
ready clamoring for "two dollars hap." 
Messrs. Danville and Bliss have in this 
field 200 acres of white Chili wheat planted 
on new land, "grubbed" and planted last 
winter. The growth of straw was very 
large, and the yield of grain will probably 
average 30 bushels per acre of excellent 
wheat. 

MONTANA. 
Gazette, July 9th: The Crops. — We have 
made particular inquiry and observation 
concerning the prospective grain crop of 
Montana, and we have come to the con- 
clusion that it will be the largest and best 
this year that has ever been produced in 
the Territory. This is an auspicious event 
in anticipation of the increase of popula- 
tion to this country, and in view of the 
early work that will be done on the rail- 
roads now about to enter our Territory. 
We shall have a good supply of grain to an- 
swer the demand, and this should beheld in 
reserve by prudent farmers 'till it is needed. 
When grading once begins it requires a 
vast number of work animals, and these 
must be fed on grain. Every bushel of 
oats, wheat and barley will be needed to 
supply the market, and it is a good thing 
to have plenty on hand. 

OREGON. 

Willamette Farmer, July 13: Grain 
Crops. — The recent rains have been of 
great value to the grain crops of this val- 
ley. From every direction come encourag- 
ing reports of its effects. Those who be- 
fore the rain had abandoned all hope of 
more than half a crop, are now jubilant 
over the prospects before them of the 
usual full crop. 

During the late month of May a single 
house in Portland sold agricultural ma- 
chinery to the value of $176,000; the sales 
of another house for the same month ag- 
gregated $100,000, and the sales of others 
in that city were large enough to bring the 
total of business in agricultural machin- 
ery in the city of Portand for the month 
of May only, to three hundred thousand 
dollars. Outside of the city of Portland 
there are dealers in this same line, and 
some importations are made into Southern 
Oregon via. Crescent City and other ports, 
which swell considerably the sum total. 

Alfalfa. — Mr. J. N. Durham, residing 
two miles north of Salem, has shown us a 
sample of alfalfa clover, grown on his 
farm, the longest stem of which is six feet 
two inches in length. 



The Sun's Blessing.— Sleepless people 
— and there are many in America — should 
court the sun. The very worst soporific 
is laudanum, and the very best is sunshine. 
Therefore it is very plain that poor sleep- 
ers should pass as many hours in the day 
in sunshine, and as few as possible in the 
shade. Many women are martyrs, and yet 
do not know it. They shut the shunshine 
out of their houses and their hearts, they 
carry parasols, they do all possible to keep 
of the subtlest, and yet most potent influ- 
ence which is intended to give them 
strength and beauty and cheerfulness. Is 
it not time to change all this, and so get 
color and roses in our pale cheeks, 
strength in our weak backs, and courage 
in our timid souls? The women of 
America are pale and delicate; they may 
be blooming and strong, and the sunlight 
will be a potent influence in this transfor- 
mation. Will they not try it a year or two 
and oblige thousands of admirers ? • 

For fragrance, nothing equals the Mignon- 
ette, Sweet Alyssum, Sweet Pea, Erysimum, 
Stocks, Pinks, Picotees and Carnation. Near- 
ly all the lilies are very fragrant, and of some 
of thorn the perfume is nlra«s* over-powering. 



54 



[July 27, 1872. 



H©fl*E \\\d f\n$. 



San Joaquin Farmers' Club. 

Essay on Fertilizing— By the President, Dr. S. 
Holden. 

The great object in our weekly meetings here 
is. by attrition of mind with mind of a compari- 
son of the results of our labor, and for Che in- 
terchange of knowledge, to enlighten and to 
increase the results of toil and practical experi- 
ence. The question before you to-day, gentle- 
men, is Fertilizing, a very important question 
for all farmers here or elsewhere to settle satis- 
factorily. This question has a wide scope. It 
suggests many experiments, ideas and theories. 
Farmers of this State will soon be obliged to 
settle this question and profit by it, else to 
change their occupation. 

It is well known that perpetual cropping or 
many consecutive years of cropping grain, or 
other products, without fertilizing and rotation 
of crops, exhaust all soils however fertile they 
may have been at the commencement of culti- 
vation. This ruinous system of continual crop- 
ping is now being well understood, and it may 
be here superfluous; yet, it may not be a loss of 
time at this moment to extend the subject. 

Fertilizing soils for the purpose of keeping 
up the original quality, or increasing its pro- 
ductiveness, has for ages been practiced bv^ 
tillers of the soil, and for the last century many 
notable, scientific men, and hundreds of other 
less scientific yet experienced and practical in 
the knowledge of tillage and the use and bene- 
fits of fertilizers, have written hundreds of vol- 
umes upon this subject. Yet, how few are 
benefitted by this very important knowledge, 
from the fact that farmers and cultivators of 
the soil will not read them; in other words, 
they say let Nature take care of itself. We will 
not return to the soil the elements that we ex- 
hausted from it by a long and miserable mode 
of tillage. This unprofitable system has not 
only cost the farmers, or a large per cent, of 
them, a laborious existence, but hundreds of 
millions to all sections of the world, in the 
yearly loss of the materials that create our 
wealth, and freighting ships to all the marts of 
the globe. Farmers of this day need not, and 
cannot afford to lose their crops, particularly 
in California. The sad experience here since 
1869 should be a sufficient warning, and should 
stimulate farmers to a better mode of cultiva- 
tion, to summer fallowing, fertilizing, and a 
system of irrigation, which for the immediate 
present is the best and cheapest fertilizer when 
judiciously applied. There is no profession 
that needs more varied intelligence, more nice 
and close observation, more study and perse- 
verance, than that of the farmer. He should be 
a reading and thinking man as well as a labor- 
ious working man. It is a lamentable fact, that 
the agricultural profession is less understood 
and is farther behind in useful and practical 
knowledge, than all other professions. Did the 
husbandman understand his calling as he 
should, did he devote his leisure time to study, 
to reading agricultural books, papers and peri- 
odicals, works on vegetable physiology, the 
nature of soils, fertilizers, irrigation and every- 
thing appertaining to cultivation and the farm, 
he would soon create a taste for such informa- 
tion which would soon become a habit not easily 
parted with, a habit both instructive, profitable 
and amusing. 

If farmers would exercise the same persever- 
vance and energy in acquiring intelligence that 
members of other professions do, they would 
soon elevate themselves to position, and fill 

S laces of high and honorable trust that are now 
enied them. Mark the difference: From the 
mechanical professions, hundreds of thousands 
of the most notable and conspicuous men have 
risen, yet how few similar characters have come 
from rural life — from agricultural occupation. 
It is a mournful fact, that thousands of farms 
in this county and the State are fast deteriorating 
from years of grain cropping, although farming 
here is yet in its infancy, the soil just disturbed 
and none of it is fertilized, excepting a few gar- 
den spots. This is radically wrong. It is an 
innite principle with all parents and their first 
wish to transmit an undiminished legacy to their 
children or posterity. Under the present mode 
of farming, as a rule in this State, the farm will 
leave but a poor legacy. 

In no part of the Union is farming carried on 
with more science or experience than in the 
New England States; yet, by negligence in cul- 
tivating and fertilizing, the soil has so deterior- 
ated that it is estimated by high authority that 
it would cost the enormous outlay of one 
thousand millions of dollars to repair the effects 
of a wasteful and exhaustive system of culti- 
vation. Farmers in this State cannot afford to 
follow too long this exhaustive system. Perfect 
cultivation, fertilizing, and a system of irri- 
gation must soon be adopted, as agriculture is 
the base upon which all our interests rest. It 
is computed that nine-tenths of the wealth of 
the world is produced from the soil. It is also 
computed that should all the wealth of the 
world be annihilated, an equal amount could be 
produced in five years. This may seem a wild 
statement, yet, if the members of this club re- 
flect a moment, or acquaint themselves with 
past history how the loss of one crop even, in any 
section of the world has produced iu misery and 
finance, and how soon these sections recuper- 
ated by a successful crop, will not be surprised 
at this statement. Hundreds of instances in 
this country even, could be named to prove this 
statement, hence the necessity of good culti- 
vation, fertilizing, and a judieions system of ir- 



rigation. "With these three systems brought in- 
to practical use, the farmers of this State can 
bid defiance to most of the causes of the loss of 
yearly crops. 

It is within our recollection, and is worthy 
of note, how, as one evidence of a proof of the 
sudden recuperation of any country by a year's 
successful crop, that a few years since, Ireland 
lost her potato crop. By this loss a famine 
was produced, and hundreds died of starvation. 
The United Statas sent a man-of-war laden 
with provisions to save the starving population 
from death. The following year Ireland became 
prosperous by a good potato crop. In India a 
few years since, a drouth caused the loss of 
vegetation, which caused the death of more 
than 100,000 persons. To prevent another ca- 
lamity of the kind the English Governm. m • 1- 
peuded hundreds of thousands of pounds ster- 
ling, in constructing ditches to convey water 
for irrigation, thus completely obviating all 
danger of a famine. This is one instance, and 
only one of thousands that could be mentioned, 
and is sufficient evidence thas water is a neces- 
sary fertilizer. Irrigation on one million of 
acres in San Joaquin valley, judiciously ap- 
plied, will make this extensive valley a Garden 
of Eden. 

The Western States have been noted for 
their wheat product until within a few years, 
the yield averaging over twenty bushels per 
acre, now yielding less, as an average than ten 
bushels per acre. Constant cropping, without 
fertilizing, is the cause. The soils of England 
and Continental Europe, for several cent mi. s. 
with but few exceptions, produced very limited 
crops, the soils having been almost completely 
exhausted by constant cropping and not fertiliz- 
ing. By the influence of agricultural societies 
and schools which are now scattered all over 
these countries, they have produced within a 
few years a scientific system of cultivation, and 
to-day we are reaping p-ofitablo rewards for 
their influence and practice. 

The following few facts of the hundreds and 
thousands even ttat could be named, exhibits 
the enormous amounts annually paid for fertili- 
zers in the Eastern, Western and Southern 
States. Imports of guano in 1870, amounted 
to 887,585 tons, valued at 15,992,325. Ship- 
ments of fertilizers from Chicago last year was 
(J,000 tons. During four months in 1870, 30,000 
tons was sent by rail from Charleston, (S. C.), 
to various sections of that State. About the 
same period there was sent by rail ' to Georgia, 
47^000 tons, bearing a value of $7,000,000. In 
New England, barnyard manure is an article 
extensively used, combined with ashes, lime, 
gypsum or guano. A member of a farmers' club 
in Massachusetts stated that he had used within 
three years 30,000 bushels of ashes on 100 acres 
of land and increased his crops of wheat and 
corn over 100 per cent. In some sections of 
Germany where wood is scarce and dear, it is 
customary for the common people to club to- 
gether and build baking ovens, which are 
heated with straw and wood. The ashes of 
this straw are carefully collected and sold at 
hiah prices. The farmers there have found by 
experience that the ashes from straw form the 
very best manure for wheat. The straw of 
wheat grown in this way, possesses an un- 
common strength. The cause of the favorable 
action of these ashes will be apparent when it 
is considered that all corn plants require sili- 
cate of potash and that the ashes of straw con- 
sist almost entirely of this compound. The 
well known fact that ashes are a very perfect 
and valuable fertilizer for wheat, proves to our 
wheat growers that two important uses for 
straw can be made, one to fertilize and the other 
afodder forstock. 

In England, millions of pounds sterling are 
yearly expended for fertilizers. A similar prac- 
tice is now adopted in the New England States, 
and with a wonderful advance of increased 
crops; also in all the Atlantic States. This 
process of expenditure for fertilizing is carried 
on without regard to cost, from the fact that 
fertilizing is a necessary outlay to produce sure 
and profitable crops. The crops of grain in 
England have advanced within a few yearsfrom 
eight or ten bushels to the acre, to thirty, forty 
and seventy bushels to the acre, and a similar 
increase in all varieties of products. 

Look for a moment, farmers, what England 
has done within a few decades. By English 
statistical statements, the value of the soil de- 
voted to agriculture comprehended the twenty- 
sixth of the total wealth of the Kingdom; that 
the value of England's agricultural soil was 
nearly twelve times greater than the whole cap- 
ital invested in manufactures and commerce; 
that money employed in her agriculture com- 
prehended more than three-fourths of the capi- 
tal of England; that the manufacturing ami 
commercial capital of England, including her 
ships, constituted but about one-eight of her 
national wealth ; that the agricultural capital of 
England, which is over $10,555,000,000 pro- 
duced a gross income of thirteen per cent. 
while the manufacturing and trading capital, 
which is but $1,000,000,000, yielded nearly a 
gross income of 120 per cent. It is that magic 
capital of $1,000,000,000 invested in machinery, 
mills, furnaces, factories, and mines which has 
swollen the farming capital of little England in- 
to the gigantic sum of $16,555,000,000, and 
made a British farm worth ten times as much 
as one in a wheat growing country. The manu- 
factories of England have doubled and trebled 
her wealth and population and sustained her 
immense commerce, built.equipped and manned 
her countless ships and thus directly and indi- 
directly increased the demand for and raised 
the price of food and raw materials, and run up 
the value of her agricultural soil to the qualify 
of garden ground all overthe kingdom. Eng- 



land, France and Germany have set a good and 
positive example for California. Raise mixed 
crops, Produce the raw materials, for export 
or home manufacturies and less wheat. There- 
fore the necessity of manufactories in this State 
and raising mixed crops, such as hemp, flax, 
ramie, cotton, the grape, almonds, trees for 
timber, and wood and other varieties not now 
in my mind. 

The reading of the above essay was listened 
to with great attention by the members. The 
essay demonstrated the fact that the Doctor's 
time is not wholly given up to the work of com- 
pounding drugs, but much of it is occupied 
with other subjects equally important. If 
■what I know abnut farming" is an essential 
qualification for President of the United States, 
the President of the Club, by the rule of merit, 
is entitled to become President of the People. 
On motion, a vote of thanks was tendered the 
Doctor for his able and interesting essay. On 
motion the Club adjourned. 

Farm House Chat. 

[Written tat the l'iti:ss by M.uiy M01 ntain.] 

Do you suppose one half the California 
farmers can tell whether they have a yearly 
income, or can show the exact figures that 
prove whether they make both ends meet, 
or do a little better or a great deal worse 
than that ? It was almost comical to sug- 
gest that the wife should have at her dis- 
posal one half the yearly income, when in 
fact (with very few exceptions) the whole 
science and business of farming goes on in 
a scrabbling, irresponsible way — the hus- 
band in a chronic fret-about the interest 
due on that mortgage — the wife wrinkling 
her brows over the problem of store-bills 
and all the crowding necessities of work-a- 
day life, -while the children grow like 
weeds and will soon be peering among all 
this chaos for their own rights of manhood 
and womanhood. Yes, here are the chil- 
dren and what shall be dpne for them ? 
Importance of Keeping Farm Accounts. 

Let them wait a minute while I suggest 
to father and mother the pressing necessity 
of getting a tight rein over all this disor- 
derly business. Don't let it run wild any 
longer. Get some books— account book, 
cash book— the bigger the better, perhaps, 
and put everything down in as good shape 
as possible. 

In the early days when young California 
did a " big business" everywhere, I was 
frequently called upon to help post the 
books of one " concern " and was joyfully 
surprised to find how quickly and easily I 
could understand it all. 

Here on the farm, my husband has a 
cash book as big, as heavy, as "calf-bound" 
as the old one of early times; but there is a 
comical difference in the character and 
amount of entries. 

Yet the moral influence of the ponder- 
ous book is not at all laughable, for when 
it comes down with a thud, I see the chil- 
dren's thoughtful eyes scan the mysterious 
pages and doubtless an impression is form- 
ing that business in the country may be 
quite as dignified and important as in the 
town. And so it may be and should be. 

If you are not scientific book-keepers to 
begin with, never mind; your earnest 
efforts will be followed by better and bet- 
ter results, and the end of the year will 
show — a balance to your credit let us hope 
— but at least there will be formed a good 
business habit, worth as much to a man as 
the farm itself, 

And to the Woman Too? 
Yes, it is just here she will find one of 
her most important rights, and learn more 
clearly how to adjust ail home interests. 
We will suppose the books brought out 
every Saturday evening; and the wife set- 
ting quietly by with stockings to darn, 
little breeches to mend, or the baby to 
tend, can still keep an eye on the "figures," 
help in the spelling of hard words, or 
decide a difficult point in that bargin with 
neighbor Jones. Let no farmer imagine 
that the books are too puzzling for his 
wife to understand. Let him rather re- 
member how necessary it is that she com- 
prehend all details of business, not only 
for the sake of her intelligent sympathy 
in the ups and downs of fortune, but to 
fit her for the skillful management of 
affairs in case he should be struck down 
by disease or death. 

Careful book-keeping is the surest pre- 
ventative of foolish expenditure; and the 
wife who is best informed upon all mat- 
ters of income, outgo, profit and loss, is 
the wife who is the best satisfied with her 
own position in life, best pleased with her 
husband's management, least anxious to 
seize and control all home and foreign 
affairs. For if she thoroughly understands 
the whole business of the firm, you may 
be sure she is by no means a silent partner. 
Her influence and judgment have helped 
and modified in all directions, and the con- 
sciousness of this blended power strength- 



ens and sweetens her womanly character; 
so "the heart of her husband doth safely 
trust in her," although he may be wholly 
unconscious that he is using her brains in 
the business as well as his own. 

A man who is reticent, selfish or jealous 
of power, will not tell his wife about busi- 
ness, or only enough to mystify and mis- 
lead her, believing that she would make a 
terrible bother if she really understood his 
affairs. So she gropes along in a thick 
financial fog— almost sure to go wrong 
when most earnestly wishing to go right. 
Hearing that, neighbors make certain hun- 
dreds from the sale of wheat, or cattle, or 
wool, she concludes that her husband 
ought to have as much or more, and im- 
mediately all her clothing and furniture 
looks shabbier than ever before ; she 
counts how few silver spoons she has got; 
how much crockery and glassware are 
needed to fill the shelves; and resentfully 
reckoning all the deficiencies that worry 
and wear her life away, she has presently 
a heart full of wrath and bitterness against 
the husband who hoards his money and 
defrauds her happiness. 

Now perhaps he has not a single dollar 
hoarded, nor many dollars carelessly 
wasted; but all strictly in the business and 
duly swallowed by "contingent expenses." 
If the blind, mistaken man would only tell 
her this— go carefully over the figures that 
prove it, and explain all his hopes and 
plans— why, the tears would be in her eyes 
in a minute, and giving him a shy kiss she 
would cry out, "Oh, John! I thought you 
was real mean and stingy, but now I can 
be patient and contented till you bring 
things around right." 

If he is man enough to like to hear her 
say, "till we can bring things around 
right"— then all the happier for both of 
them. 

There are many reasons why the farmer 
and his wife should cultivate harmony and 
mutual happiness in everything that con- 
cerns their secluded little world. The lack 
of social spice and variety forces them to 
give much attention to little events, little 
troubles and vexations; and the monotony 
of all these trifles become very wearing un- 
less met with unflinching cheerfulness and 
tact. But if good sense and sympathy are 
needed to smooth the fret and friction of 
business cares, how much more are they 
needed 

In Behalf of the Children. 
Perhaps it is from lack of thought, but 
a great many farmers make a woful mis- 
take in this matter of raising children. 

They regard the boys and girls as so 
many rough little cubs who must be fed 
and lodged somehow till they are old 
enough to "put out" and take care of 
themselves. No such pains-taking enthu- 
siasm goes into their training as is often 
bestowed upon a promising young colt; 
and anything said in favor of careful edu- 
cation is ajjt to meet the retort — "What! 
the young ones? Guess they'll do if 
they're just let alone. Will have as good a 
chance as I ever had, anyhow." But hu- 
man "stock" is improving very rapidly, or 
rather there is more demand for a choice 
article. Nature may be furnishing about 
the same stuff as formerly, but each gener- 
ation becomes more exacting as to results; 
and your children will be a great disad- 
vantage if they can only start where you 
did 20 or 30 years ago. 

Many of us look back upon childish 
years that went on "pretty much as it hap- 
pened;" no one seemed to take especial 
thought for our happiness or our habits. 
We had our tasks to do — our weeks or 
months of schooling — our serious holidays 
of church and Sunday school — Fourth of 
July, Thanksgiving and Fast day. 

All these sober-going influences (and we 
cannot reproduce them in California for 
our own children) have made us what we 
are; if not suited with the results we must 
still accept and make the best of it. If 
happily we are at peace with ourselves and 
satisfied that the material furnished by 
.Nature has been made up to the best ad- 
vantage, we may perhaps still perceive 
that the child-years might have beenagreat 
deal happier and brighter if some one had 
taken thought for us; and we know that 
the awkward start in life — the blundering 
distress of various first appearances in the 
great, cold world might have been avoided 
if the straight and narrow youthful way 
had been a little more flowery and sociable 
and diversified. 

Yet Puritan training has done so much for 
us, we easily forgive its stern repression of 
youthful gayety, and all the more easily 
if we find ourselves not permanently frost- 
bitten from that untimely nipping of 
buds. 

But I shall further invoke childhood 
memories while making a special plea for 
our own farm children. 



July 27, 1872.] 



55 



OsEftJL IfJfGR^JtON. 
Sharpening Edge Tools. 

There is a common saying that a good work- 
man is know by his tools, and it is certain that 
many a young mechanic is hindered in acquir- 
ing skill in his trade by too little attention to 
this excellent maxim. The following simple 
rules, from the Young Mechanic, will be of aid 
to inexperienced workmeD, and, perhaps, to 
some older in the profession, in telling how 
tools should be treated: 

There is no operation in which the young 
mechanic is so much at fault as in that of grind- 
ing and setting in order the various tools he has 
to use. Nevertheless, he will never become 
either an independent workman, or a good one, 
if he has to depend upon others for this neces- 
sary labor. 

No doubt, to sharpen a tool which is in very 
bad order, is a tedious and tiresome job; but it 
is not bo wearisome an affair to keep tools in 
condition for work, after they have been once 
thoroughly sharpened, by one who understands 
how to do it. Never, therefore, use a blunt 
tool but at once go to the hone or grindstone 
with it, and put it in first-rate order. Time 
thus employed is never wasted, . but rather 
saved ; and the result will appear invariably in 
the work which you are engaged upon. You 
must, in the first place, understand precisely 
what it is you have to do ; and although the 
following details may be by some considered 
more adapted for advanced students than for 
young mechanics, a little attention to the ex- 
planations will render the matter clear to any 
boy of age and intelligence to take in hand, with 
reasonable prospect of success, the tools of the 
carpenter, turner, and fitter. 

Now all tools, if well ground, are ground to a 
certain know angle, according to the material 
which they are intended to cut. Tools intended 
to cut soft woods, like deal, are ground to an 
angle of twenty or thirty degrees, like the chisel 
seen edgwise. I shall have a word to say pres- 
ently as to the direction in which such tools are 
to be held in order to make them cut as well as 
possible. A tool for hard wood is ground to an 
angle of at least forty, and it ranges up to 
eighty degrees, giving a stronger, thicker edge, 
but not so keen a one. We have, therefore, more 
of a scraping tool than a cutting one, at least, 
in the way it is usually held. Then we come to 
the tools with which iron is turned, and steel 
also. The usual angle is sixty, thence it ranges 
to ninety degrees. Thus, you see, advancing 
from soft wood tools to those for hard wood, 
and thence to a substance still harder, we have 
increased the angle of the edge, beginning at 
thirty and ending with eighty or ninety degrees. 
But now we come to a material which is harder 
than wood, and not so hard as iron, yet we use 
tools with an angle of ninety degrees, which is 
still greater, and seventy degrees is the least an- 
gle ever used for this metal. 

Experience only has taught the proper angles 
for tools, and it is found that if brass and gun 
metal are turned with tools of a less angle than 
seventy degrees, they only catch into the ma- 
terial, and do not work at all satisfactorily. 
You can, however, scrape brass, as a finish, with 
the thin edge of a common chisel; but there the 
tool is held so as to scrape very lightly and 
polish, and its edge will not remain many 
minutes, unless the maker (intending it to be so 
used) has made it much harder than he would 
make it for soft- wood cutting. 
If you buy your tools at any good shop, you will 
find that they are already ground to nearly the 
angles named, and when you re-grind them you 
must endeavor to keep them to the same. The 
bevel, as it is called, of many tools need not be 
ground at all, as they may be sharpened solely 
by rubbing the upper face on a hone, or grind- 
ing it, holding it so that the stone shall act 
equally on all parts of it. If, however, the tool 
should become notched, you must ' grind the 
bevel of it, and then you must try and keep the 
intended angle. 

One tool, however, or, rather, one pair of 
tools, viz., turning-gouges and chisels, are very 
seldom ground with a sufficiently long bevel 
when they first come from the make. This you 
must correct when you first grind the tools for 
use, and keep the same long bevel and small 
angle of edge continually afterwards, for you 
will never make good work on soft wood if 
your chisels and gouges are ground with two 
short a bevel. I must also guard you against 
another common error, which, however, is diffi- 
cult to avoid at first, and only long practice will 
enable you to overcome it. The bevel of all 
tools must be kept flat and even, and when the 
tool is afterward rubbed on the oil stone to give 
a finish to the edge, another flat even bevel 
should be made. 



Voeacity of the Pickerel. — The rapid growth 
and extraordinary voracity of the pickerel are 
well shown by Dr. Stnrtevant in the report of 
the Massachusetts Inland Fisheries Commis- 
sioners. The doctor investigated their powers 
of eating in the following manner: — He put two 
•young pickerel, five inches long, in a trough 
with a great quantity of little minnows about 
one inch in length; and these two pickerel ate 
128 minnows the first day, 132 the second, and 
150 the third, and they increased one inch in 
48 hours! They were mere machines for the 
assimilation of other organisms. It is to be 
hoped that this wolf of the waters may never 
be introduced into our California streams. 



The Development of the Lobster. 

According to Mr. S . J. Smith, in the Ameri- 
can Journal of Science, the first stage of larval 
life finds the little animal a free swimming 
schizopod, about a third of an inch long, with- 
out any abdominal appendages and with six 
pair of legs, to which are attached powerful 
swimming organs. The eyes are bright blue, 
and the body is orange to reddish orange in color. 
The stage shows an increase in the size of the little 
second animal, and a development of a portion of 
the abdominal legs, with other and less important 
changes. In the third stage observed, the 
animal has become half an inch long, the 
anterior legs have largely increased in size, the 
second and third pairs are furnished with claws, 
the abdominal appendages have become con- 
spicuous, and the "pockets" have appeared, 
though they yet differ from those observed in 
the adult. The fourth stage finds the young 
lobster three fifths of an inch long. It has lost 
its schizopodal features and has become to all 
intents and purposes, an actual lobster. 

It is still, however, a free swimming animal, 
moving through the water very rapidly by means 
of the abdominal appendages, and darting back- 
ward when disturbed, with the tail, frequently 
jumping out of the water like a shrimp. It is 
probable that there is yet another stage of 
development before the complete lobster is reach- 
ed. From the data obtained, it is also probable 
that these changes all take place in the course 
of a single season. 

The Time Planets Would Take to Fall into 
the Sun. — M. Flammarion makes the following 
remarks, on this subject, in Lea Mondes: Sup- 
posing the Earth to be arrested in its course, 
and the centrifugal force thus destroyed, the 
Earth, being left to the first force, would fall to 
the sun with a uniformly accelerated motion. 
It would take about 04 days in its fall, and 
would reach the sun with the inconceivable 
velocity of about 360 miles for the last second. 
The following are the figures obtained from 
a calculation of the time the planets would take 
to fall to the center of the sun, supposing their 
motion to be arrested. 

Mercury 15-55 days. 

Venus 39-73 •' 

Earth 64-57 " 

Mara 121-44 " 

Jupiter 765-87 " 

Saturn 1901-93 " 

Uranus 6424-57 " 

Neptune 10623-73 " 

Increase of Tea Drinking. — A late number 
of the London (Jrocerpublishes the tea statistics 
of the United Kingdom for the seventy years. 
In 1801, the quantity of tea consumed was 
11,865 tons, the average price of which wasfour 
shillings twopence half penny per pound, mak- 
ing the yearly amount drunk by each person 
(man, woman and child) in the Kingdom, 
average one pound eight ounces. 

In 1871, the consumption had risen to 61,701 
tons, but the price had fallen to one shilling, 
ten and a half pence per pound. The taste for 
tea appears to have increased in the same ratio 
as its cost decreased, as in the last mentioned 
year the average of each individual was three 
pounds fifteen ounces* 

Facts about Tacks. — The length of tacks, as 
understood and given by the manufacturers, is 
by the "ounce," which is printed on the label, 
and stenciled on the box or package in which 
the goods are placed for transportation. 
"Three ounce" (3 oz.) means that the package 
so labeled contains tacks three-eights inch long 
and that for every three ounces of tacks of that 
length there should be 1,000 tacks. Four ounce 
would be seven-sixteenths inch long; sixounce,- 
eight sixteenths ; eight ounce, nine-sixteenthsinck 
long, and for each "full-weight" package thus 
labeled there should be 1,000 tacks, and so on 
up to twenty-four ounce, which likewise is 
equivalent to one and a quarter inches long, 
and 1,000 tacks. 

Pbofessob Gunning claims that the 
Niagara river has been in existence about 
200,000 years — that a barrier thirty feet 
high at the head of the rapids would throw 
the water back into Lake Michigan. He 
accounts for the drainage of the lakes be- 
fore the formation of the river by a channel 
which extended from Lake Michigan to the 
Mississippi. 

Improved Letter Envelope. — An improved 
Letter envelope has been patented, which 
might be very useful to forgetful persons. 
The improvement consists in an external pocket, 
in which, supposing the envelope has already 
been sealed, anything forgotten may be placed, 
and also sealed up and carried with equal safety, 
and the necessity of destroying an envelope 
avoided. The only difference, in the envelope 
is in the cut of the paper, and no additional cost 
is entailed in the manufacture. 



Qood !-|e\ljI|. 



Among the best conductors of sound are iron 
and glass. Through them sound is transmitted 
at the rate of 17,500 feet, or over three miles 
per second. But in air sound travels only 13 
miles per minute, or, 1,142 feet per second. 

There are about four hundred species of 
minerals known; but the varieties of these 
species are almost infinite. For example, car- 
bonate of lime exists as chalk, marble, spir, 
lithographic stone, etc. 

Eoul Air in wells, drains, etc., may be ef- 
fectually dissipated by dashing in a few buck- 
ets of water, mixed with a small quantity of 
chloride of lime. 



The Small-Pox Invasion. 

The scare with regard to the present small- 
pox invasion in this city and State, seems 
happily to be fast passing away; the menace, 
however, will not have been without its bene- 
ficial effect by inducing another general vacci- 
nation and re-vaccination of our people — a 
emedy, which, if universally resorted to every 
few years, with the prompt vaccination of in- 
infants, would render it impossible for the 
small-pox to be"come a serious evil in any com- 
munity. In reference to the 

Prevention of Small-Pox. 

Dr. Armstrong in the Canada Lancet, advises 
the following means in staying the ravages of 
small-pox : " Persons suffering from the dis- 
ease should daily anoint their bodies and limbs 
throughout with carbolized oil; and also wash 
their bodies thoroughly with soft water, slightly 
carbolized; the anointing to be performed after 
the whole person has been washed, and gently 
dried with some soft fabric. This process should 
be commenced before patients are allowed to 
leave their sick-room, and continued until such 
time as all the diseased skin has been removed, 
and a new and healthy one formed. In this way 
the particles of diseased and desquamated skin 
are prevented from being set free from persons 
who have recently suffered, and contaminating 
healthy persons, by being inhaled or deposited 
on the exposed skin, or by getting into the water 
or food, and thus be a mode of contagion." 

"The attempt to prevent its spread by yellow 
flags, isolation and non-intercourse," says the 
Pacific Medical Journal, "will prove ineffectual. 
While some good may result from such meas- 
ures, in the way of checking its extension in 
one direction, they are capable of doing much 
evil by diverting attention of the only sure de- 
fense, and creating a false security in the pub- 
lic mind." 

Vaccination as a Cure of Small-Pox. 

Mr. R. C. Furley, in a letter to the Scotsman. 
says he is able to prove that vaccination is not 
only n preventative of disease but a cure. It is, 
he says, ascertained that when a person liable 
to take small-pox is exposed to the infection, 
the poison circulates in the blood for eight days 
before producing any febrile symptoms; then 
commence headache, sickness, painin the back, 
suffr.sed eyes, and a particularly white-furred 
tongue — a group of symptoms that belong to 
no other disease, and which lasts for three days. 
It has been held and acted on since Jenner's 
great discovery, more than eighty years ago, 
that it is not only wrong but fatal to vaccinate 
any one during that stage of disease, orthe sub- 
sequent one when the eruption makes its ap- 
pearance. But Mr. Furley says he can show 
from cases under his care at the present time 
that if you vaccinate during the febrile stage 
the fever is slightly increased, but the eruption 
does not make its appearance, and if yon vac- 
cinate during the eruptive stage the eruption is 
immediately arrested. The mature lymph over- 
takes the immature poison, and the disease ter- 
minates. If the eruption has gone the length 
of having white tops, there is danger of infection ; 
if not, it dies away as pimples. Mr. Furley 
feels confident that if every doctor were to vacci- 
nate each case of small-pox that comes under 
his care at once, many hundred of lives would 
be spared and many thousand of pounds would 
be saved. In the mean time, he invites mem- 
bers of the medical profession to accompany 
him among the patients he has under his care, 
and thus possibly stamp out the epidemic in a 
few weeks. 



Tea Drunkards.— Dr. Arlidge, of the pot- 
tery inspectors in Staffordshire, England, has 
put forth a very sensible protest, says the Lan- 
cet, against a very pernicious custom which 
rarely receives sufficient attention, either from 
the medical profession 01 the public. He says 
that the women of the working classes make 
tea a principal article of diet instead of an oc- 
casinal beverage ; they drink it several times a 
day, and the result is a lamentable amount of 
sickness. Dr. Arlidge remarks that a portion 
of the reforming zeal which keeps up such a 
fierce agitation against intoxicating drinks 
might advantageously be diverted to the re- 
pression of this very serious evil of tea tippling 
among the poorer classes. Tea, in anything 
beyond moderate quantities, is as distinctly a 
narcotic poison as is opium or alcohol. It is 
capable of ruining the digestion, of enfeebling 
and disordering the heart's action, and of gener- 
ally shattering the nerves. And it must be re- 
membered that not merely is it a question of 
narcotic excess, but the enormous quantity of 
hot water which tea bibbers necessarially take is 
exceedingly prejudicial both to digestion and 
nutrition. 



Cod-Liver Oil Pills. — Dr. Van der Court, 
of Brussels, prepares cod-liver oil by adding 
carefully pulverized slacked lime to the oil, little 
by little, until the consistency requisite for 
forming into pills is obtained. Of this mass he 
gives four or five grains as a dose, after each 
meal, flavoring it with a small quantity of oil of 
bitter almonds, or other substance. This reme- 
dy he considers to be in many respects better 
than the liquid bil, and quite useful in the ear- 
ly stages of consumption. The more chronic 
the character of the disease, the more good may' 
be expected from its administration. 



Sleep and Dreams. 

Professor Humphrey, the distinguished pi 
ologist of Cambridge, England, has given his 
views of the physiology of sleep, dreams and 
cerebral action, in a lecture before the Roya 
Institution. He assumes that the upper regions 
of the brain are thosewhich ministerto the higher 
mental operations, consciousness, volition and 
reason, while the basal portions are more im- 
mediately connected with the operations of life. 
The cause of sleep he holds to be a slight dete- 
rioration of the tissues which results from their 
functional activity during the day, and is car- 
ried so far as to interfere with the higher and 
more cerebral operations, and which necessi- 
tates protracted rest for the recovery of the nu- 
tritive balance. Dreaming he regards not as a 
normal or healthy accompaniment of sleep, 
but as a result of the abnormal or imperfect 
condition of the organ of mental action. In 
the natural state, he says, we should pass from 
wakefulness to complete unconsciousness, and 
vice versa, almost instantaneously, and many 
persons do so. But more frequently the tran- 
sition is protracted, and stages are observed in 
which the sleep is but partial. The cerebral 
organ being in an imperfect state, its action is 
imperfect, and the first effect of the lessening of 
its vital vigor is a loss of the highest form of 
mental power — the control over the mental op- 
erations. This requires the highest mental ef- 
fort, and is most easily lost. In this condition 
the thoughts ramble unchecked, chase one an- 
other confusedly over the mental field, and 
give rise to all sorts of incongruities of the im- 
agination. At the same time being unrestrain- 
ed, they are excited, and evince efforts of mem- 
ory and even of combination, of which in the 
regulated state of wakefulness they are quite in- 
capable. In this way the image of persons and 
places, events and items of knowledge, long 
forgotten in the ordinary state are recalled with 
distinctness, and we fancy that new informa- 
tion has been acquired, when it is only for- 
gotten facts that are recalled. — Galaxy. 

Poisonous Mussels. — A sea-side correspond- 
ent of the Alta, says : "The mussel is large, 
and at certain seasons is very palatable, but at 
the present writing they breed, and then sick- 
ness is the result of eating them — death resulting 
in a great many cases. A bottle of sweet oil 
is the most effectual remedy. In one case, 
where an individual had eaten mussels after be- 
ing warned, he described the feeling as if he 
was as light as a feather, in fact he held 
himself down on his bed in order to keep him- 
self from flying to the roof of the house. He 
said it seemed to him that his head was twice 
its usual size, and in fact his whole frame had 
doubled in proportion, but still a feeling of 
lightness, not at all in conformity with his 
bulk, seemed to him to exist." 



Earth Poultices for Poisonous Bites. — A 
correspondent of the Scientific American suggests 
that a poultice of clay or common swamp or 
gutter mud should be applied as soon as pos- 
sible to the bites of reptiles, or stings of in- 
sects, etc. The correspondent says he has suc- 
cessfully tried it upon himself. In one case 
he was stung by a numerous swarm of the yel- 
low hornets in many places in his neck and 
arms. He went to a swamp near, the poison 
being so severe that his sight was much affect- 
ed. He immediately applied the mud, and, in 
half an hour, he went to mowing again, with 
only a small sore lump round each sting. He 
knew a neighbor who was bitten by a rattle- 
snake some miles from home; his companion 
left him and went for help as fast as possible, 
it being just night. He was not able to return 
until morning. When going, he met the man 
returning, with the poison conquered. He had 
got to a swamp, dug a hole, inserted and bur- 
ied the bitten place in the mud. That was all. 

Spread and Extent of Intemperance. — A re- 
port on this subject recently made to the Legis- 
lature of Massachusetts, estimates that there 
are 600,000 persons in the United States who 
have lost their power of controlling the appe- 
tite for intoxicating liquors, and that in Massa- 
chusetts there are 23,000 of that class, of whom 
two per cent, die yearly through drunkeness. 
In Europe, statesmen are already alarmed at 
the progress of the vice, and the increasing con- 
sumption of liquors. The governments of 
France and England are agitated on the subject. 
The Medical Press is also discussing the subject 
from the sanitary as well as moral and eco- 
nomic stand point. 

Sun-Stroke and Heat in New York. — The 
first week of July, 1872, will be made memor- 
able in the mortuary annals of New York for the 
unprecedented number of deaths from all causes, 
but notably so for the mortality from sun-stroke. 
The unprecedented number of 184 deaths from 
sun-stroke alone, were registered during that 
week; while the deaths from all causes during 
the first six days only were 1,348 — more than 
double the usual average for the corresponding 
period for several years previous. 

Db. Angus Smith gives a good rule for ascer- 
taining the amount of carbonic acid in tne air 
of houses: "Let us keep our rooms so that the 
air does not give a precipitate when a 10% 
ounce botlleful is shaken with half an ounce of 
clear lime water," a sanitary regulation which 
can easily be carried out. 



56 



jpagweq &&&&& s>R£ss. 



[July 27, 1872. 




PUBLISHED BY 

DEWEY 3* CO- 

A. T. DEWEY. W. B. EWEB. G. H. BTBONO. J. L. BOONE. 

Principal Editor W. B. EWER, A.M. 

Associate Editob I. N. HOAG, (Sacramento.) 

Office, No. 338 Montgomery street, S. E. corner of 
California street, where friends and patrons are Invited 
to our SciKN-riKir I'UKss, Patent Agency, Egraving and 
Printing establishment. 

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Large advertisements at favorable rates. Special or 
reading notices, legal advertisements, notices appearing 
In extraordinary type or in particular parts of the paper, 
inserted at special rates. 

SAN FRANCISCO: 

Saturday, July 27, 1872. 



Table of • Contents. 

ILLUSTRATIONS.— Stamm Plowing. 49. 

EDITORIALS.— The Wheat Crop of California; Where 
The Rain t ■•Hues Prom, 49. The Pacific Coast and 
San Francisco. 51 . Editorial Notes Among the Farm- 
ers; Setting Cream for Butter, 56. Farm Laborers: 
Revolution in California Wine Cask Making; The Olive 
in California; The Fruit Trade of Bail Francisco, 57. 

CORRESPONDENCE.— Alfalfa— Kb History and Value; 
Los Angeles County; Snuffles in Sheen, 50. 

MECHANICAL AND SCIENTIFIC.— Vegetable Physi- 
ology; Steam in its Fickle Moods, 51. 

HOME AND FARM.— Essay on Fertilizing; Farm House 
Chat, 54. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from various Counties in 
California, Oregon and Montana, 53. 

FARMER8 IN cm "NOIL.— San Joaquin Farmers' Club: 
Ban JOBe Farmers' Club and Protective Association: 
The Farmer; Napa County Farmers' Club ; Sacramento 
Farmers' club. 52. 

USEFUL INFORMATION.— Sharpening Edge Tools; 
Voracity of the Pickerel: The Development of the 
Lobster: The Time Planets Would Take to Fall into 
the Sun; Increase of Tea Drinking: Facts about 
Tacks; Improved Letter Envelope. 55. 

GOOD HEALTH.— The Small-Pox Invasion: Tea Drunk- 
ards: Cod-I.iv.r Oil Pills; Sleep and Dreams; Poi- 
son. us Mii-m Is; Earth Poultices for Poisonous Bites; 
Spread and Extent of Intemperance; Sun-Stroke and 
Heat m New York; 55. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY.— A Chapter on Pickles; The 
Inside ..( Houses; Detection of Sulphuric Acid in Vin- 
egar; To Test Green Paper for Arsenic; Protecting 
Furs from Moths; A Teat for the Quality of Potatoes; 
Worms in Flower Pots; Practical Receipts. 59. 

HOME CIRCLE.— Tell it Again: (Poetry); The Queen 
at the Paper Mill; Corsets on (irowiug Girls; Califor- 
nia Literary Motes; Beautiful Extract; Woman's Pow- 
er; Deal Carefully with Your Children. 58. 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN.— Playing School; (Poetry; 
Pug's Mistress, 58. 



City Silk Culture. 

The Neumans have established a cocoonery 
for the rearing of silkworms, in Bancroft's 
building on Market street, where for the tri- 
fling admission fee of twenty-five cents, the 
silk worm can be seen in all the different stages 
of growth, from the egg to the perfect worm 
and the winding of the cocoon; as well as the 
process of reeling the new silk, etc. 

The Neumans are experts at the business of 
silk growing, and the public cannot but be in- 
terested in an experiment which has been in- 
stituted purposely to show to those desiring to 
engage in silk culture the entire practicability 
of the business when properly conducted. 

Silk culturists who may have cocoons for 
sale the present season, are requested to hand 
in fair samples of their products for exhibition; 
the different kinds must be kept distinct and 
those of last year's growth kept by themselves. 
As a market is provided for all good cocoons, 
it is important that they be sent, in good, mar- 
ketable condition and unperforated. The 
cocoonery wiU be opened to the public on the 
1st of August. 

A Local Railroad.— The land-owners of 
Solano and Yolo counties have under consider- 
ation a proposition to build a narrow-guage 
railroad from Maine Prairie, in Solano county, 
across the country to the mouth of and through 
Cache creek canon. The length of the pro- 
jected road is from 30 to 35 miles, but it would 
probably be extended into Lake county. 

Art Association. — The exhibition of paint- 
ings under the auspices of the Art Association 
of this city was opened on the evening of the 
23d inst. to members. The exhibition, which 
possesses much merit, is now available to the 
public. 

The number of vessels now on the way to this 
port is greater than at any other time. 



Editorial Notes Among the Farmers. 

Our next trip is among the farmers of Santa 
Clara county. It commenced on the 7th inst. 
and continued four days— time most agreeably 
and profitably spent. 

To Col. W. C. Wilson, President, G. George, 
Secretary, and W. O'Donnel, one of the Direc- 
tors of the Santa Clara Valley Agricultural So- 
ciety, we are indebted for the best of facilities 
for travel, for the most instructive and agreeable 
company, and for many other attentions which 
we shall long and pleasantly remember. 

Our old traveling companion, Col. Younger, 
was here at home and took a great deal of 
pains to show us the many evidences of thrift 
and prosperity among the horticulturists and 
agriculturists of his home county. If there is 
a people in the State who entertain a just pride 
in their locality and rich and abundant resources, 
that people live in the county of Santa Clara. 

One of their prominent citizens, Judge 
Devine, expressed the feeling of the whole 
people when, in a conversation with us, he 
very proudly and emphatically remarked, " I 
have traveled around the world, have visited 
and studied the climate and advantages of every 
country of any note or pretensions; and of all 
the countries I have seen, the Pacific Slope, 
from the British possessions on the north to 
Terra del Fuego is the best part of the world. 
It is the most favorably located, has the most 
igreeable climate and possesses the most abun- 
dant and valuable resources. Of all this most 
favored land I am fully of the the opinion that 
Santa Clara valley possesses more advantages 
than any other locality of equal area. Indeed 
I think this county is the granary and garden 
of the best State in the world." 

In population Santa Clara is the third 
county in the State, is third in wealth, and is 
certainly behind none in the intelligence and 
enterprise of hei people. In no other county 
have so many shade and ornamental trees been 
planted along the streets and highways, no 
other county contains so many and extensive 
nurseries of fruit and forest trees, no othei 
county has such an abundant supply of water 
for irrigating purposes and none makes so con- 
stant and effective use of this water, no other 
county in the State, if In the Union, produces 
such a quantity of small fruits— strawberries, 
blackberries and raspberries ; no other county 
contains so many bearing apple and peach trees, 
and but four other counties produce more 
wheat. With such a record the people may 
well feel a local pride in their county. 

They are also justly proud of their chief City 
and Capital 

San Jose. 

This city is better provided with public 
squares or parks, well laid out and ornamented, 
has a greater number of fine residences, sur- 
rounded by extensive and superb grounds, 
studded with tastefully arranged evergreens, 
and other ornamental trees, shrubs and vines, 
than any other city in the State — there are in- 
deed, almost in the very heart of the city a 
number of establishments which for extent and 
variety of cultivation would, in many countries, 
rank with good sized farms. Among these we 
may name that of 

General Naglee. 

While the General has a place about his resi- 
dence most gorgeously ornamented with a pro- 
fusion of trees and vines, of almost every va- 
riety both foreign and native to be found in the 
State, the principal feature of attraction to us 
is his vineyard, his wine and brandy cellars. 
We were attracted by these because with them 
the General is carrying on a system of experi- 
ments of great value to the State, and espe- 
cially tothe wine-growers. He formerly pruned 
his vines low nrnd approves of this mode of 
pruning now, — on side-hiUs with good expos- 
ure, where he thinks the vine should only be 
grown — but for low damp land subject to late 
frosts he has found by experiment, that grapes 
mature earlier and bear more plentifully if 
trained up from four to six feet high 

By changing the system of pruning, from 
low to high he has on his land increased the 
yield from 100,000 pounds to 400,000 pounds 
annually — or quadrupled the product and im- 
proved the quality very materially. 
Brandy Making. 

To this particular branch of business General 
Naglee has devoted much time and money, 
and has instituted many valuable experiments. 
He has visited a large number of the brandy 
distilleries of the Cognac district, in France, 



and brought home with him hints learned by 
practical men years in the business. He has 
given his personal attention to the distillation 
of his brandy with a view to proving that Cali- 
fornia can produce as valuable an article, as 
the best brandy districts of Europe, and if we 
may judge of his success by the quality of the 
product, he has been most eminently success- 
ful. He has been experimenting with different 
kinds of grapes, with a view to determine the 
eharateristies of each for wine purposes. He 
has by slow and careful distillation proved that 
the peculiar bouquet and flavor of the grape 
may be retained in the brandy — and hence that 
there is a great difference in the value of differ- 
ent kinds of grapes for brandy, and consequent- 
ly for wine purposes. His experiments have 
led him to prefer the La Folle, the Reisling, 
the Rose de Peru, the Pinaud, to the Mission 
grape and to all other kinds with which he has 
experimented. He has now on hand 10,000 
gallons of brandy, of the vintage of 1869, 12,- 
000 of 1870, and 18,000 of 1871. 

He proposes to sell no brandy until five 
years old at which age, and not before, he con- 
siders it ripe. He proposes to put each year's 
vintage on the market as it arrives at that age — 
but will sell only to consumers. The General 
expressed a determination to attend the fair of 
the Vine Growers' Association at Sacramento, 
and to do all he can to forward the interests of 
the vine industry of the State. Through his 
social position and wealth, his influence in this 
direction will doubtless be very great. 

The magnificent residence grounds, or we 
may call it the city farm of 

Mrs. S. J. Hensley, 
Was next visited. It consists of thirty-five 
acres, in the very center of the city, most 
tastefully laid out and ornamented with a great 
variety of trees, shrubs and flowers. Among 
the trees we noticed the Magnolia, in bloom, 
the coffee tree, the persimmon, the English 
walnut, the shagbark, black walnut, the native 
California walnut and a great variety of other 
nut bearing trees, mostly loaded with fruit. 
There are on the place seven artesian wells 
throwing up the sparkling water, and an arti- 
ficial lake covering about half an acre of ground. 
The residence was burned down in 1870, but 
will be rebuilt the present season. The place 
is under the charge of a son of Mrs. Hensley, 
C. B. Hensley, who shows a good deal of 
judgment and tasts in its management. 

Mr. Hensley is quite extensively engaged in 
breeding thoroughbred stock, especially in the 
horse line. He has ten thoroughbred mares, 
all bred to Patchen, this year; has.four Patchen 
colts, one Black Hawk and some General Tay- 
lor colts. He intends exhibiting some of the 
mares at the Santa Clara State Fairs this fall. 

We also visited the place of the pioneer hor- 
ticulturist and florist. 

William O'Donnel. 

The appearance of this place as you enter at 
the front gate is that of a highly ornamented 
gentleman's residence. The finly laid out and 
richl}* bordered walks, the tastefully located 
evergreens intermingled with choice deciduous 
trees, show that the whole work has been 
planned by a skillful landscape gardener, and 
that O'Donnell is master of his profession. As 
you pass through the ornamental front yard 
you enter the orchard and nursery, then yon 
see the ornamental and useful, most gracefully 
combined — showing that the owner has an eye 
to business as well as ornament. To O'Don- 
nel's skill as a nurseryman, and enterprise as a 
man, San Jose owes much of her beauty over 
other cities of the State, and Santa Clara Valley 
has been ornamented from the products of his 
labor and the correctness of his taste. . 
Fair Grounds. 

In company with President Wilson, we took 
an early ride one morning to the grounds of the 
Agricultural Society. 

These grounds are situated on the idameda 
between San Jose and Santa Clara; they con- 
tain seventy-six acres, on the back part of which 
is laid out one of the finest mile tracks in the 
State, leaving an abundance of room for a grand 
stand, judges stand, stables and all other build- 
ings necessary as fixtures to a well regulated 
race track. There is also room for a large pub- 
lic house, a pavilion for the exhibition of agri- 
cultural implements and products, mechanical 
inventions, fruit and all other articles shown in 
such a building. Also for a grand amphitheatre 
for the exhibition and examination of stock 
after the plan of the St. Louis fair grounds. 
Tho grounds are already laid out and orna- 



mented with reference to all these improve- 
menis, and we are assured that it will be but a 
few years before all will be made. Those 
grounds are worth to-day the sum of $1,000 per 
acre or 876,000, and the best thing connected 
with them is that the society owns them and is 
free of debt, and has already a pretty good sum 
in the building fund. 

Horses in Training. 

We could not leave tho fair grounds without 
taking a look at the many fast horses that are 
there in training for the fair of the society, and 
for the races at the State Fair. 

Seeing a fine looking horse about ready for his 
morning exercise, we were attracted to the 
stable he had just left to meet the well-known 
gentleman and turfman A. C. St. John, about 
to start his excellent horse Defiance around the 
track. We had the pleasure of seeing him go, 
and his performance indicates that the horse that 
would throw dust in his eyes will have some 
work on hand. Mr. St. John has a stable of 
nine horses — pacers, Defiance and Trifle; trot- 
ters, Belmont, Proctor, Jenny Spencer and 
Robert Bonner; runners — Demorett, St. John 
and Jessie Lane; J. W. Donoldson has the two 
running fillies Irene Harding and Lulu Jackson; 
(t. Fancher has trotters, Frank, Baltimore 
Belle, Beach Colt, Ike Cooke, Spence, Hunter, 
Ethan Allen and J. M. Patchen, Jr. 

Robert Wooding has runners, Phil Sheridan 
and Filly, Mission Belle. 

Chas. Murphy has Peri, Omaha and Mary 
Watson — and the old veteran trainer J. M. 
Daniels, has under his charge the promising 
McLellan Colt, Longfellow. Additional stables 
of horses are soon expected on the ground, and 
the people of the State may look for fun when 
all the horses from the several counties .ml 
district fairs meet to contest for the purses 
offered by the State Society at the State Fair. 
Next week we will accompany our readers up the 
valley among the wheat fields, vineyards, hop 
fields, strawberry and blackberry patches, nur- 
series, orchards and herds of fine cattle. 

Setting Cream for Butter. 

A correspondent of the But!-'. . A B .. in the 
course of his peregrinations through a portion 
of Marin county, makes the following nofa is 
regard to a method of setting milk for cream, 
which, as it may be new to some of our butter 
makers, we give as follows: " On our way we 
stopped at the ranch of Mr. (rawsen, a Swed- 
ish farmer, who has adopted the new system 
of dairy farming. 

His milk is set in 20 gallon cans, which are 
kept for about thirty-six hours immersed in 
cold water. Mr. Crawsen claims that by his 
system the yield of butter is increased fifteen 
percent.; that the butter is always sw 
clean, and the skimmed milk, instead of turn- 
ing sour, is available for making cheese." 

This method of setting milk in deep cans is 
not new. It has been tried during the past 
three years by some of the most scientific and 
careful dairymen of the Eastern States, and in 
every instance, as far as reported, resulted in 
favor of shallow setting, at a depth of three 
or four inches, as regards the actual quantity of 
cream. 

It was found that shallow setting yielded the 
most cream, and in the shortest time; but that 
the milk soured sooner than when set in cans 
eighteen inches deep, rendering the milk in 
twenty-four hours unfit for cheese-making. 
The fact is established in England, Switzer- 
land, and more recently in the Eastern States, 
that the presence of cream in milk is not abso- 
lutely required in the production of a perfectly 
marketable cheese, that pays well for the 
making. 

Hence the system of deep «etting may \» 
advantageous, by using the skimmed milk for 
cheese, where the necessary cold spring water 
can be made available for keeping the milk at 
the proper temperature. 

California Fish axd Birds. — It would seem 
that the New Zealand people do not have a 
very lively appreciation of the fish and birds of 
California. The Auckland Acclimatization So- 
ciety, who are in correspondence with the San 
Francisco Acclimatization Society, resolved 
recently not to have anything to do with 
American birds. As to the fish, they came 
to the conclusion that the California salm- 
on was a very inferior kind of fish, of 
no use for sporting purposes, and would not 
jump at a fly. Some one stated that it very 
much resembled the hall trout of Scotland, 
from which we infer that the hall trout of Scot- 
land do not amount to much. The Socieh ac- 
knowledged the letter of the Secretary of the 
San Francisco Acclimatization Society with 
thanks, and said that they would exchange any 
thing they had, but that there were plenty of 
California quail in the Province at present, and 
they would wait for further instructions con- 
cerning the trout. 



July 27, 1872.] 



' j£v DSS 



57 



Revolution in California Wine Cask 
Making. 

Hitherto all the lumber used for the manufac- 
ture of wine casks has been Eastern oak, and 
this of course has had to be imported at very high 
rates. For example it now sells retail, at $100 
to $125 per thousand, whereas redwood costs 
only $37% retail in this market. Now it is 
quite evident, that if redwood could be substi- 
tuted for it there would be an 

An Immense Saving 
Effected in the cost of the casks, and these 
have always formed the most expensive of the 
items connected with the manufacture and ex- 
port of wine. Redwood has been frequently 
attempted to be used as a material for the 
manufacture of wine casks, but the experiments 
with it have generally proved failures, inas- 
much as the coloring matter contained in it, 
has given a bitter and disagreeable taste to the 
wine. Several manufacturers of wine in the 
country districts have, however, steamed the 
casks after making them, and coloring matter 
thereby removed, the wine kept just as well in 
them as in oak built casks. 

Among the gentlemen who have joined this 
business, are Arpad Harasthy, Esq., with Lands- 
beigcr & Co., Messrs. Pellet & Carver, of St. 
Helena, Mr. Hood, of Sonoma, and WestBros., of 
Stockon. The plan of steaming after making, 
has failed to be entirely successful, on account of 
the great shrinkage of the wood. However, the 
Messrs. Fulda and Sons, wine-cask makers, cor. 
of Commercial and Davis streets, in this city, 
have solved the difficulty by adopting the pro- 
cess of 

Steaming the Lumber 
Before making the casks. They are pioneers 
in the introduction on the coast of steam ma- 
chinery in the business of coopering, and have 
introduced several labor-saving machines of 
their own invention into it, as well as being the 
first to render of practical use, this change in 
the material for the manufacture of casks, 
They receive the redwood at the factory from 
Mendocino, in large bolts, cut to any size that 
may be required These bolts are first cut in- 
to thicknesses and steamed for a week, in 
an air tight-box, twenty-five feet long, and 
capable of holding at once 10,000 feet of lumber. 
This box is kept all the time filled with hot 
steam conveyed thither by a pipe leading from 
the steam boiler. At the end of the week all 
the sap, coloring matter, etc., is entirely re- 
moved, and the lumber comes out half bleach- 
ed, much shrunken, and not over half its previ- 
ous weight. The process, moreover, causes the 
wood to become much tougher and makes the 
grain closer, as has been proved by practice. 
The effect of the steaming may be estimated, 
when it is known that sawdust taken from the 
prepared lumber and steeped for a week is as 
colorless as mucilage, whereas without, the 
wood from which it has been taken, having un- 
dergone the process, it would be as black as a 
similar solution of logwood. After steaming it is 
seasoned and dried, and it is then ready 
for the process of manufacture. The Messrs. 
Fulda & Sons are, however, making prep- 
arations for the future drying of the lum- 
ber by heated steam, and thus effecting a great 
saving in point of time. The saving effected by 
the use of redwood is just about one-half the 
cost of the casks, those made from oak costing 
about 15c. per gallon per cask, while those 
made from redwood cost in the neighborhood of 

The First Cask 

Manufactured by them under this system has 
been for J. R. Snyder, Esq., President of the 
Wine Growers' Association. It holdsl,700 
gallons. Its staves are three inches thick at 
the ends, and two in the middle. The head is 
made of lumber three inches thick, the central 
piece being of oak, with a manhole in the mid- 
dle. It has 12 hoops made of 2% by 3-16 inch 
iron. This firm has also commenced to manu- 
facture tanks similarly from redwood, and have 
now orders for a dozen from Dr. Crano, of St. 
Helena. They have also invented 

An Apparatus for Filling Tanks. 

One source of trouble to wine growers has been 
hitherto that they have not been able to fill the 
tanks completely, a small space always remain- 
ing between the surface of the wine and the 
head of the tanks. This frequently caused the 
wine to sour, but the new invention will pre- 
clude all possibility of this happening. 



The Olive in California. 

At the old Mission of San Diego, which is 
six and a half miles northeast of New San 
Diego, are three hundred olive trees, that are 
from 80 to 100 years old. Some of these trees 
are 18 inches in diameter, near the ground, 
and from 20 to 40 feet high, branching and 
spreading like large willows from numerous di- 
visions near the ground. As there are very 
many persons even in California, who have 
never seen an olive tree, we will say something 
of the general features of the tree and its fruit. 
The olive in its growth, habit and appearance 
resembles the willow more than any other tree, 
except that the wood is very compact and solid, 
more like the California Laurel; and yet like 
the willow is grown readily from cuttings. These 
are prepared by cutting the bodies and limbs of 
the tree, of from one inch to 4 inches in diame- 
ter, into cuttings two feet in length. These are 
set in the ground perpendicularly their whole 
length, or so that their tops are just visible. 

They are obtained at any time from January 
to March, but it has been noticed that those set 
about the first of March, make a quicker and 
better growth than many that were set earlier. 
The first year there are several shoots from a 
cutting all of which are allowed to grow, but 
the second year all are taken off but the strong- 
est one, which is tied to a stake to keep it 
straight and upright and this should be kept 
up for three years, when they will mostly sup- 
port themselves. , 

They will make a growth of from 7 to 10 feet 
in the first 3 years. They have a leaf some- 
what resembling the willow, light green on one 
side and dark green on the other. Thos. J. 
Davies, of San Diego, who politely furnishes 
us the information we here impart, and who is 
the lessee for a term of years of the olive or- 
chard referred to, and who is familiar with the 
culture, advises the setting of the cuttings in 
all cases, in the places they are to remain, and 
would set them 25 feet apart. 

All About the Fruit. 
The olive blooms in April and May, a small, 
white blossom very thickly set upon the limbs, 
but posesses no particular fragrance, and what 
there is, nothing agreeable about it. The fruit 
sets and expands, of a deep green color, till 
nearly or quite full grown, when it assumes a 
yellowish green tint; after which they become 
red like a plum and when fully ripe, black. 

It is when they are assuming the yellowish 
tint, that they are in proper condition for pick- 
ling. The olives are picked from the tree and 
simply immersed in cold water, which water is 
changed every day for a month, sometimes it 
requires 2 and even 3 months; the rule is, 
until the bitterness is entirely removed. They 
are then put in brine of moderate strength and 
in one week are ready for eating. 

There is a remarkable peculiarity about the 
progress of growth in the olive; for though the 
blossoming season is not of long duration, the 
olives are ripening continuously from Septem- 
ber and October till the next May, so that the 
last of the crop are ripening when the trees are 
in bloom for the next crop. 

Extracting the Oil. 
Olives for oil should be fully ripe and gath- 
ered only as they drop from the trees. They 
are then spread thinly and thoroughly dried, 
generally on floors or tables indoors; in which 
condition they can be kept until a sufficient 
quantity are ready for the extraction of the oil. 
The dried olives are then ground or mashed, 
then thrown into vats of hot water where they 
remain till soaked perfectly soft, then put in 
strong sacks and pressed in any powerful press 
available. During the pressing, hot water is 
thrown upon the outside of the sacks. The 
mixed oil and water as it runs from the press is 
quite black, partaking of the color of the dried 
olive. It is run in 15 or 20 gallon jars and al- 
lowed to settle. The oil is then poured off into 
large tin cans for a further settling and the con- 
venience of being drawn off when wanted. 

A better quality of oil is obtained by soak- 
ing the olive in hot water, and bruising the 
pulp without mashing the pits, but as the ker- 
nel of the pit contains a little oil, a larger quan- 
tity of inferior oil is obtained when they are 
mashed. Mr. Davies finds by test that it re- 
quires ten gallons of olives to produce one gal- 
lon of oil, and that the cost attending the gath- 
ering and rendering the oil in a perfectly com- 
mercial condition to be $1.20 per gallon. The 
refuse pulp after the oil is extracted is excel- 
lent feed for hogs, with a fattening quality 
fully equal to barley. 



Mr. D. brought with him from San Diego 
45 gallons of excellent oil of his own make, a 
bottle of which is in our possession for inspec- 
tion. The unripe olives for pickling are worth 
from seventy-five cents to one dollar a gallon. 
Mr. D. will have cuttings at the proper season 
for sale at five cents each, at San Diego; large 
quantities to one order, at a lower rate. Ad- 
dress T. J. Davies, San Diego. 

The Fruit Trade of San Francisco. 

The orchards of the country are now begin- 
ning to pour into this market their wealth of 
fruit, and our wharves, and the streets in the 
lower part of the city, are literally flooded with 
it, and filled with a busy throng of buyers and 
sellers, and curious sight-seers. One walking 
through Davis street or the lower part of Clay 
street, would imagine that fruit was one of the 
great staples of the country. It will in future 
be. Millions of acres of otherwise worthless 
hill lands, when planted with certain kinds of 
fruit trees and with vines will return far more 
to the cultivator than if they were so many 
acres of fertile plain. 

The Fruit Season 
In a manner extends the year round; there is 
no month in which we do not receive cargoes 
from the country, but it chiefly extends from 
July to December. That is the California fruit 
season for the trade in imported fruit extends 
from December to July. Thus our merchants 
are kept busy the whole year through. The 

Extent of the California Fruit Trade, 

May be estimated by the following facts. We 
have a steamer the "Reform," now making 
regular trips every two days up and down the 
Sacramento to Old River, and heraverage cargo 
consists of 3,840 baskets of peaches, 550 boxes 
of tomatoes, 850 baskets of plums, 27 do of 
pears, 100 boxes of apples, 2,100 melons and 
a few nectarines and figs. The value of these is 
about $3,000, at present wholesale rates. 
Reckoning ninety trips during the season, this 
steamer alone would bring $270,000 from 
Sacramento. Now this is not more than ten 
per cent, of the production of the State. The 
value of our fruit product therefore cannot be 
less than $3,000,000, when we have included 
the orange and lemon product of Los Angeles, 
which last year was 4,092,000 of the former, and 
600,000 of the latter. The quantity coming to 
market this year from home sources, has de- 
creased a little when compared with that of 
last year. Peaches have been affected by the 
mildew, and the crop of apricots has been 
light. But the whole crop is usually so im- 
mense, that there is no perceptible difference in 
the supply to this market. 

What Becomes of It. 
Probably twenty-five per cent, is packed in 
this City and Oakland, and by farmers and 
others throughout the State, a small quantity 
is shipped East, a very large proportion of the 
total crop is spoiled in bringing to market and 
in passing from hand to hand, the rest is used 
for domestic consumption. The canning of 
of fruit is amongst the most important of our 
industries and has grown to great dimensions 
within a very few years. It has given a very 
great impetus to the business of fruit growing, 
and will in coming years be able to use up 
all the fruit that we can produce, inasmuch as 
there is a large and increasing export trade to 
the East, to Mexico, Victoria, China, Japan etc. 

Fruit Trade East 
Is chiefly in choice Bartlett pears and grapes. 
To this will be added by and by one in oranges 
and lemons, which are now imported to New 
York from the Mediterranean. It is evident 
that when our fruit growers in the southern 
section of the State have extended their orange 
and lemon orchards and paid attention to the pro- 
duction of good fruit, that we will be able to se- 
cure this trade. The fruit trade East is as yet 
in its infancy; we will in future supply the 
principal part of the semi-tropical fruit required 
in the Atlantic and tho Mississippi Valley 
States. It is now crippled by the high freight 
tariff. Fruit to Ogden, one-third the distance, 
is charged the same rates as flour to New York. 
This requires attention. 

The Import Trade 
From Tahiti and the Islands has this year been 
very considerable. Vessel after vessel has 
come loaded. We have received 20 cargoes 
of oranges aggregating 4,000,000, as well as 
85,000 lime, and 102,000 cocoanuts. About 
I twenty per cent, of the oranges and limes are 
j spoiled during the voyap''. 



Prices. 

The following are the latest wholesale ra« 
Apples, choice, $1.25 to $2.00 per box; do. 
common 50 c. to $1.00; Pears, Bartlett, $2.50 
to $4.00; do. Bloodgood, $1.25 to $1.50; do. 
cooking, 75c. to $1.00; Apricots, 8c. to 9c. per 
lb.; Nectarines, 3c. to 5c. per lb. ; Plums, Brad- 
shaws $1.50 to $2 per box; do. Peach, 6c. to 7c 
per lb.; do. Columbia, $1.50 to $2 per box; do 
Imperial Gage, 75c. per box or basket; German 
Prunes, 6c. to 8c. per lb.; Cherries, 12%c. to 
20c; Peaches, Choice Crawford, $1 to $1.25 
per basket; do. Tillotson, 60c. to 70c; do. Dol- 
ly Varden, 30c to 50c ; Strawberries, $2.50 to 
$3 per chest; Raspberries, 9c. to 12%c per lb. ; 
Sweetwater Grapes, 3c to 7e. per lb.; Curants, 
5c to 6c per lb.; Siberian Crab Apples, $1.50 
to $2 per box; Oranges, Tahiti, $35 per M.; 
Lemons, Sicily, $14 to $16 per box; Limes, 
$10 to $15 per M.; Bananas, $2 to $4 per 
bunch; Cocoanuts, $8 per 100; Pine Apples, 
$8 to $9 per dozen. 

Farm Laborers. 

We want a great many more intelligent white 
laborers in California. We say white and in- 
telligent, and we couple these together, be- 
cause it is a notorious fact, that numbers of 
white men who claim to be competent farm 
hands, and hire themselves out for labor in the 
harvest fields and in the plowing season, are 
positively not as intelligent as regards the pros- 
ecution of ordinary farm labor, as are the 
darker colored " heathen Chinee." 

White men who float out from the cities, with 
no care but to get employment at high wages , 
who know no more about farming than what they 
have learned on shipboard, or beside the mor- 
tar bed, or in hanging around the fashionable 
drinking saloons, are not as competent to do 
the ordinary work of the farm hand as is the 
darkest and most vagabondish looking Chinee 
in the land. 

And yet if the latter are employed to do the 
same amount of work, and doing it better, for 
less or even the same wages, a great hue and 
cry is raised because these darker skinned but 
industrious men are employed in preference to 
white incompetent drones. 

Higher Rates of Wages. 

If white men want better wages because they 
are white, let them at least equal in skill if 
they do not excel the Mongolian. Theysnould 
be able to direct the labor of the man of lower 
cast; teach him how to manage the farm ani- 
mals, the handling of farm implements, the 
wagon, plow, harrow and all the diversified 
knowledge' incident to the management of a 
well ordered agricultural establishment; know 
enough to be his overseer and director, instead 
of complaining that the dark skin is made his 
equal. Then may the white laborer demand 
higher wages with some show of reason, but 
not before. 

What Gives Value to Labor. 

With all industries and manufactures it is 
the superior quality of the goods, all being held 
at the same price, that will command the 
quickest sales, and no one can reasonably 
complain that he gets a lesser price than an- 
other, so long as he produces an inferior arti- 
cle. 

Now the goods of the farm laborer are 
simply the work of his hands and if he cannot 
produce as good labor as others, he should not 
expect the same price. It is the skilled work- 
man in all countries, and not the color of the 
man's face, that commands better wages than 
the unskilled; and the principle will apply just 
as properly to farm hands as to any body of 
workmen in our factories, machine shops or in 
the construction of buildings. 

A Difficulty in the Way. 

With the present system of fanning so com- 
mon to California, in which a single staple crop 
as of wheat for instance, is made the whole 
business of the farmer for the entire year, it is 
impossible to give steady employment to the 
large number of farm hands required during 
the harvest season. 

Were it not for this, the farmer could select 
from among tho laborers offering and put upon 
trial only those who could earn their wages; 
but until a more diversified system of cropping 
is pursued, the labor on which is extended 
throughout the year, giving employment to a 
lesser number of men than is now required 
through the harvest, but that lesser number 
constantly employed, or for the greater part of 
the year, so long will inefficient farm hands be 
found ready to offer themselves, at such wages 
as the necessities' of the employer may seem to 
warrant. 



58 



[July 27, 1872. 




Tell it Again. 

A little golden bead close to my knee, 
Sweet eyes of tender gentianella blue 
Fixed upon mine, a little coaxing voice, 

Only we two 

" Tell it again" — insatiate demand! 
And like a toiling spider where 1 sat 
I wove and spun the many-colored webs 

Of this and that — 

Of Dotty Fringle sweeping out ber ball — 
Of Greedy Bear — of Santa Clans the good, 
And bow the little children met the months 

Within the wood. 

"Tell it again "—and though the sand-man 

came 
Dropping his drowsy grains in each blue eye, 
"Tell it again, oh just once more" — was still 
The sleepy cry. 

My Spring-time violet early snatched away 
To fairer gardens, all unknown to me — 
Gardens of whose invisible, guarded gates 

I bave no key — 

I weave my fancies now for other ears, 
Thy sister blossoms, who beside me sits, 
Rosy, imperative, and quick to mark 

My lagging wits — 

But still the stories bear thy namo, are thine, 
Part of the sunshine of thy brief, sweet day, 
Though in her little warm and living hands 

The book I lay. 



The Queen at the Paper Mill. 

The queen was riding out in her grand 
carriage, the horses tossing their plumes 
as if they felt themselves a little better 
thaD common horses, and the footman all 
decked out in red, feeling that they had 
something royal about them. The queen 
had always ,had every thing she wanted, and 
so was quite miserable because she could 
not think of a want to supply, or a new 
place to visit. 

At last she bethought her that they had 
just been building a new paper mill, a few 
miles out of the city. Now she had never 
seen a paper mill, and so she determined 
to stop a little way off, there leave her car- 
riage, and walk in, not as a queen, but as 
an unknown, common lady. She went in 
alone, and told the owner she would like 
to see his mill. He was in a great hurry, 
and did not know that she was the queen, 
but he said to himself, " I can gratify the 
curiosity of this lady, and add to her 
knowledge, and though I am terribly hur- 
ried, yet I will do this kindness." He 
then showed her all the machinery, how 
they bleach the rags, and make them white; 
how they giind them into pulp; how they 
make sheets, and smooth and dry them, 
and make them beautiful. The queen 
was astonished and delighted. She would 
now have something new to think and talk 
about. 

Just as she was about leaving the mill, 
she came to a room tilled with old, worn 
out, dirty rags. At the door of this room 
was a great multitude of poor, dirty men, 
and women, and children, bringing old 
bags on their backs, tilled with bits of 
rags and paper, parts of old newspapers, 
and the like, all exceedingly filthy. These 
were rag-pickers, who had picked these 
old things out of the streets and gutters of 
the great city. 

" What do you do with all these vile 
things?" said the queen. 

" Why, madam, I make paper out of 
them. To be sure they are not very profit- 
able stock, but I can use them, and it keeps 
these poor creatures in bread." 

"But these rags! Why, sir, they are of 
all colors, and how do you make them 
white?" 

',Oh! I have the power of taking out all 
the dirt and old colors. You see that scar- 
let and that crimson, yet I can make 
even scarlet and crimson, the hardest col- 
ors, to remove and become white as snow." 

"Wonderful, wonderful," said the queen. 

She then took her leave, but the polite 
owner of the mill insisted on walking, and 
seeing her safe in ber carriage. When she 
got in and bowed to him with a smile, and 
he saw all the grand establishment, he 
knew it was the queen. 

"Well, well," said he, "she has learned 
something at any rate. I wish it may be a 
lesson in true religion." 

A lew -days after, the queen found lying 



upon her writing desk, a pile of the most 
beautiful polished paper she had ever seen. 
On each sheet were the letters of her own 
name and her own likeness. How she did 
admire it! She found also a note within, 
which she read. It ran thus: 

"Will my queen be pleased to ac- 
cept a specimen, of my paper, with the as- 
surance that every sheet was manufactured 
out of the contents of those dirty bags 
which she saw on the backs of the poor 
rag-pickers? All the filth and the colors 
are washed out, and I trust the result is 
such as even a queen may admire. Will 
the queen also allow me to say that I have 
had many a good sermon preached to me 
in my mill? I can understand how our 
Lord Jesus Christ can take the poor 
heathen, the low, sinful creatures every- 
where, viler than the rags, and wash them 
and make them clean; and how, 'though 
their sins be as scarlet, He can make them 
whiter than snow; and though they be red, 
like crimson, He can make tliem as wooL' 
I can see that He can write His own name 
on the foreheads, as the queen will fiud her 
name on each sheet of paper; and I can see 
how, as these filthy rags may go into the 
palace and be ever admired, some poor, 
vile sinner J may be washed in the blood of 
the Lamb, and be received into the palace 
of the Great King in heaven." 

Corsets on GrowiDg Girls. 

A great many little children have cor- 
sets put on them at seven and eight years 
old. It is useless to tell us that they are 
not tight and do no harm, they are made 
of firm material, with bones stitched in in 
every direction. If they do not positively 
pinch the form, they confine and prevent 
free motion of lungs, stomach and ab- 
dominal muscles. Carefully notice how 
these children breathe? Do you see? There, 
place your arm carelessly around her — 
she does not in breathing use the abdom- 
inal muscles with any degree of free- 
dom. Look at that little half-breed girl, 
innocent of corsets! See how deep she 
breathe*, how straight she stands — her 
shoulders thrown back, her nostrils dis- 
tented and eyes flashing! Coax her to your 
side, mother, and notice the round, firm 
muscles of body and limbs. Notice how 
deeply she breathes — how the chest heaves 
— what a billowy motion of the whole 
trunk. Contrast it with your white lilies. 
"Why can they not breathe as freely?" 
That is what I am telling you. Now con- 
trast the two girls; the half-breed is 
straight as an arrow, your daughter is 
stoop-shouldered ; the shoulder-blades of 
the Indian lie flat and close back; those of 
your child are prominent. The chest is well 
rounded in the Indian; your child is flat- 
breasted and has deformed shoulders. The 
abdominal muscles of the IndiaD are 
tense and firm, her waist about her belt 
large; your child is soft, flabby and cor- 
respondingly feeble. The floating ribs of 
the Indian are in place, giving width and 
a large waist; in your daughter they have 
been compressed by her corsets and heavy 
clothes until the breast-bone is unnatural- 
ly prominent, but the waist is delicately 
tapered. 

Please, now you have noticed all these 
points, undress your daughter, let her 
jump the rope or play with the baby until 
she forgets herself; then notice the differ- 
ence in the freedom and depth of her 
breathing. Do you not perceive the con- 
trast? "Why can she not breathe with 
this pretty corset on?" Because the cor- 
sets are firm and unyielding in their sub- 
stance and structure. Because the added 
weight of garments heavy with thread, 
and tucks, and folds, and frills, drags 
down upon the hips and backs of the lit- 
tle victims until all spirit and elasticity 
departs, and a weary, wan, anxious look 
creeps into their faces and shadows all 
their future life. 



A Lovin'u Heart and a pi easant counte- 
nance are commodities which a man should 
never fail to take home with him. They 
will best season his food and soften his 
pillow. It were a great thing for a man 
that his wife and children could say of 
him, " He never brought a frown or un- 
happiness across his threshold." 

•Iust So. — Tla puniest men and women, as 
well as the richest, can keep their houses and 
yards in good condition. Flower-seeds and 
grass-sod are cheap, and Nature sends its rain 
and sunshine to all alike. She is no respecter 
of persons, and the morning glory and green 
ivy ehmb as lovingly up the rugged post at the 
poor man's door, as at the gay verandahs of the 
rich. 



The firmest friendship has been formed 
in mutual adversity. 



California Literary Notes. 

Ambrose Bierce, formerly ' 'Town Crier," 
of the News Letter, is engaged as London 
correspondent of the New York Herald at 
a salary of $8,000 a year. Mr. Bierce was 
for a long time engaged on Fiyaro. 

James Watkins, formerly of the Times 
of this city, and for some time on Fiyaro, 
has returned to this city. 

The present writer of the "Town Crier" 
of the News Letter receives the magnificent 
weekly salary of §5. Bierce used to get 
$50. 

J. P. Bowman is writing novels for 
Eastern weekly papers, is a contributor to 
the Overland Monthly, and writes miscella- 
neous matter for the < 'nil. 

Charles Stoddard is still at Honolulu, 
luxuriating "under a banana tree," and 
writing prose sketches for the Overland. 

Calvin B. McDonald, formerly on Oak- 
land News, and one of the best newspaper 
writers in California, has gone to St. Louis 
to take a position on one of the leading 
journals there. 

Prentice Mulford is writing letters from 
England to the Bulletin. 

W. A. Kendall, the poet, is at Pescadero, 
in very bad health. 

Joaquin Miller has gone East expecting 
to lecture. 

Mrs. Parker is city reporter for the daily 
Post, and performs her duties with ability 
and credit. 

An Eastern Literary Bureau have made 
negotiations with Lisle Lester (Mrs. L. P. 
Higbee) for the exclusive control of her 
writings for one year, and take charge of 
her public readings at the East, during the 
coming fall. 

Miss Ina Colbrith is credited by the 
press with being the best poetic authoress 
on the Pacific Coast. 

Fanny Green McDougal is writing a 
book which promises to meet with a great 
sale. 

Beautiful Extract.— I saw a temple 
reared by the hands of men, standing with 
its high pinnacles in the distant plain. The 
streams beat upon it— the God of Nature 
hurled his thunder bolt against it — and yet 
it stood, as firm as adamant. Revelry was 
in its halls — the gay, the happy and the 
beautiful were there; I returned, and the 
temple was no more, its high walls lay 
scattered in ruins; moss and wild grass 
grew wildly there. The young and the 
gay who revelled there had passed away. 

1 saw a child rejoicing in his youth— the 
idol of his mother, the pride of his father. 
I returned, and the child had become old, — 
trembling with the weight of years, he 
stood the last of his generation — a stranger 
amidst the desolation around him. 

I saw an old oak stand in all its pride, 
on the mountains— the birds were carroll- 
ing on its boughs. I returned, the oak 
was leafless and sapless, the winds were 
playing at their pastime through its 
branches. "Who is the destroyer?" said I 
to my guardian angel. 

" It is Time," said he. When the 
morning stars sang together in joy, over 
the new made world, he commenced his 
course, and when ho shall have destroyed 
all that is beautiful of the earth — plucked 
the sun from his sphere — veiled the moon 
into blood; yea, when he shall have rolled 
heaven and earth away as a scroll, then 
shall an angel from the Throne of God 
come forth, and with one foot on the sea, 
and one on the land, lift up his hand to- 
wards Heaven and swear by Heaven's eter- 
nal, Time is, Time was, but Time shall be 



Woman'sPower. — Those disasters which 
break down the spirit of man, and pros- 
trate him in the dust, seem to call forth all 
the energies of the softer sex, and give such 
intrepidity and elevation of their character, 
that at times it approaches to sublimity. 
Nothing can be more touching than to be- 
hold a soft and tender female, who had 
been all weakness and dependence, and 
alive to every trivial roughness, while 
threading the prosperous paths of life, sud- 
denly rising in mental force to be the com- 
forter and supporter of her husband under 
misfortune, and abiding, with unshrinking 
firmness, the bitterest blasts of adversity. 

Deal Cakei ully with Yotjk Children. 
—We have no right to cram our own ex- 
perience indiscriminately down the throats 
of youth. Children should believe much 
and sorrow little; it is' not necessary that 
because we — so many of us — believe little 
or nothing, and sorrow exceedingly, we 
should impart our doubts and distrees to 
childhood; we ought not to disturb the 
naturally healthy balance of their minds, 
by discussing subjects which it requires 
really intelligent, thoughtful people to de- 
cide. 



YovJuq Folks' CoLdf/ifi. 



Playing School. 

Six in a row on the doorstep there; 
Nice little schoolma'am, prim and fair: 
Funniest noses, dimpled chins; 
Listen awhile! the school begins. 

" Classes in 'rithmetic, come this way! 
Why were you absent, Mary Day? 
Now, Miss Susan, what's twice lour? 
Maybe it's 'leven, maybe more. 

"Johnny, don't blow in your brother's ear; 
Stop it! or must I interfere? 
Say your tables— now begin; 
'Trustees' might come dropping in! 

" What would they ever say to us, 
Finding school in such a fuss? 
Baby Jenny, how is that V 
DOG, dear, don't spell cat. 

" Terrible boy! your face is red — 
Why will you stand upon your hi ad? 
Class in spelling that will do; 
Here's ' sterfiticates' for you." 

Faces as pure as the morning sun, 
Voices that ring with harmless fun; 
Sweet is the lesson you impart! 
Sweet! and I learn it all by heart! 

Six in a row on the doorstep there; 
Nice little schoolma'am, prim and fair, 
Free of the world, and all its pain; 
Would I could join your school again.' 

Pug's Mistress. 

"Here is a little 'un lost herself, Guv- 
nor," said a small street boy to the old tail- 
or in Dark street. 

"And Pug, too," said the little one. 

"How is it you carry Pug, when he has 
two more legs to carry him than you have, 
my little lady?" asked the tailor. 

"Those two more legs are the ones that 
runned him away after the bad dogs, I 
guess," answered the little lady; "and then 
I runned after him, and I don't where I is. 

"What is your name?" asked the old 
man. 

"Papa's darling," she said. 

"But who is papa?" 

"He is darling papa," said the little one. 

"Where do you live?" asked the small 
boy. 

"In house, and the house all lost," said 
the child. 

"You must not run after dogs," said the 
old man. "Scripture bids us beware of 
dogs. As for myself, I give a wide berth 
to dogs." 

The little lady looked cheerfully up in- 
to the old tailor's face, in spite of his severe 
views. 

"And mayn't we come in," she asked. 

"Bless me! yes, and welcome!" he cried. 
"But how will you be found ? Your folks 
will be terribly frightened after you." 

"Why, said the little lady, "can't I tell 
God, and can't God tell them, and then 
won't they come and fetch us?" 

"That, indeed!" cried the old man, with 
a tear in his eye. "That, indeed! God 
hears the young ravens when they cry, and 
I am pretty sure he will hear you dearie." 

"Run up and down street," he said to 
the boy, "and see if you can see the 
searchers after the lost lamb. She'll be 
right soon missed from the fold." 

He took her into the shop, and she and 
Pug dropped down on the nearest stool, 
quite tired; at least she was. Pug looked 
good for another run, but he kept quiet, 
feeling perhaps that ho had already done 
mischief enough for one day. 

She then shut her eyes, and said, "Our 
Father who art in heaven," and the rest of 
it, which you know. After that she sat 
still, looking at the old man, and the old 
man every now and then looked at her. 
"The dearie!" he kept saying; and the 
queer thought came into his mind; "May- 
be my own little Polly, that God took to 
heaven nigh fifty years ago, has come back 
to comfort my old heart these last days." 
And the thought, as you may suppose, al- 
most made the old heart young, and it felt 
bright and gay again, as it used to— when 
the sound of quick steps in the doorway 
startled all three. Pug gave a sudden bark. 

"Rosa, Rosa! you naughty darlint!" ex- 
claimed Biddy, rushing into the shop with 
the street boy at her heels, and snatching 
the little lady in her arms; "yon darlint! 
you naughty darlint!" 

"I 'spected you, Biddy," said Rosa, 
quietly, "I 'spected you." And that is the 
way the little one was found.— < '/aid's Pa- 
per. 

Mary had a littl. 
That grew upon her toe. 
And everywhere Mary wen! 
Tla' '■"i'n was mm to go. 



July 27, 1872.] 



59 



OMESTIC 



CONOMY. 



A Chapter on Pickles. 

Pickles, a •' Terrible Temptation " — A "Device of 
the Enemy." 

We know of no more convincing proof of the 
total depravity in our natures, than the profound 
desire for pickles, at just the time and moment 
when we ought not, above all things, to eat 
of them. The word pickle, in itself, has a dark 
and evil sound. It is a synonym of unwhole- 
someness, and undoubtedly had its origin in 
the period of "The fall, " which must have been 
of considerable duration to comprehend all the 
evils ascribed to it. But until the world is 
vastly wiser and better, will pickles go out into 
utter darkness, and be known no more. There 
never was such a thing as a wholesome pickle 
known; but as Sin has a ministry as well as 
Good, we purpose to lend a helping hand to 
Evil in giving a chapter on pickling, and after- 
ward, like Pontius Pilate, wash our hands of 
the whole matter. 

General Rules. — For heating vinegar, use a 
porcelain lined vessel. Brass, copper or tin 
should not be used; but if used the greatest 
care should be observed, both in their -cleanli- 
^ness and in pouring the vinegar out as soon as 
'cooked. Otherwise, serious results may super- 
vene. Use wooden knives, forks and spoons, 
if such implements are needed in the pickling 
operations. 

Vessels fob Pickles. — Large mouthed, glass 
bottles for small quantities; wooden vessels 
for large quantities may be used, but glazed 
jars must never be used, as the vinegar acting 
upon the glazing; produces a strong poison. 

Vinegar. — The best is wine vinegar, but it is 
expensive. The next is cider vinegar. Beer 
vinegar comes next. Pryolignic vinegar is ex- 
ceedingly unwholesome. By the term pyro- 
lignic, we mean that manufactured from an 
acid distilled from wood. If pickles present an 
eaten appearance, it signifies that the vinegar 
is too sharp. The addition of alum hardens 
the pickles, and renders them still more 
"villainous." Salt affects the life of the vine- 
gar, and its use should be avoided as much as 
possible. Much boiling also injures the vine- 
gar. 

Peaches. — Select the fruit fully grown, but 
not fully ripened. Wipe off the down thor- 
oughly, using either a wet cloth or by pouring 
hot water over the peaches and then wiping 
them dry. To a peck of fruit allow a gallon, 
or thereabout, of moderately weak viuegar, 
three pounds of sugar, an ounce of cinnamon, 
and four or five cloves to each peach. The 
cloves may be stuck into the fruit, or the 
spices boiled in a bag with the sugar and vine- 
gar. Put the fruit in the vessels to hold it, and 
pour the ingredients over it, boiling hot. Be 
careful and skim the vinegar well as it boils; 
cover well and set in a cold place for a few 
days, when drain off the vinegar, heat it hot, 
and pour on; when cold, the fruit and pickle 
may be put in glass jars and secured like pre- 
serves. Some picklers add the well-beaten 
whites of three eggs to the above quantity of 
vinegar, scalding and skimming until clear. 

Pears are pickled after the same manner; 
small pears of uniform size are preferable. 

Plums. — To six pounds of plums, three 
pounds of sugar, one quart of vinegar, and 
one ounce each of cinnamon and cloves. Ar- 
range the fruit, sugar and spices in layers. 
Scald the vinegar and pour it over the fruit. 
Repeat the scalding for three or four days in 
succession. 

Sweet Apples. — To half a peck of apples, 
make a syrup of two pounds of sugar, and one 
pint of vinegar. Boil the apples in this syrup 
until tender; then remove them and make a 
new syrup of two pounds of sugar, and one pint 
vinegar. Add one teaspoonful of cloves, and 
the same of cinnamon tied in a bag. The first 
syrup may be used for sauces. 

Nasturtiums. — Gather the seeds before en- 
tirely grown, and drop them into cool vinegar; 
when a sufficient quantity has been gathered, 
scald them in the vinegar, and bottle. 

Green Beans. — Boil the beans in a little salt 
and water until tender; drain them and put 
them in cold vinegar into which spices scalded 
in a little vinegar have been thrown. 

Onions. — Remove the outer skin of small 
onions; boil them until half done in salted 
water; while hot, drop them into a jar of 
pepper-spiced vinegar. Another way; soak 
them for three days in brine ; then scald them 
in milk and water; drain, lay them in a jar 
and pour over cold vinegar, scalded spices and 
a little alum; cover closely. 

Radish Pods. — Put them in a brine for three 
days; drain and pour over them a pickle of 
vinegar, cloves, cinnamon and pepper scalded 
together. 

Beets. — Boil until tender, and drop while 
hot into spiced vinegar. If the beets are large, 
slice them. Spiced vinegar in which peaches 
have been pickled is good for beets. — Rural 
New Yorker. 

LrNSEED Oil Varnish. — Take eight pounds 
of linseed oil, and boil for one hour; then add 
one pound of the best rosin, (powdered,) and 
stir the mixture until the rosin is dissolved; 
now add half a pound of turpentine, let it cool, 
and it is ready for use. 



The Inside of Houses. 

The Sitttng-Room. — The sitting, or living- 
room, should be the largest and pleasantest room 
in'the house. It should always be located at the 
front, and on the side where the sun will enter 
the windows. All means should be employed 
to render it attractive, comfortable, and conven- 
ient, for it is generally used for the dining, as 
well as the sitting-room, and is occupied for 
more hours in the day than any other apart- 
ment. That indispensible nuisance, the parlor, 
may be a secondary consideration; it has an air 
of frigid propriety and disuse, and the north 
side of the house is good enough for it. The 
kitchen should be spacious, and the pantry and 
wash-room handy. There can hardly be too 
many closets. Every house where civilized be- 
ings live, ought to be from nine to twelve feet 
between joists. 

The Library. — Every house whose occupants 
pretend to any degree of refinement, ought to 
have a room known as the library or study. 
Especially should every farm-house be so pro- 
vided. This room is quite as important as the 
parlor. Almost anything else should be sacri- 
ficed to it. It need not be large, but it must 
be comfortable, and somewhat secluded, and it 
should be conveniently furnished. Here there 
should be maps, shelves for the books, boxes or 
files for the agricultural papers, and a good 
desk, with apartments for letters, memoran- 
dum book wherein to record farm experiments, 
and a blotter and ledger, wherein to keep the 
farm accounts with animals, fields, and crops. 
Farmers ought to read more, write more, and 
think more, they have no business to be clods 
or boors. With such a room as this, made at- 
tractive, farmer's boys will be less disposed to 
stroll about during the long winter evenings, or 
spend their time in idle talk, or in bar-rooms, 
stores, and other places, where the idle and un- 
cultivated assemble, and where they often ac- 
quire the first lessons in smoking, drinking, 
and gaming, and they are far more likely to spend 
their lives on the old homestead, too. Rooms 
ought to be of a size to fit carpeting, which is 
24 or 36 inches wide. 

Light. — Do not arrange your house so as to 
violate God's first command. Give it many win- 
dows, and then, oh housewife, keep your blinds 
open during the day, and your curtains drawn 
aside. If you let in the sun freely it may "fade 
your carpets," but if you do not it will be sure 
to the mothers and children. The sun is a 
good physician ; he has never had due credit 
for his curative qualities — for the bright eyes 
and rosy cheeks that come from his healing 
baths. Do you know how puny is the growth 
of a potato vine along the darkened cellar wall? 
Such is the health of human beings living 
where the sunshine is intercepted by the win- 
dow's drapery. So dark wall paper is not only 
gloomy, but it physically unwholesome. Let in 
the sun — for with it come cheerfulness and 
strength! A dark room is an enemy of good 
health, good temper, and good morals. — Ameri- 
can Builder. 



Detection of Sulphuric Acid in Vinegar. — 
One of the most common and deleterious adul- 
terations is sulphuric acid in vinegar; hence 
any ready means of detecting such adulteration 
would be of great convenience to every house- 
wife. The Journal of Pharmacy says that the 
following process will detect the 500th part of 
free sulphuric acid, and is accurate for all prac- 
tical purposes. An ounce of the vinegar to be 
examined is reduced by evaporation on a water 
bath to about half a drachm, or the consistency 
of a thin extract; when quite cold, half a fluid 
ounce of strong alcohol is added, and thor- 
oughly incorporated; the free sulphuric acid 
will be taken up by the alcohol, to the exclusion 
of any sulphates; the alcoholic solution should 
stand for several hours, and then be filtered: 
add to the filtrate one fluid ounce of pure dis- 
tilled water, and evaporate the alcohol off by 
the application of a gentle heat; the remaining 
liquid is then left for several hours, and again 
filtered; to the filtrate, previously acidulated 
with a few drops of pure hydrochloric acid, a 
solution of chloride of barium is added, which, 
if sulphuric acid be present, will yield a white 
precipitate. 

A water bath may be readily extemporised in 
any kitchen by putting some sand on top of the 
stove and thereupon putting a teacup in the 
absence of a regular evaporating dish, in which 
the vinegar to be tested should be placed for 
slow evaporation. 



To Test Green Paper for Arsenic— The 
tests for arsenic, strictly so called, are suited 
only the loboratory use, but since it is the 
arsenite of copper, that is employed for the 
poisonous green colors, a test for copper is 
sufficient for ordinary purposes. Put a drop 
of liquid ammonia on the suspected paper, and 
if it change the color to blue, you may be sure 
that copper is there, and almost as sure that 
arsenic is present also. There is not one 
chance in a hundred that a more critical exami- 
nation would lead to a different conclusion. 
At any rate, we advise our readers not to use 
any paper on the walls of their houses, or for 
any other purpose, if this simple test makes its 
character suspicious. 

To Remove Stain from Mahogany. — Stains 
may be taken out of mahogany by spirits of 
salt, (muriatic acid.) 



Protecting Furs from Moths. — The secret 
of the preservation of furs from moths lies in 
two facts. First, that they are put away in 
season; that is, before the moth-mother makes 
her appearance, which she does quite early in 
the spring, though this year, if she does not 
desire to get her tender little wings nipped, she 
will be later than usual. And second, that they 
are so .securely protected that it is impossible 
for Mrs. Moth, having once been shut out, to 
coax, bribe, or force he way through the bar- 
rier. The conclusion, justified by the experi- 
ence of several years, is, that the best, the only 
certain means of preservation, is to put away 
our furs early in the season, either in perfectly 
sealed paper bags, inclosed in tin cases, or in 
paper-boxes, with paper pasted closely over the 
edges of the cover, or any other opening by 
which a moth could creep in. Of course paste 
will be unreliable in any place where mice can 
obtain access. 

A Test foe the Quality of Potatoes. — It is 
generally understood that the value of potatoes 
depends upon their specific gravity, and that 
the heavier the potato the greater the amount 
of nitrogenous matter it contains. This has 
suggested the idea of a convenient test by which 
the excellence of different vavities can be readily 
determined, and which consists in the use of 
saline solutions of different degrees of strength. 
If, assuming one variety as a standard, we 
make a solution of such strength that the 
potato will float at about the middle of the 
mass, neither falling to the bottom nor rising 
to the surface, and apply the same test to the 
other potatoes, we may conclude that if one full 
to the bottom it is better, or if it rise to the 
top it is poorer, than the standard. 



Worms in Flower Pots. — Many ladies are 
puzzled how to get rid of the detestable worms 
that will infest the earth in their flower-pots. 
The following recipe which we find in an ex- 
change is recommended to destroy the pests: — 
"Put one ounce of ammonia into one gallon of 
warm water, and water the plants with it once 
a week; they will be free from these worms, and 
be beautiful and green. To kill the little bugs 
that get on the oleander, take a piece of lime the 
size of a hen's egg, and dissolve it in about two 
quarts of water, and wash the stook and branches 
of the tree; they will disappear." 

Practical Receipts. 

Potato Puff. — Take cold roast meat — beef 
or mutton, or veal and ham together — clear 
from gristle, cut small, and season with pepper 
and salt, and cut pickles, if liked; boil and mash 
some potatoes, and make them into a paste with 
an egg, and roll out, dredging with flour. Cut 
round with a saucer, put some of the seasoned 
meat with one-half, and fold it over like a puff; 
pinch or nick it neatly round, and fry it a light 
brown, This is a good method of cooking 
meat which has been cooked before.— Denver 
Tribune. 

Stewed Figs. — Put into a stew-pan four 
ounces of sugar, the thin rind of a large lemon, 
and one pint of cold water. When the sugar 
is dissolved add one pound of best figs, and 
place the pan on a stove so that the fruit may 
swell gently and stew very slowly. When quite 
tender, add the strained juice of two lemons. 
Arrange in a glass dish and serve cold. 

Coen Bread. — Take four cups of sour milk, 
one of these partly filled with cream; one egg, 
a little salt, two even teaspoonfuls pulverized 
soda; mix the soda with a little corn meal, and 
stir alltogether, till it foams; then add cornmeal 
till a thin batter is obtained, and pour into hot 
tjns, oiled, an inch deep, and bake in a quick 
oven. 

Peaches and Cream. — Peel soft juicy peaches, 
quarter them, put a layer of peaches, one of 
sugar, sprinkling on very thick until the de- 
sired quantity is prepared. Spread thickly 
over the last layer of peaches powdered loaf 
sugar. Set the dish upon ice or in a very cool 
place an hour before using; do not bruise them. 
Some persons like them best mashed fine, 
sweetened, and a little grated nutmeg added; in 
either way serve in small deep plates; eat with 
rich cream. 

Baked Pudding. — The following is said to be 
one of the best puddings ever used in the Met- 
ropolitan Hotel of New York: Five tablespoons 
of corn starch to one quart of milk; dissolve 
the starch in a part of the milk, and heat the 
remainder of the milk to nearly boiling; having 
salted it a little, then add the dissolved starch 
to the milk; boil three minutes, stirring it 
briskly; allow it to cool, and then thoroughly 
mix it with three eggs well beaten with table- 
spoons of sugar, flavor to your taste and bake 
for half an hour. 

To Polish Furniture. — Melt together in a 
small vessel, % apound of beeswax, and % of 
an ounce of alkanet root, until the former is 
well colored; then add linseed oil, and spirits of 
turpentine, of each % a gill; strain through a 
piece of coarse muslin. 

Ham Toast. — Chop some lean ham, put in a 
pan with a little pepper, a lump of butter and 
two eggs, beaten; when beaten thoroughly 
spread it on buttered tost, and serve hot. 

" Every Day " Pudding. — Half a loaf of stale 
bread soaked in a quart of milk, four eggs, four 
tablespoonfuls of flour; a little fruit, dried or 
fresh, is a great addition. Steam or boil three- 
fourths of an hour. 

To Brighten Colors. — Soda in the rinsing 
water will clear up and intensify almost any 
blue and purple. Vinegar will do the same for 
pink or green calicoes. It is said that a strong 
decoction of common hav will preservethe color 
of French linens and lawns. 



The Effect of Strikes on Commerce. 

All the commercial papers of America are 
now discussing the effects of the recent great 
strike in New York. The majority regard strikes 
as an unmitigated nuisance, and as greatly 
hurtful to the industrial interests of the nation ; 
but the minority, including some first-class 
journals, take quite a different view of the 
matter. They regard the workmen as com- 
pletely justified, and charge the great banking 
concerns and the capitalists with the usurious 
rates of interest that they exact as being the 
real impedimenta in the way of progress. We 
have not here to do with either, we have not 
to question whether the strikers are right or 
wrong— we consider merely the effect on the 
world's commerce. Hitherto the United States 
cannot be said to have had any foreign com- 
merce worthy of the name. One reason was, 
that they had no manufactured goods which 
they could sell; another, and one having very 
considerable influence, of late years, was, that 
the high prices of labor made our manufactures 
too dear, and that England and France could 
from this reason undersell us in the markets of 
the world. This last condition of things is be- 
ing wholly changed, and that through the 
medium of strikes. The price of labor is be- 
ing raised and a reduction of the hours of labor 
effected all over the old world, principally in 
the great manufacturing countries. The move- 
ment thus begun will continue until the price 
of labor and the hours of working become the 
same in all parts of civilized Europe and Amer? 
ica. 

The advancing intelligence of workmen 
the world over, is making t